%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930054955+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930054955+01'00') /Title (An Environmental History of the World: Humankind's Changing Role in the Community of Life) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4108 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(An Environmental History of the World: Humankind's Changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Role in the Community of Life)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most of us who have tried to write of time and place on a large scale resort to a broad framework of ideas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punctuated by an example or two from the literature or even from our own experience. As in his first edition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Hughes does it differently: a series of footprints rather than a superhighway, as he puts it. He starts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a focus on some specific region or practice and then draws a general conclusion at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, as well as of the book. Thus the historical material starts with the 'Primal harmony' of the Serengeti, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kakadu in Australia and Hopi agriculture, This is followed by 'The great divorce of culture and nature' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which homes in on urban origins in Gilgamesh, the Nile valley and the collapse of classic Maya culture. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Athens, Xian and Rome then contribute 'Ideas and Impacts', and we go on through the Middle Ages, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of the biosphere, exploitation and conservation, modern environmental problems, to 'Present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and future' seen through the lenses of the Amazon, New Orleans, UNEP and global warming. There is then a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general conclusion, and suggestions for further reading. The second edition is about forty pages longer than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first, with recent times getting the largest share of the extra space ? an account of the impact of hurricane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katrina and expanded material on climatic change being important elements of the updating. There is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North American slant to the choice of examples but Hughes goes to some length to avoid the USA-centric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of the world which is not unknown in the output of some writers who work there.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(927)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 June, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Donald Hughes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415481502)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Simmons)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7789 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book's periodization roughly follows that of many other long-period \(i.e. about 10,000 years\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental histories but there is the noticeable difference, detectable from the chapter titles, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach is not simply confined to the material. The whole interplay of the material ecology and the cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework is taken to account. This, to my mind, gives the book one of its greatest strengths, in a feel for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of land and people through time that makes for both harmonious and \(probably\) 'sustainable' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships and for the other about which we most often read, the polluting and the degradational. The term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('a feel' is reasonable for most of the examples which form the core of the writing derive from Hughes' own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience; he has been there: he has heard about the cane toads from a tribal elder in Kakadu rather than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disembodied voice-over on TV. So quite often, the text reads 'I saw ?, I visited' \(and even 'I flew in a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aircraft'\) and that gives the body of material an immediacy which few writers in this field dare try, for most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of us strive \(usually unsuccessfully\) to pretend that we are objective observers until the last chapter when we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come out on the side of the good guys. The text is central to the book: there are no maps or tables of data \(for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which there is now little need anyway since up to date numbers can always be found on the web\) but there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are photographs of the author's own to reinforce the personal nature of the examples chosen. At one or two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points, the photographs are really not very helpful though he has thankfully dated all of them; the publishers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have done the decent thing by supplying better images of the Acropolis or Aswan. There is though a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compensation in the form of a useful narrative guide to further reading, in which I must declare an interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since I am mentioned. Each chapter has its own set of endnotes which testify to a lot of reading alongside his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travels.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This ability to weave scientific and cultural scholarship with the personal makes the book different, for many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works in this field are firmly based in science, with a nod in the direction of economics and perhaps politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\('if only you people would do as we scientists tell you'\) or else are very firmly based in historical sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without much understanding of the dynamism of ecological communities and the assumption that old-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth forests \(for example\) have been like that for the last 8000 years. Here, we get away from that and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(look at wholes; occasionally the sheer scale of doing so is too much for the format: I think that the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of the development of fossil fuels and the way in which they underlie the whole economy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planet \(including its atmosphere\) is scattered too much through different parts: the account of 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London has too much emphasis, to my mind, on the 'ghost acreage' of the Empire and too little on the way in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which its form and function was shaped by technologies like the railways, steamships and the telegraph. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true that this theme emerges at the end as one of the dominant ideas of the narrative, it is just that for my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money this could have been signalled centrally and earlier. As someone who once worked on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental relations of hunter-gatherers, I was wanting to question the idea that any of them lived in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state of 'primal harmony' for once the control of fire at landscape scale was achieved then the scene is set for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human remaking of nature in a cultural framework. Does the harmony in fact derive from the fact that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were so few of them? But Hughes makes his case in a way which admits that not every place is the same: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both at this time and until the early modern period, most ways of life were contained within isolated systems.