%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826145503+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826145503+01'00') /Title (Nature and Power: A Global History of the Environment) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4280 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Nature and Power: A Global History of the Environment)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For readers like this reviewer, who do not read Germany fluently, the translation of Joachim Radkau?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nature and Power: A Global History of the Environment)] TJ ET BT 307.340 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a major event. This is probably the best available )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overview of the changing human relationship with the biosphere: a subject whose historiographical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political significance is becoming more and more evident. The book?s center of gravity is in Europe; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless, its reach is global and this will make it particularly attractive to those who \(again like this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer\) approach environmental history with world history questions in mind rather than as specialists in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental history. For the specialists, Radkau?s book will offer a wonderful, sometimes contrary, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astonishingly rich overview of many of the central themes of environmental history. It also offers a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustained and erudite discussion of the difficulties and the importance of seeing environmental history in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more unified way over the whole sweep of human history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The German edition of this book, )] TJ ET BT 197.000 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Natur und Macht)] TJ ET BT 279.668 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was published in 2002. The English edition, translated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Thomas Dunlap, includes revisions and a new preface. Radkau is an astonishingly prolific author. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first book was on German migration to the USA between 1933 and 1945; it was followed by a history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuclear power in Germany, a history of wood, and histories of Germany and German industry. Only then did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Radkau approach the subject of world environmental history. And he did so with skepticism and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trepidation, as someone who had long dismissed such large scale projects for their exaggerated claims and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(928)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 July, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joachim Radkau)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978-0521616737)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(448pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Christian)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7512 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes stereotypical conclusions. His skepticism about grand generalizations is one of the book?s great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengths. The other is his determination to bring European perspectives to debates that have often been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated by the view from North America and the English-speaking world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The basic structure of the book is chronological, but not )] TJ ET BT 305.648 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(just)] TJ ET BT 322.988 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( chronological. The first chapter reviews many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the central ideas and approaches of world environmental history, introducing historiographical issues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be present throughout the book. From then on the key structural device is the notion that human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecological behavior and thought has been shaped in profound ways by the scale on which human relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the environment are managed. ?The structure I have chosen arises from the geographic reach of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental problems, the level of social authority that deals with them, and the type of knowledge that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed in the process? \(p. 36\). Chapter two focuses on small-scale societies, within which ?environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems are usually local in nature and are resolved within the framework of the household economy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the neighborhood, and the solutions draw on an unwritten tradition of experiential knowledge. This is a time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when subsistence economy is dominant, when humans produce for their own needs and the local market, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the cycle of nutrients is self-contained within local parameters? \(pp. 36?7\). Chapter three, ?Water, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forests and Power? deal with societies in which management is handled at larger scales and power brokers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begin to mediate between the interests of different groups, creating a more complex and often less reliable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feedback cycle between human behaviors and the environment. The chapter includes a rich and nuanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of Wittfogel?s ideas on the relations between irrigation and power. But Radkau is less interested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in how large-scale irrigation sustained new power relationships than in the ecological dangers created by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their complexity: ?the center expands the networks of irrigation and drainage to a size and complexity at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which their vulnerability to crises ? whether political or ecological in nature ? increases to an alarming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent? \(p. 92\). Chapter four, ?Colonialism as a Watershed in Environmental History?, describes a world in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which those who took the crucial decisions often had little or no interest in their environmental impacts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they occurred so far away. Colonialism relaxed many of the constraints on ecological behavior that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had existed in earlier societies because the costs of predatory behavior were rarely paid by those responsible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters five and six focus on the transition from an era of solar power to an era of fossil fuels, and then to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the colossal increase in human environmental impacts in an age in which management is increasingly on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global scale. I think \(but I?m not certain\) that one of the underlying ideas of this section is that the sheer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abundance of energy in the age of fossil fuels re-enforced the sort of ecological thoughtlessness once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged by colonialism. Oil in particular encouraged such thoughtlessness, as it ?launched an almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effortless exploitation of the earth?s fossil resources ? which made possible a wasteful mentality that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without parallel in human history? \(p. 252\). The sheer scale of the modern economy also generated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dangerous ?unintended synergistic effects? \(p. 250\). But Radkau also shows how the global scale of today?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world has generated new ways of thinking about the human relationship to the environment. In an argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminiscent of Norbert Elias? analysis of modern concepts of Time, Radkau argues that the modern notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the environment? arises from rapidly expanding networks of human relations. ?As environmental problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became more pervasive and widespread, there were growing interactions between the various problematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas, and this gave rise to a new awareness in the second half of the 20th century. Many older problems ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, preserving the fertility of agricultural fields ? were transformed into a problem of energy, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the energy problem in turn became an environmental problem. To a greater degree than ever before, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multitude of problems were perceived as aspects of one great and global problem, and in this way the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?environment? acquired the meaning it has today? \(p. 258\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two, on small-scale societies, sets the book?s dominant tone of skepticism towards grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalizations. These were not communities of natural environmentalists. \(And he is surely right: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence is now very powerful that Paleolithic communities transformed both plant and animal communities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at very large scales through over-hunting or practices such as fire-stick farming.