%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416215445+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416215445+01'00') /Title (Nature and History in the Potomac Country: From Hunter-Gatherers to the Age of Jefferson) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1885 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Nature and History in the Potomac Country: From Hunter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Gatherers to the Age of Jefferson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(930)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 July, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James D. Rice)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780801890321)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(360pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hopkins University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltimore, MD)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robbie Ethridge)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7372 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the opening of his recent volume, )] TJ ET BT 210.656 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nature and History in the Potomac Country)] TJ ET BT 421.988 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, historian James D. Rice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informs his readers that the idea for the book began with what he perceived as a ?hole in the map? \(p. 1\). By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this Rice means that if one were to map the early 17th-century inhabitants of the 14,670 square miles that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drain the Potomoc River, one could see that much of this interior basin was uninhabited at that time. Rice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wondered why, and thus began his investigations into the Potomoc River basin from the earliest inhabitants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to those who lived during the Age of Jefferson, or the late 18th century. Kudos to Rice for noticing this ?hole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the map? and also for noticing that to understand this hole and the historical cultural geography of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region one must first begin with the environment and the Native inhabitants who lived there for thousands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years. Rice does not present the usual pictures of the environment as a mere backdrop to the historical action )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and prehistoric Indians who disappear soon after European colonists arrive. Instead, Rice tracks Native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history into the colonial era and takes a close look at the intertwining of European and Indian lives once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans invaded the Potomac basin and the consequences of such. He also understands humans and nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be inseparable. The story of the Potomac, in Rice's hands, is thus a story about Natives, the environment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Europeans and Africans who eventually made the same place their home. Through such an approach, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rice is able to reconstruct the long-term social and environmental structures of the Potomac basin that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged long before European contact and yet continued to structure life long after European contact.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rice begins )] TJ ET BT 93.344 518.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nature and Culture in Potomac Country)] TJ ET BT 287.684 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by delimiting and describing the geographic range in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question. The Potomac River and its tributaries drain a large portion of the mid-Atlantic, extending into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present-day Virginia, Maryland, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania. Given its massive extension, the basin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also serves to connect the Chesapeake to other river systems such as the Ohio, Cumberland, Tennessee, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ranging valleys that move into the north, south, and west. In other words, the Potomac River basin is one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the major river systems in the eastern United States. It is also one of the richest ecological zones in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eastern United States with fertile soils, good hunting, and especially good fishing. Rice also notes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topographic fault line in the Potomac basin between the uplands of the Appalachians and Piedmont with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their cooler temperatures, swift-moving rivers, shortened growing season, and narrow valley floors and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lowlands inner and outer coastal plain with their long growing season, wide alluvial valleys, and slow-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moving rivers. He notes that this fault line also corresponded to an Indian social and cultural one between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the southern Algonquian and Siouan speakers and the northern Iroquoian speakers; sometime in the deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past, this social fault line became one between enemies. As such, the Potomoc basin was a complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transitional zone ? ecologically and socially between the northeastern Woodland societies and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southeastern Mississippian societies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rice begins his history of the Potomac in AD 700, just prior to the advent of agriculture. Weaving together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidentiary strands from archaeology, ecology, and paleo-environmental studies, and his own informed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagining of every-day life, Rice presents these early people of the Potomac as flesh and blood people, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utilizing an abundant landscape that dictated much about daily life. The population at this time was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively small, and most people were nomadic fisherfolk living on the coastal plain with occasional forays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the uplands for other foodstuffs and resources. By 900, however, life on the Potomac began to change as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people gradually incorporated agriculture into their subsistence. Rice's argument ? that the appearance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maize and other domesticated crops coincided with a general warming trend known as the ?Medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Optimum? is well taken. Maize soon transformed life on the Potomac ? the people saw an increase in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations, a new reliance on flood plain soils, and an emerging localism reflected in localized ceramic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions. They also began to live in farming villages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1300, the prolonged warming trend gave way to a long cold spell known as the ?Little Ice Age,? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once again life on the Potomac was transformed. As temperatures dropped, the growing season was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortened. For those on the Potomac this was not a serious problem; however, for the northern Iroquoian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speakers, a shortened growing season meant hardship for those farmers. In response, some congregated into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large towns and polities, such as the Five Nations Iroquois, and others began migrating to more suitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farming country, with some moving into the Potomac. As these newcomers arrived in the Potomac, they )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7341 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settled on vacant lands with access to good hunting, gathering, and arable soils. In response, local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations repositioned themselves, and whereas before towns were mostly located in the coastal plain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions, new towns now sprang up in the inner coastal plain and the interior. And although these various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns were tied together through an expansive trade network, they also became protective and guarded and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wary of one another. Rice then offers a detailed reconstruction of life on the Potomac at this