%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 36 0 R 41 0 R 63 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141124010222+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141124010222+00'00') /Title (A Cultural History of Climate) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2616 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Cultural History of Climate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I received the invitation to review this book during the same week ? 16-20 November 2009 ? that over 1,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emails to and from climate scientists in the Climatic Research Unit at my university found their way into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public domain. In the months since, climate science and climate scientists, and particularly these scientists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were concerned with reconstructing past climates, have been subject to phenomenal scrutiny. The so-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called ?Climategate? has triggered a scientific controversy that will in due course play a central role in any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural history of climate in the 21st century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(925)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 July, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolfgang Behringer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780745645292)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(280pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polity Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mike Hulme)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5953 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author of )] TJ ET BT 102.332 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Cultural History of Climate)] TJ ET BT 245.684 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, German historian Wolfgang Behringer, could hardly have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreseen this latest turn in the story of climate change. The book was originally published in German as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kulturgeschichte des Klimas)] TJ ET BT 172.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 2007, but has only recently been translated into English. Yet Behringer was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prescient in using the so-called ?hockey-stick? graph ? a graph showing estimated land temperature for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern hemisphere over the last 1,000 years ? as his opening framing device for the book. He observes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our efforts to reconstruct histories of physical climate can never be separated from the meanings that become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attached to such reconstructions, and that these meanings emerge from particular political and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts. For Behringer, this key observation would seem to provide the rationale and motivation for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. As he concludes on p. 217: ?We cannot leave the ?interpretation? of climate change to people ignorant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of cultural history?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 200 or so pages between these opening and closing remarks, Behringer offers an account of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in physical climates over 10,000 years have influenced human societies and how such changes have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been understood by those societies. He is concerned to show not only the changeability of physical climate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the adaptiveness of societies to such change, but also how the ways people think about and make sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of climate and its variations ? the ?behaviour? of climate we might say ? are themselves mutable. Our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present moment at the beginning of the 21st century offers a particularly powerful narrative about climate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change, its causes and its consequences. Yet it is a narrative which, as well as being powerful, is sufficiently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plastic to allow many different knowledge, policy and moral entrepreneurs to work with and exploit the idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of climate change in different ways. It is a plasticity that I explore in my own book )] TJ ET BT 434.624 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why We Disagree About )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Climate Change)] TJ ET BT 112.352 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.352 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.352 500.211 m 129.344 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Behringer wants to offer a deeper historical context to this interplay between the climatic and the cultural, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the physical fortunes of climate and the ways human societies think about what they observe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happening around them. In so doing he follows in the footsteps of other climatic historians and historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographers who have taken climate as their subject ? historians such as Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Hubert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lamb, Brian Fagan and Lucien Boia. The ground Behringer covers is therefore not unfamiliar. He starts with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a broad outline of the world?s evolving physical climate during the period of human evolution; he is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in mid-Holocene climates and the emergence of human civilisations; he makes brief forays into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman and medieval climates, including the obligatory stop in Greenland; and then he sojourns longer with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the colder \(European\) climates of the early modern and Enlightenment centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is all very good, but we have heard a lot of it before. Where Behringer is perhaps at his most distinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is in his narration of the cultural engagement of European societies with the cooling climate of the early-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern period, an era he has written about elsewhere especially on the subject of witchcraft and climate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And his account of the changing moral economy of European climate during the 15th to 17th centuries is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pertinent to our current discourse about climate change and morality. For Behringer, the strong link between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?little ice age? and witch persecutions ?came neither from the church nor from the state; it came ?from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(below? \(p. 132\). It came from the populace through their search for accountability and meaning. What we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are seeing at work today in our own society is a struggle between elitist and popular presentations of climate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change and of its moral and political meanings.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.3517 500.5255 129.3437 512.4055 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8122 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Behringer?s exploration of these issues in different historical contexts carries its own distinctive style which, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one presumes, is well captured in this translation from the German. His is a less impressionistic study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?long Holocene summer? and the ?little ice age? than are Brian Fagan?s parallel studes )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.252 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.252 754.563 m 469.244 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 469.244 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and is less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytic in approach than Jean Grove?s exhaustive study of the ?little ice age?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.596 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.596 740.307 m 425.588 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 425.588 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) It is less philosophical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Lucien Boia?s historical account of climate and the human imagination.