\) Nor, on the other hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were these communities of nave environmental predators. Instead, like all human communities, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned, often through difficult times, rough rules of thumb about what behaviors and ideas were or were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustainable. ?One must not imagine this first epoch as a self-contained time carried by a stable harmony )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7473 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between humanity and nature. It also included primeval experiences of a traumatic kind ? of drought and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cold, hunger and thirst, floods and forest fires. An alertness toward the environment is probably grounded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not so much in a natural instinct as in such traumatic experiences? \(p. 37\). What was different about small-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale communities was not that their practices were always sustainable, but rather that environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns were immediate, ?an integral component of life? \(p. 37\). The punishment for non-sustainable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviors was usually swift and painful. ?In the most basic state of affairs, environmental problems are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually local in nature and are resolved within the framework of the household economy and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighborhood, and the solutions draw on an unwritten tradition of experiential knowledge. This is a time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when subsistence economy is dominant, when humans produce for their own needs and the local market, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the cycle of nutrients is self-contained within local parameters? \(pp. 36?7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Later chapters show how, in complex and often contradictory ways, constraints on ecological behavior were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lifted. Yet they never vanished. He argues, for example, that industries such as mining and salt works, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have earned a dubious environmental reputation, were often careful to protect the forests they depended on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 142?51\). It was where resources appeared unlimited that environmental behaviors were least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constrained. ?We are bad farmers because we have so much land?, wrote Benjamin Franklin \(cited p. 177\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But even this is not a simple tale of good and bad behavior. One of Radkau?s central themes, and one that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves to loom larger in the thought of environmental historians in general, is that sometimes the solutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created the greatest dangers. His wonderful short essay on malaria in world environmental history is a fine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example \(pp. 127?31\). ?Since ancient times, malaria confronted humanity with a dilemma reminiscent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative ?economy or ecology?? that is presented so often today: to achieve abundant harvests, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advisable to settle in wet areas and, if possible to increase the moisture throughout irrigation systems; for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health reasons, however, it was advisable to live in a dry climate? \(p. 127\). If irrigation was the solution to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortage of water for farming, it was also a persistent source of malaria. Not until after the Second World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War would a solution emerge. It was the use of DDT, the pesticide that, as Radkau points out, prompted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel Carson to write )] TJ ET BT 147.332 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Silent Spring)] TJ ET BT 209.672 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1962, a book that stands at the beginning of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmentalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In subtler ways, this theme of the dangers of sustainability is present throughout the book. The least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustainable behaviors were often punished. It was the sustainable practices that allowed long-term growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and threatened to generate subtler, deeper and more dangerous environmental challenges. Much of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is about forestry, one of Radkau?s favorite themes, and we learn much about the subtlety and skill of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe?s forest managers. Yet, he also points out that: ?precisely because the wood supply for the mining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and metal industry in Central and Western Europe was relatively well regulated over centuries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental problems were more or less solved, this sector of the economy was able to generate a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic that, in synergy with other dynamic forces, eventually overpowered everything. This is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insidiousness of the partial resolution of environmental problems: partial success all too easily masks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creeping crises, thus shutting off traditional braking forces that until then kept the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humans and their environment more or less in balance. Precisely the daily experience that human existence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is ecologically unstable amounted, in aggregate, to an element of ecological stability inherent in the human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way of life? \(p. 151\). In Radkau?s account of environmental history, the solutions all too often turn out to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new problems in disguise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another somewhat contrary insight that appears throughout the book is that human ecological behaviors are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often most destructive when best aligned with the cycles and rhythms of the natural world. In such situations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human behaviour and the cycles of the environment reinforce each other. In the Mediterranean, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he argues that it is simplistic to debate whether long-term erosion was mainly due to natural or human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causes. Often, it was the relationship between the two factors that was most critical. ?When, after the waning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the last ice age, the climate conditions changed from being cooler and wetter to today?s Mediterranean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weather pattern, the forests corresponding to the moister climate presumably continued at first. The human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact must have accelerated the adaptation to the new climate conditions and intensified the erosion to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which many Mediterranean mountain slopes were already susceptible. Unlike what is often believed today, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human behavior often entails particularly heavy consequences when it occurs ?in harmony with nature?, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7616 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with natural trends? \(p. 135\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Radkau?s writing style is Braudelian. We do get sweeping generalizations \(not all of them persuasive, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his discussion of European environmental exceptionalism, pp. 184?193\). But before we can agree or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disagree, the generalizations are usually qualified by counter-examples, leaving us always with a sense of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex tension between the specific and the general. Maintaining