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The core of the book is in the chapters mentioned above and perhaps the greatest challenge to the author's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skill comes in balancing the general and the specific. Each of them has a general introduction which sets out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a chronology, a )] TJ ET BT 111.332 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pr)] TJ ET BT 122.000 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 127.328 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cis)] TJ ET BT 140.660 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of technological developments and a selection of the ideas \(and their originators\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which characterise that era in the history of human-environment relations. The detailed material then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupies most of the space and is terminated by a short general conclusion. This enables Hughes to highlight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what he sees are fundamental shifts in the human stance towards nature and point towards his overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions where they are brought together. Thus one of the features of his chapter on the divorce of culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nature \(which takes Uruk, the ancient Egyptian Nile and the Maya collapse as main examples\) is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of the role of population growth both in the flourishing of these communities and in their eventual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breakdown. This theme surfaces again, not only in attention to the figure of Thomas Malthus, but in for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example the great population expansion of the 19th century \(whose consequences we have inherited today\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the underlying shifts in nutrition that made it possible. For it is of course the development of fossil fuels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, to use John McNeill's memorable adaptation, was the 'something new under the sun' which makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible today's world, with all its wonderful things such as the machine on which I write this review and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7116 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less than wonderful like the oil spill which eclipses even the politics of the UK's 2010 general election )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should I switch to a news website. The examples chosen for material on today's conditions are very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting: the logging disputes in a US National Forest in Oregon, Bali, Chernobyl, and the city of Denver )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Colorado. They all illustrate very well the nexus of technology, material consumption and clash of ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that are the fare of anyone with an interest in 'the environment'. The forest was the scene of a fierce 'owls or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jobs' controversy, Bali rediscovered the utility of its temple-based water distribution system, Chernobyl is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as the result of a political system based only on social relations, and Denver raises the questions of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a large modern city should relate to its surroundings, assuming any meaningful boundaries can be drawn: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back to ghost acreages in several ways. The chapter lacks only an example from Africa, which seems to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the continent which above all the others is in a spiral of population growth and environmental tension: is it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible for instance to have democratic government in places where there are shortages of resources? Is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autocracy the only way to organise the distribution of scarce materials? There is a task for a historian here: to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigate resource-population tensions in the past and relate them to forms of governance and to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward Joseph Tainter's idea that the collapse of Rome, for example, was due less to environmental factors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or external pressures but more to the proportion of resources that had to be devoted to feedback loops to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keep the ship of state more or less upright. Advocates of 'less government' might read such work with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes leaves us in no doubt that the world of which he writes is now driven by population growth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(energy availability: his story is ineluctably ecological rather than dominantly social, though given his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of classical times \(the theme of one of his earlier books\) and his interest in sacred space, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, I kept wishing he had found room for some of the 'softer' ideas about environment. The way in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, for instance, the energy debates in the West are underlain by a kind of mythology of a Promethean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind in which human dominance via technology is still the key. How many politically prominent people will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tell us the truth of what a low-carbon world might actually be like, when they can promise wealth and jobs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the basis of carbon capture or mirrors in space? Is it not interesting that the once-radical ideas of James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lovelock have gained traction because their 'Gaia hypothesis' label harked back to the mythology of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical Greece? \(I want also to read a book on how most people come to know about 'the environment' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which analyses the role of the small screen in both wildlife programmes on a grand scale as well as peering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intrusively into the various burrows in which they sleep and breed.\) Yet all authors have to struggle with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what to leave out and it would be unfair to make this a central criticism: more perhaps a plea for Hughes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop this type of approach in another volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are many challenges in telling the story of thousands of years for the whole world but none exceed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of rounding off such a narrative. Hughes offers us a three-page 'general conclusion' There are examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in history of both sustainable and destructive human-environmental relationships but the latter currently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevail. The short-term is dominant and threatens the future of both our own species and many others. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary feedback mechanism consists of 'the growth in scientific knowledge, the existence of a subtle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology, the availability of a body of ethical considerations, and the certainty of threats to human survival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?', which is a formidable list even if applied one at a time instead of the messy and partial travail which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more likely. \(Isaiah Berlin's thoughts on fudge and error come to mind here.\) So, we are part of the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and we depend on the whole. Yet: what sort of scientific knowledge, whose ethics, which bits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology? Is the past any sort of real guide to the future? The hunter-gatherers of 10,000 BC if polled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been sure they were going on for ever with their annual cosmogony; in AD 1700 solar-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculturalists asked by YouGov would have declared that, give or take the odd famine and epidemic, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were there for the long haul. Nevertheless if we ought to know about environmental history, then Hughes' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume is certainly worth a second edition and given the pace of events should extend to a third at least. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humane, thoughtful and a book you can actually read.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 114.223 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 96.443 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 96.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/927)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 95.049 m 322.316 95.049 l S endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 95.3635 322.3157 107.2435 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/927) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 225 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4825)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000592 00000 n 0000000674 00000 n 0000004834 00000 n 0000004943 00000 n 0000005053 00000 n 0000005162 00000 n 0000008723 00000 n 0000008851 00000 n 0000008935 00000 n 0000009000 00000 n 0000016842 00000 n 0000016926 00000 n 0000024095 00000 n 0000024222 00000 n 0000024317 00000 n 0000024382 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 24659 %%EOF