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.304 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.304 726.051 m 414.296 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 414.296 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If it is less impressionistic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytic and philosophical than these other studies, what is Behringer?s characteristic style? It is perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most reminiscent of Hubert Lamb?s classic book )] TJ ET BT 271.652 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Climate, History and the Modern World)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.312 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.312 697.539 m 481.304 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 481.304 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1982 and which left an indelible mark on me as a young geography student. Behringer offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less original scholarship that did Lamb \(in his 1982 volume and in his other monumental studies\), but with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather straight-forward, unembellished style of writing Behringer brings the same sense of immediacy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority as one gains when reading Lamb.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand because it adopts such a synoptic stance across such a broad reach of human history, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account suffers from being rather disjointed, lapsing at times into a string of historical climatic factoids )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(packaged in their cultural correlates. What I therefore most missed in )] TJ ET BT 369.272 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Cultural History of Climate)] TJ ET BT 512.624 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical framework for thinking about the ways in which climates and cultures interact with and shape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each other. It is a book lacking a big idea, or it is a book lacking at least an articulated and consistent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective from which the reader can make sense of what is going on. Without such a framework in place, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Behringer too frequently seems to be reading history through the lens of climate, a project which carries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar dangers as our contemporary obsession with trying to invent the future through the lens of climate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(see below\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is too sophisticated a scholar to be lured too far down the line of climatic determinism, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at times he seems to get rather close to such reasoning. The Swiss, British and Scandinavian wars of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1310s, for example, are implied by Behringer somehow \(it is not clear how\) to be linked to the cold winters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and wet summers that have been suggested for that decade \(pp. 103?4\). Elsewhere, however, he is willing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge the one-dimensional thinking of determinism, for example in refuting the supposed causal link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the ?worsening climate? of the early Middle Ages and the out-migration from the Roman Empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributing to its decline \(p. 66\). The difficulty here is one of scale and resolution. The more closely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of an era, a period or a place is written, the more contingent and opaque becomes the role of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given weather phenomenon or climatic perturbation. The greater depth and resolution at which any historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(event is examined, the more it emerges that human contingency dominates the direct physical effects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weather and climate. Only by staying at the macroscopic level of generalisation ? at the synoptic scale ? do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause-effect propositions about climate and society make any sense.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This methodological problem is linked to the difficulty of moving forensically between weather and climate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In most of these types of explorations of relationships between climate and society, documented weather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events and extremes too easily become for authors symptomatic of 'sudden climate shifts' or an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('unpredictable change in climate'. This is a problem Behringer is alert to: ?For people living at the time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short-term changes [in climate] had greater importance than medium to long-term ones? \(p. 89\) and yet most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented accounts of medieval and early modern Europe contain ?observations about the weather [rather] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than about the climate? \(p. 89\). Although at times acknowledged, I would like to see this difficulty examined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more explicitly in a wider theoretical and methodological framework.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Otherwise, the danger by extension is what I have elsewhere called ?epistemological slippage?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.912 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.912 164.835 m 505.904 164.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 505.904 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger we see in our present climate-obsessed imaginations. Because scientists make the claim that future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate can be predicted, the future starts to emerge in our imaginations as a future that is climate-shaped. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The predictive claims of the Earth system scientists bring along in their wake a motley collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental scientists, geographers, engineers and so on, who make their own ?predictions? of what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future human impacts of such putative climates will be ? rather losing sight of the radical social, cultural, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technological and political upheavals that await us over the next 50 to 100 years. Epistemological slippage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurs.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 455.2517 754.8775 469.2437 766.7575 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 411.5957 740.6215 425.5877 752.5015 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 400.3037 726.3655 414.2957 738.2455 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.3117 697.8535 481.3037 709.7335 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.9117 165.1495 505.9037 177.0295 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 6292 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The same danger applies to our reading of the past. Because scientists make the claim that past physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climates can be reconstructed, the past begins to emerge in our imaginations as a past that is climate-shaped. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is harder to understand the prevailing social, cultural and political milieu of the 16th century than it is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see that rivers were flooded and glaciers enlarged. Epistemological slippage again can occur ? as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Behringer?s assertion that ?the fall of Mayan civilisation has been re-enacted in climate models? \(p. 71\). I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really would like to see how his has been done! The author therefore navigates between the twin dangers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determinism and epistemological slippage and without articulating a theoretical framework to keep all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pieces in place, there is a constant danger of allowing climate to intrude too far into his story.