this tension is a challenge for all types of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world history, and Radkau?s insistent skepticism helps him maintain a satisfying balance between detail and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalization. Lynn White famously argued that Christianity was hostile to the environment. Did not God )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tell humans to ?fill the earth and subdue it?? Yet, as Radkau points out, in 18th-century England, the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage from Genesis could be used to protect animals. ?In the next verse of the same passage \(Gen. 1.29\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God mentions only plants and the fruit of the trees as food for humans, but not animals. Noah saved not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the human race in his ark, but also the diversity of the animal world? \(p. 82\). As with Braudel, the result of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constant questioning of established truths is a rich and diverse account of human relations with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment. Yet I have to confess that occasionally I wished he would stop hedging his bets and risk some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear, unqualified generalizations. One reason for thinking this would be helpful is that environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history on large scales tells a story of accelerating and poorly understood yet dangerous changes that are now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happening too fast for exhaustive analysis. There will come a time when, with the guidance of those scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who best know this history, politicians will have to move fast as they take hard decisions as to the best ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of averting serious crisis. To do that they will need answers clear enough to suggest what needs to be done.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For scholars immersed in the English-language literature on environmental history, one of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating aspects of the book will undoubtedly be its German perspectives on environmental history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Radkau is a great admirer of the large body of English-language scholarship in environmental history; but he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also shows how much European perspectives can add to that literature. Above all, he argues, the societies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central Europe never experienced the sense of abundant, even unlimited resources familiar to European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonists or British imperialists. It is symptomatic, he argues, that N. American environmental historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been fascinated by the notion of wilderness, of spaces not yet touched by humans and open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitation \(or protection\), while German historians have focused their scholarship on a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropogenic and more limited ?natural? world in which the problem of sustainability was always present. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Unlike the Americans and the British with their immense colonial empire, continental Europeans have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely lived with the illusion of unlimited resources. That there are ?limits to growth? was self-evident to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them most of the time: hence it was clear that prudence dictated a careful harnessing of limited resources. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That does not mean that this bit of wisdom was always followed in practice. Still, a striving for sustainability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has deep roots in Europe as well as in other old cultures? \(p. xvi\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second, distinctively German quality of the book is its sensitivity at every point to the politics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental issues. This is a theme present even in the book?s title. And it is perhaps unavoidable for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German environmental historians, given the political role of the Greens in recent decades. German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental thinking has been forced through the cauldron of real politics to a degree that is not true in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most of the English-speaking world. Indeed, Radkau ends his book with a chapter entitled: ?How to argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Environmental History in Politics?. It is this reality, I suspect, that accounts at least in part for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Radkau?s concern with the political complexities of environmental issues, with the fact that even sustainable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental policies \(perhaps )] TJ ET BT 190.988 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(particularly )] TJ ET BT 251.324 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustainable policies\) are an expression of power. So, as human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies have expanded in scale, environmental issues, instead of being encountered more or less personally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as in most small-scale societies, are mediated through power structures. That may turn out to be one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great dangers we face. In a course I once taught on world environmental history I set up a workshop in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which students were asked to perform a sort of triage on world environmental problems: first, to analyze )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them, then to decide which problems were worth doing something about, then to list possible solutions, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to discuss the politics of implementing those solutions. They flew through the first three tasks; it was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics that stumped them. Radkau?s book is a timely reminder, even in its title, that human relations with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the environment are mediated by power relations. And as the scale and complexity of the decision-making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process has widened in today?s global age, getting the politics right may be the hardest challenge we face.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A review like this cannot do justice to the richness of Radkau?s account of world environmental history. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1852 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And it is perhaps the richness, the diversity, and the complexity of this account that will be this book?s most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important legacy to world environmental history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blogcritics)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://blogcritics.org/books/article/book-review-nature-and-power-a/)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 726.051 m 363.620 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 366.620 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Environmental History)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 697.539 m 291.008 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 294.008 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 694.207 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 676.427 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 676.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/928)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 675.033 m 322.316 675.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 650.056 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4829)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://blogcritics.org/books/article/book-review-nature-and-power-a/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 606.971 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http%3A//www.historycooperative.org/journals/eh/13.3/br_1.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 726.3655 363.6197 738.2455 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://blogcritics.org/books/article/book-review-nature-and-power-a/) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 697.8535 291.0077 709.7335 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/eh/13.3/br_1.html) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 675.3475 322.3157 687.2275 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/928) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000563 00000 n 0000000645 00000 n 0000004977 00000 n 0000005086 00000 n 0000005196 00000 n 0000005305 00000 n 0000008866 00000 n 0000008994 00000 n 0000009078 00000 n 0000009143 00000 n 0000016708 00000 n 0000016773 00000 n 0000024299 00000 n 0000024364 00000 n 0000032033 00000 n 0000032131 00000 n 0000034036 00000 n 0000034163 00000 n 0000034283 00000 n 0000034410 00000 n 0000034592 00000 n 0000034720 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34815 %%EOF