%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826202016+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826202016+01'00') /Title (America?s Ocean Wilderness: a Cultural History of Twentieth-Century Exploration) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4172 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(America?s Ocean Wilderness: a Cultural History of Twentieth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Century Exploration)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A series of six biographical case studies, Gary Kroll?s )] TJ ET BT 297.296 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(America?s Ocean Wilderness: A Cultural History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twentieth-Century Exploration )] TJ ET BT 187.352 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the ways 19th-century conceptions of the American frontier were, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 20th century, transferred to the oceans. Kroll shows how several prominent scientists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explorers advanced this conception of ocean wilderness by evoking similar language used to describe the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American West. At various times, the ocean, Kroll observes, became ?a trove of inexhaustible resources, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area to be conserved for industrial capitalism, a fragile ecosystem requiring stewardship and protection from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?civilizing? forces, a geography for sport, a space for recreation, and a seascape of inspiration? \(p. 7\). As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result, Kroll argues, the ocean wilderness, like its terrestrial predecessor, experienced environmental decline. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?When the ocean became an important geography in the American mind at the beginning of the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century?, he explains, ?so too began a process of utilization, degradation, and pollution, the consequences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which we are only beginning to realize? \(p. 7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kroll begins with an examination of Roy Chapman Andrews, a naturalist at the American Museum of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Natural History who built his career during the 1910s studying North Pacific whales. Like many East Coast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Progressive Era conservationists, Andrews viewed the frontier often in contradictory terms: he saw it as both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an engine of economic growth and remedy to the ills of industrial society. It was, in part, this dual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(926)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 July, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gary Kroll)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978070061567)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(264pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press of Kansas)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence, KS)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher L. Pastore)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7473 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the frontier ? at once a place of extraction and enjoyment ? that animated a growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciation for hunting among eastern elites.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrews embraced these new elite attitudes about hunting and transferred them to the sea. Travelling as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observer to shore whaling stations in British Columbia and southwestern Alaska and later aboard whaling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steamers based in Yokohama, Shanghai, and Hong Kong, Andrews often joined the hunt with relish. To his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credit, Andrews recognized the brutal efficiency with which 20th-century whalers operated and drafted a bill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(which never made it to the floor of Congress\) that would have regulated the industry. Ever the Progressive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he embraced the whale hunt while seeking efficient, scientific means by which to sustain it. Ultimately, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kroll contends Andrews was ?part of a larger project of transforming the ocean into a geography of sport, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endeavor in which ocean fauna became game for America?s leisure class? \(p. 29\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Andrews was the Progressive conservationist who connected with the ocean wilderness by hunting its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabitants, his colleague at the AMNH, Robert Cushman Murphy, was, in Kroll?s estimation, a romantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who believed that, like the American West, the ocean environment had changed dramatically due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressures of mechanization. Just as the railroads facilitated the exploitation of western resources, the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steamship transformed the sea. And the only way to prevent the ocean?s further destruction, Murphy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed, was to construct a more accurate biological and historical assessment of its resources. His 1936 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oceanic Birds of South America )] TJ ET BT 192.332 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led the Peruvian guano industry to adopt more sustainable practices. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental history of New Zealand urged decision-makers there to rethink agricultural policies in light of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past human-induced environmental changes. Nevertheless, Murphy?s efforts were but short pauses in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader patterns of environmental decline. As Kroll shows, Murphy was convinced that both terrestrial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marine environments were ?trapped in a destructive human process of discovery, exploitation, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhaustion? \(p. 64\), a process set in motion when humans, ignoring the history of a place, came to believe its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources were inexhaustible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Murphy acknowledged that oceans were deeply human spaces, but others saw in the sea a space that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholly wild. On September 22 1932 ocean explorer William Beebe, while bobbing off the coast of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bermuda, climbed into a steel ball, or bathysphere, and was lowered on a cable to a depth of 2,200 feet. Via )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telephone, Beebe described what he saw ? fish, eels, orange and blue-white bioluminescence ? and those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transmissions were broadcast over live radio. He later wrote several articles and a book about his exploits, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which in Kroll?s estimation examined what has been called the ?pastoral impulse?, or the transformation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wilderness from something negative to something worth celebrating. What writers like Emerson, Thoreau, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Muir ?did for American [terrestrial] wilderness?, Kroll contends, ?Beebe did for the ocean? \(p. 67\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Director of the New York Zoological Society?s Department of Tropical Research, Beebe cut his teeth as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientist in the jungles of British Guyana, but in 1923 he entered a new phase of oceanographic research. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first expedition was an exploration of the Sargasso Sea in the Atlantic and Humboldt Current in the Pacific, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places that Beebe characterized as ?wilderness[es] of water? \(p. 70\). On these surveys, Beebe often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasized a preternatural quality to the deep sea. His trawls retrieved exotic ?grotesques, dragons, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gargoyles? from depths of up to three-and-a-half miles that, according to Beebe, ?made the fairies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hobgoblins and elves of Dunsany, Barry, Blackwood, and Grimm seem like nature fakery? \(p. 73\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beebe?s early oceanographic work earned him modest acclaim, but it was his bathysphere that made him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famous and made the deep sea a point of interest among the general public. After a series of dives in 1930 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 166.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New York Times )] TJ ET BT 133.352 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went so far as to compare him with Columbus, Magellan, and Cook \(p. 80\). In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summer of 1934 Beebe made his final and deepest descent to 3,028 feet. Later that year, he published a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular account of his bathysphere work in a book titled )] TJ ET BT 307.976 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Half a Mile Down, )] TJ ET BT 400.976 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which earned mixed reviews, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly among the scientific community, which questioned the value of the dives. Beebe deflected their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jabs, Kroll observed, by invoking the sublime in his portrayal of the abyss. Unable to collect specimens at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such depths, Beebe instead emphasized his role as an explorer, crafting descriptions that evoked feelings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolation, terror, timelessness, and unearthliness. ?[I] shall never experience such a feeling of complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolation from the surface of the planet Earth?, he wrote, ?as when, a few months ago, I dangled in a hollow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pea on swaying cobweb a quarter of mile below the deck of a ship rolling in mid-ocean? \(p. 89\). Beebe )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7935 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(piqued American curiosity about a vast, new ocean world filled with awe-inspiring spectacles. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherworldly qualities, Kroll contends, added legitimacy to his work and led many to believe that the ocean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserved protection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beebe?s deft evocation of the sublime earned him acclaim, but none was able to convey a sense of wonder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the sea so elegantly as Rachel Carson. Although Carson was best known for her 1961 )] TJ ET BT 476.948 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Silent Spring, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which exposed the environmental disaster caused from overuse of the pesticide DDT, Kroll contends that her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier work, )] TJ ET BT 98.324 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sea Around Us )] TJ ET BT 194.984 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1951\), warrants a closer examination. He argues that it was Carson who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 1950s did much to transmit an ?oceancentric depiction of the earth in which humans were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insignificant participants in a drama dominated by the role of the ocean? \(p. 97\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After completing a Master?s degree in biology at Johns Hopkins in 1932, Carson began working for the U.S. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bureau of Fisheries as a writer and editor. When one of her bureau articles titled, ?World of Waters? was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deemed inappropriate, Carson submitted it to the )] TJ ET BT 271.328 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic Monthly, )] TJ ET BT 358.328 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which published the article, earning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carson accolades. The essay?s ocean descriptions melded poetics with scientific understanding and became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the foundation for her first book titled )] TJ ET BT 218.996 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Under the Sea-Wind )] TJ ET BT 319.976 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1941\). In her combination of nature and science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing, Carson forged a new genre, which reached its apotheosis in )] TJ ET BT 362.948 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sea Around Us)] TJ ET BT 456.608 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Launching her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career as a scientific nature writer, the book)] TJ ET BT 246.944 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlighted the extent to which man was but an inconsequential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speck on the surface of the earth?s vast oceans. Writing in the wake of the Second World War, Carson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admonishes mankind for its hubris. ?)] TJ ET BT 211.340 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sea Around Us)] TJ ET BT 305.000 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, Kroll contends, ?functioned as an anodyne for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national consciousness struggling to come to terms with the all too dominant stature of the American ego? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 119\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But in highlighting man?s insignificance in the face of an inviolable ocean, Carson suggested, like so many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terrestrial environmental observers before her, that humans could not fundamentally change an eternal sea. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kroll, however, is careful to point out that in the preface to the second edition of )] TJ ET BT 423.284 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sea Around Us )] TJ ET BT 519.944 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1961\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carson changed her opinion. Having witnessed the destructive effects of nuclear testing, she admitted, ?This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief, unfortunately, has proved to be nave? \(p. 122\). Although Carson?s )] TJ ET BT 393.620 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Silent Spring, )] TJ ET BT 461.960 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kroll notes, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been widely accepted into the canon of American nature writing, it was )] TJ ET BT 379.604 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sea Around Us )] TJ ET BT 476.264 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that extended the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas of Thoreau, Muir, and Leopold to the ocean. For Carson, Kroll explains, ?The ocean became valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not as a resource but as a symbolic geography of humility? \(p. 123\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Examining gender and the ocean frontier, Kroll?s chapter on ichthyologist Eugenie Clark, posits that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of exploration underwent major changes following the Second World War. Clark earned recognition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because, as Kroll points out, she was a woman working in a ?dangerous? male-dominated profession. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Known as the ?Shark Lady,? Clark rose to prominence because she seamlessly combined traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic roles with those of the postwar ?career woman.? Through her explorations, Kroll argues, Clark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended the culture of domesticity into the ocean. ?In Clark?s capable hands?, writes Kroll, ?the ocean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became an extension of the home, a safe place filled with innocuous and beautiful organisms? \(p. 128\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clark was a scientist who reveled in making the undersea world accessible to the wider public. After earning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Ph.D. in zoology at NYU, she joined a project called the Scientific Investigations of Micronesia, where she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was charged with surveying the poisonous fish of the South Pacific. In 1950 she went to Egypt to conduct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diving surveys of fish in the Red Sea. Recounting her experiences in her 1953 )] TJ ET BT 410.960 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lady with a Spear)] TJ ET BT 498.632 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 504.632 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described the sea in romantic and even docile terms. To one interviewer Clark explained, ?It is one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jobs of the marine biologist to make the environment of the sea more familiar and hence safer, through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studying and understanding the animals which live in it? \(p. 135\). Although her readership was interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her descriptions of exotic undersea environments, they were more fascinated, Kroll explains, by Clark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself ? a woman who with fins on her feet and a spear in hand defied the gender norms of the time and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made the sea a gentler place in the process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The domestication of the sea was most evident in Clark?s shark studies. At the Cape Haze Laboratory on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florida?s Gulf Coast, Clark placed two lemon sharks and three nurse sharks in a pool and began a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behavior studies. Among other experiments, she trained the sharks to respond to both a dinner bell and a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7648 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(target for acquiring food, in essence, Kroll contends, domesticating one of the most fearsome predators in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ocean. She came to understand sharks in a way that, despite the release of the film )] TJ ET BT 448.928 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jaws )] TJ ET BT 475.928 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1975)] TJ ET BT 512.264 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 515.264 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispel the myth that all sharks were simply creatures to be feared. Clark believed that the human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistreatment of sharks often caused their aggression. ?We should mind our manners?, she wrote. ?If we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(break the rules and antagonize our hosts, we should be prepared to deal with the consequences? \(p. 146\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clark?s career as a scientist and explorer was in many ways complemented by her role as a mother. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often commented on how swimming and diving had helped her pregnancies, suggesting that to avoid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discomfort, pregnant women should ?just strap on an aqualung and go down to 16 feet. Then sit on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bottom for about an hour? \(p. 145\). Magazines often emphasized her dual role as mother and scientist, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman who raised her children on the beach and then donned her mask to explore the nearby waters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, according to Kroll, Clark at once embraced domesticity while defying it with her scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career. Her ability to seamlessly combine the two promoted a new understanding of the ocean as a healthy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happy, homey place. This in turn, Kroll argues, transformed the American conception of the ocean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wilderness from one of mystery and danger to one of domesticity and beauty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contextualizing the Cold War?s effects on American conceptions of the ocean, Kroll concludes by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining Thor Heyerdahl, who jettisoned the technological trappings of modern civilization, and Jacques )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cousteau, who fully embraced them. In 1947 Heyerdahl, with five crew members, sailed west from Peru for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a 101 days on a balsa log raft. Christened )] TJ ET BT 235.316 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kon-Tiki, )] TJ ET BT 283.988 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the raft travelled more than 4,300 miles to shores of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuamoto Islands to prove Heyerdahl?s hypothesis that the Polynesian islands had been inhabited by people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from South America. For Heyerdahl, the journey showed the purifying effects of the sea, particularly in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold War world plagued by destructive technology. A return to nature, he believed, would open the doors to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace. ?Our voyage had united us with nature?, wrote Heyerdahl. ?We had developed the senses of primitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man. We felt as if the ocean wind and the salt water had washed through body and soul and freed us from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems that beset civilized man? \(p. 162\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Popularized in his 1950 book )] TJ ET BT 177.680 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kon-Tiki )] TJ ET BT 223.352 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1953 Academy Award-winning documentary )] TJ ET BT 464.300 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Kon-Tiki )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Adventure, )] TJ ET BT 89.336 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heyerdahl?s expedition did much to bring Polynesian culture to America. The Tiki image was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soon ubiquitous in restaurants, bars, and contemporary fashion. Tiki culture was embraced by surfers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(California and Hawaii and popularized in the music of the Beach Boys and in films like )] TJ ET BT 457.964 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gidget )] TJ ET BT 493.628 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1959\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, Kroll argues that the proliferation of Tiki culture following Heyerdahl?s expedition ?provided an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oceanic balm for America?s cold war anxiety? \(p. 176\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whereas Heyerdahl escaped modernity on the ocean, Jacques Cousteau established a relationship with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underwater world using the latest available technology. ?His work and his representations?, Kroll explains, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?often had less to do with fish and coral reefs than with the technologies that enabled the human movement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into, and conquest of, the ocean frontier? \(p. 169\). Following a car accident that crippled his left arm, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cousteau began swimming, diving, and spearfishing in his home waters of coastal France. During the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1940s, Cousteau and a business partner produced the Aqua-Lung, the first device for self-contained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underwater breathing, and in short order, they became the world?s top distributor of scuba equipment. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s Cousteau was conducting underwater archeological research off Marseille and mapping underwater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oil reserves in the Persian Gulf. He and his team then built a deep-sea submersible and a series of underwater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research stations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it was Cousteau?s entry into television during the 1960s that earned him widespread recognition. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the first few episodes met with mixed reviews, )] TJ ET BT 309.320 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau )] TJ ET BT 515.300 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted environmental protection as a unifying theme, which attracted a wider audience. He showed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although technology had in many ways caused environmental destruction of the ocean, it was technology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that would ultimately lead to its repair. Cousteau even coined a term for his vision of technological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental redemption: )] TJ ET BT 167.336 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ecotechnie. )] TJ ET BT 224.648 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Heyerdahl was a rustic romantic who believed primitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communion with the oceans would deliver mankind from the anxieties modern civilization, Cousteau sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(salvation by pushing the technological envelope.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5288 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, what sets Kroll?s book apart is that he doesn?t simply ask )] TJ ET BT 371.660 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(if )] TJ ET BT 381.332 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ocean was a wilderness \(in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terrestrial sense\) by drawing tedious parallels. Rather, he identifies that wilderness frontiers are conceptual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructions shaped by culture and then maps the ways they changed over time. He discovered that by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposing terrestrial ideas about wilderness, no matter how benign ? romance, motherhood, technological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primitivism ?onto the world?s oceans, humans nevertheless precipitated their environmental decline. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Kroll divides the book into separate biographical sketches, they follow a loose chronology and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several cases, he emphasizes professional connections between his subjects. Drawing from personal papers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and letters, his subjects? published material, and contemporary newspaper and magazine accounts, Kroll )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skillfully balances his sources with his interpretations and the overarching narrative of each section. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result is a fast-paced book with ample detail. It?s no coincidence that Kroll dedicated a chapter to Rachel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carson in which he highlights her ability to explain scientific concepts with poetic flair. In his pacing, word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice, and radiance of ideas, it is evident that Kroll has an eye for literary detail. Simply put, this book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well written.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kroll?s interpretation of the evidence is creative and smart. The final two chapters on Eugenie Clark, Thor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heyerdahl and Jacques Cousteau, are particularly strong. The chapter on Clark, which examines gender and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ocean, and the final chapter?s section on Heyerdahl, which examines the proliferation of Tiki culture in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war America, is downright entertaining. His analysis of American Museum of Natural History \(AMNH\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naturalist Roy Chapman Andrews examines 20th-century whaling in new light. Although Kroll considers the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gruesome realities of the industry in broad terms, he also homes in on the ways the individual Andrews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectualized the hunt. Ultimately, as Kroll is keenly aware, it was ideas that shaped an American ocean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wilderness. Good environmental histories do not simply track change over time. Rather, they examine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, perception, and the ways people like Andrews, Murphy, Beebe, Carson, Clark, Heyerdahl, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cousteau thought about the world around them and how those ideas shaped the physical environment in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(return.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An important contribution to the growing fields of marine environmental and oceanic history, Kroll?s work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have benefited from firmer placement within these growing and converging historiographies. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bridging terrestrial and oceanic environmental historiographies, he is pushing the scholarship forward. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately, what is lost in the omission of a more detailed analysis of historical precedent is gained in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eminent readability. Kroll?s book deserves ample praise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Journal of American History)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/96.1/br_137.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 305.139 m 346.676 305.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 349.676 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 301.807 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 284.027 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 284.027 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/926)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 282.633 m 322.316 282.633 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 257.656 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 243.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4821)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/96.1/br_137.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 305.4535 346.6757 317.3335 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/96.1/br_137.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 282.9475 322.3157 294.8275 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/926) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000589 00000 n 0000000671 00000 n 0000004895 00000 n 0000005004 00000 n 0000005114 00000 n 0000005223 00000 n 0000008784 00000 n 0000008912 00000 n 0000008996 00000 n 0000009061 00000 n 0000016587 00000 n 0000016652 00000 n 0000024640 00000 n 0000024705 00000 n 0000032406 00000 n 0000032497 00000 n 0000037838 00000 n 0000037965 00000 n 0000038080 00000 n 0000038208 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38303 %%EOF