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another methodological question emerges when one reflects on why these types of historical enquiries are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaken. Are we interested in such accounts of changing climates and cultures because we are seeking to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveal through cultural artefacts and practices the physical properties of past climate ? to contribute to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project of reconstructing climate ?as it really was?? Or are we intrigued because we are interested how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea of climate ? and hence too its perceived physical behaviour ? is fashioned by culture? It is not always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easier to know where Behringer stands on this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The directionality of causation implied is very different. For example, Behringer argues for a ?strong link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Little Ice Age and witch persecutions? in Europe \(p. 132\). But did the physical climates of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th century make possible \(explain?\) the persecutions of witches or do the persecutions of witches in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th century tell us something about the prevailing physical climate? It is not clear which way Behringer is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing. And this methodological difficulty can end up leading to circular reasoning. In his discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline of the Roman Empire, Behringer points to the abandonment of many settlements north of the Alps in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early Middle Ages. This, he argues, points to ?changed climatic conditions that made the cultural hiatus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary? \(p. 67\). What evidence is being used here to reveal changes in physical climates, as opposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how changes in climatic conditions are being used to explain cultural change? These difficulties are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique to )] TJ ET BT 82.016 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Cultural History of Climate)] TJ ET BT 225.368 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; for example one can also find similar ambiguities and circular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasoning in some of Brian Fagan?s work. But they do point to the need to develop a more sophisticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical and interpretative framework for talking about climate and culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My reading of )] TJ ET BT 105.668 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Cultural History of Climate)] TJ ET BT 249.020 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( leaves me with one final question that needs further scrutiny. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a question equally relevant to our creation of future climates as to our reading of past climates. How do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different climatic indices gain their moral polarity? Throughout Behringer?s book ? and indeed more broadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in most historical accounts of the interactions between climates and societies ? the notation ?warm + wet = )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(optimum? and ?cold + dry = pessimum? applies. Thus paleoclimatologists talk of the optimum Neolithic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climates of 6 to 8 kyr BP, while Behringer labels his section on Roman climates as the ?Roman Optimum?: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?It should be noted that climate historians consider [climatic] conditions to have been favourable at this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time? \(p. 64\). Favourable for what and for whom ? for the Roman elites or for the Roman?s slaves? And did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Romans themselves believe their climate was worsening?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In climate and history literature we therefore frequently have climates ?worsening? and ?improving? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climates becoming more or less conducive for human development. Is a cold climate a ?bad? climate? Is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warm climate a ?good? climate? Or is the only ?good? climate a stable and predictable one? And in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts we use the language of ?normal? and ?abnormal? climates )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 359.936 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 359.936 193.347 m 373.928 193.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 373.928 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a phraseology which again reveals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our normative judgements.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 359.9357 193.6615 373.9277 205.5415 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 44 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 9238 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such unreflexive and universalising tendencies to moralise climate have allowed our contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse about climate change to make the ultimate reductionist step: the signature of global climate is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced to a single index of ?global temperature? and global warming becomes constructed as undesirable, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not dangerous. Yet this reverses the polarity of other discourses of climate change. European medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warmth is usually presumed ?good? and later coolness is presumed ?bad? ? this seems to be Behringer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position ? while the pioneering scientists of the later 19th and early 20th centuries theorising about carbon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dioxide increases and climate change, generally regarded such human-induced global warming as a ?good? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The relationship between climate and society is much more subtle and particular than is suggested by such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crude moral indexing. As Behringer himself observes ?nature is not a moral system? \(p. 212\) and how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate gains its retrospective \(and prospective\) moral polarity is always an exercise in power. This is nicely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated in the case of the Ming dynasty in China. Behringer suggests that the peasant insurrection of 1643 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which ended the dynasty was catalysed by extreme weather and yet three centuries earlier a ?similar climate-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(induced crisis? \(p. 114\) had brought the Ming dynasty to power. Whether one describes either of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climatic perturbations as ?good? or ?bad? depends on one?s political allegiances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There remains much work still to be done in gaining richer understandings of how the changing contours of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate ? both changes in physical climate and changes in our imaginative ideas of climate ? interact with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural life around the world. We have far from exhausted investigations into how such ideas from different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical, geographical and contemporary cultures work with and against each other. )] TJ ET BT 445.592 503.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Cultural History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Climate)] TJ ET BT 72.020 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is largely a cultural history of European climate, although Behringer occasionally visits non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European cultures from time-to-time. It would be good to see companion studies from outside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries of Europe. Tim Sherratt and colleagues have attempted one such effort for Australia )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.244 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.244 459.699 m 510.236 459.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 510.236 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Meyer similarly for North America )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 248.648 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 248.648 445.443 m 262.640 445.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 262.640 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but neither of these extend further back than the early 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. But if our ideas of climate and climate change are indeed culturally inflected, then we need accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that emerge from Brazil, China, India and Kenya before we can claim to have a world history of climate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture. For example, I would like to know how the new Moghul rulers of India in the early 16th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood and managed the variability of the Indian monsoon and how, as the Spanish set about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishing their New World empire at a similar time, the weather of central America was talked about.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We know that the weather and, by extension, our climate are important to us. And we know that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance changes, just as we change. In reflecting on the place that climate has in our interior and exterior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worlds we are too easily tempted to reduce climate to simple physical descriptive indices and/or to reduce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of climate to a simple determining role. Behringer?s )] TJ ET BT 362.300 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Cultural History of Climate)] TJ ET BT 505.652 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( falls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tantalisingly short of giving us the conceptual and analytical tools we need to resist these temptations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although he shows us why it matters that we do.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 243.123 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 212.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Hulme, )] TJ ET BT 119.348 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why We Disagree About Climate Change: Understanding Controversy, Inaction and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Opportunity)] TJ ET BT 122.684 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2009\).[)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 224.000 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 224.000 196.851 m 277.988 196.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 183.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. M. Fagan, The Long Summer: How Climate Changed Civilization \(London, 2004\); )] TJ ET BT 481.340 183.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Little Ice )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Age: How Cimate Made History 1300?1850)] TJ ET BT 276.332 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.640 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.640 168.339 m 424.628 168.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 155.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. M. Grove, )] TJ ET BT 127.340 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Little Ice Age)] TJ ET BT 212.996 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1988\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.320 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.320 154.083 m 348.308 154.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 141.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Boia, )] TJ ET BT 106.016 141.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Weather in the Imagination)] TJ ET BT 259.340 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 340.664 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 340.664 139.827 m 394.652 139.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 126.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. H. Lamb, )] TJ ET BT 127.340 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Climate, History and the Modern World)] TJ ET BT 320.000 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1982\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.324 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.324 125.571 m 455.312 125.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 112.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Hulme, )] TJ ET BT 119.348 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reducing the Future to Climate: a Story of Climate Determinism and Reductionism)] TJ ET BT 520.328 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2011, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(submitted\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 118.352 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 118.352 97.059 m 172.340 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 84.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Hulme, S. Dessai, I. Lorenzoni and D. Nelson, ?Unstable climates: exploring the statistical and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social constructions of ?normal? climate?, )] TJ ET BT 269.312 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geoforum)] TJ ET BT 317.972 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 320.972 69.941 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [( )] TJ ET BT 326.972 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40 \(2\), 2009, 197?206.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 436.292 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 436.292 68.547 m 490.280 68.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 55.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Change in the Weather: Climate and Culture in Australia)] TJ ET BT 351.020 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. T. Sherratt, T. Griffiths and L. Robin )] TJ ET endstream endobj 43 0 obj [41 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 496.2437 460.0135 510.2357 471.8935 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj [41 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 248.6477 445.7575 262.6397 457.6375 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 223.9997 197.1655 277.9877 209.0455 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.6397 168.6535 424.6277 180.5335 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 294.3197 154.3975 348.3077 166.2775 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 340.6637 140.1415 394.6517 152.0215 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 401.3237 125.8855 455.3117 137.7655 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 118.3517 97.3735 172.3397 109.2535 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 436.2917 68.8615 490.2797 80.7415 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R ] /Contents 64 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Length 1358 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Canberra, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.988 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.988 795.075 m 202.976 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. B. Meyer, )] TJ ET BT 132.668 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Americans and Their Weather )] TJ ET BT 280.652 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.300 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.300 780.819 m 410.288 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 736.975 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 719.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 719.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/925)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 717.801 m 322.316 717.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 692.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4817)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.9877 795.3895 202.9757 807.2695 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 43 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 356.2997 781.1335 410.2877 793.0135 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 46 0 R >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 718.1155 322.3157 729.9955 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/925) >> endobj xref 0 71 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000546 00000 n 0000000628 00000 n 0000003296 00000 n 0000003405 00000 n 0000003515 00000 n 0000003624 00000 n 0000007185 00000 n 0000007313 00000 n 0000007397 00000 n 0000007481 00000 n 0000013487 00000 n 0000013517 00000 n 0000013645 00000 n 0000013681 00000 n 0000013793 00000 n 0000021968 00000 n 0000021998 00000 n 0000022126 00000 n 0000022162 00000 n 0000022192 00000 n 0000022320 00000 n 0000022356 00000 n 0000022386 00000 n 0000022514 00000 n 0000022550 00000 n 0000022580 00000 n 0000022708 00000 n 0000022744 00000 n 0000022774 00000 n 0000022902 00000 n 0000022938 00000 n 0000023022 00000 n 0000029367 00000 n 0000029397 00000 n 0000029525 00000 n 0000029561 00000 n 0000029701 00000 n 0000038992 00000 n 0000039022 00000 n 0000039150 00000 n 0000039186 00000 n 0000039216 00000 n 0000039344 00000 n 0000039380 00000 n 0000039508 00000 n 0000039563 00000 n 0000039691 00000 n 0000039746 00000 n 0000039874 00000 n 0000039929 00000 n 0000040057 00000 n 0000040112 00000 n 0000040240 00000 n 0000040295 00000 n 0000040422 00000 n 0000040477 00000 n 0000040603 00000 n 0000040658 00000 n 0000040756 00000 n 0000042167 00000 n 0000042295 00000 n 0000042350 00000 n 0000042478 00000 n 0000042533 00000 n 0000042661 00000 n trailer << /Size 71 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42756 %%EOF