time, describing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subsistence cycles that structured life, work, and power. He also offers some interesting propositions as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to why we see the rise of hierarchal political structures at this time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1500, the interior farming villages were abandoned ? this is the ?hole in the map? that piqued Rice's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquiry. Rice presents a convincing argument that as the Little Ice Age continued, the disruptions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural life in the north and northwest intensified, and the Five Nations Iroquois solidified into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formidable confederacy intent on controlling the region. Those around them soon felt the brunt of Iroquois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfare and suffered a prolonged period of Iroquois raiding, resulting in an increase in migrations through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and out of the northern regions. By 1608 the Potomac basin above the fall line was almost entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandoned. Those below the fall line, in order to withstand the migrations and warfare, consolidated into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large, hierarchal polities known as chiefdoms. Rice understands the formation of such polities, although in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to the social and ecological disruptions, also to have been predicated on location ? the largest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polities formed in the inner coastal plains where one finds the best soils, fishing, and wild plant life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sometime between 1440 and 1530 the chiefdoms began to consolidate into larger paramount chiefdoms, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first, known as the Piscataway tayac, emerged. By the mid 16th century an even more powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paramount chiefdom formed, that of Powhatan. At the time of first European contact in the Chesapeake, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost all of the chiefdoms along the Potomoc, save the Chickahominies, were subsumed within one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these two polities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When moving into the colonial era, Rice makes a point well worth remembering ? that Europeans, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Native people, knew their landscapes because both had to do so in order to survive. Most Europeans who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to Virginia came from rural farming backgrounds, and they knew land and how to wrest a living from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it. Hence, although Europeans assuredly brought a different understanding of the environment and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place in it, their lives were still intertwined with the environment as much as Indian lives. In fact, after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having deftly explained the rise of Powhatan within a cultural, political, and environmental matrix, Rice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how this matrix also influenced English settlement. Rice argues that the earliest settlers did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily want to remake England, and instead that they saw Jamestown and the Chesapeake as a trading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depot and a granary, respectively, and they understood themselves to be surrounded by Indian polities that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could provide them with both food and furs. They also became involved in Indian politics when some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups, such as the Patawomeck, sought English alliances in their effort to break away from Powhatan. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rice's environmental perspective gives him a unique take on Indian and European relations and especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on that of the Powhatan War of 1622 ? he understands corn and tobacco to have been the central issues in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rice adds a much needed corrective to the usual narrative of Jamestown in his examination of the Indian fur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade and his insistence that Jamestown for the first several decades was a fur-trade colony, and not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plantation colony. In good detail, Rice traces the inter-colonial rivalry between Maryland, Virginia, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolina for the Indian fur trade. In his treatment, Rice highlights the agency and determination of individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European traders and their many Indian partners to control and shape the trade system. Although scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have known for some time that the Indian trade played a prominent role in Virginia's early history, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives of Virginia move from the relations with Powhatan to tobacco plantations with barely a mention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Indian trade. Rice, however, opens up this era in no uncertain terms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rice also argues, quite persuasively, that the contest between Maryland and Virginia over the Indian trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually led to the Virginia leadership turning their attention south, to the trade between the James and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Savannah rivers. By the 1650s, their interest in the northern Chesapeake and outer coastal plain would now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus entirely on tobacco and their Indian trade interests were now to the south. This is a key point for Rice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because with their interest and ecological imaginings of the Chesapeake as a fur-bearing animal reserve and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(granary, European settlers had little impact on the land. According to Rice, as late as 1650, the Potomac )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7423 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment was not substantially changed from its pre-contact days. However, after 1650, this would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change. Not only did Old World diseases sweep through the region over the next 50 years, leaving many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian communities severely depopulated, but a swarm of new colonists began to transform the landscape, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and tobacco now moved to the center of the Potomac economy. As Rice makes clear, though, it was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily the farming practices of the middling settlers that changed the landscape ? these, in fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resembled closely those of their Algonquin neighbors. Nor was it the placement of English settlements since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they sought out the same freshwater springs, fertile soils, and good hunting and fishing as the Algonquins. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather it was the introduction of large numbers of domesticated animals, English laws on land ownership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and use, and the English surveying and allocation of land plots that would transform the Potomac )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside. And most of these practices were introduced and done in service to the growing tobacco )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy. Such changes also ushered in changes in Indian-settler relations. In particular, disputes over land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with local Algonquians erupted time and again. With the Indian trade now focused elsewhere, local Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people entered into other sorts of economic relations with settlers, usually that of wage laborer or servant. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They also began a series of migrations out of the Potomac region.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All of this only exacerbated growing tensions between the Potomac Indians and settlers. When the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susquehannock's war against Maryland settlers turned in favor of the Marylanders, Susquehannocks moved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the Potomac Piedmont, and Governor Berkeley responded by building a series of forts along the fall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line designed to quell Indian unrest. Local Virginians voiced opposition to Beckley's plan, and Bacon's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rebellion erupted when Nathaniel Bacon sought revenge against some Susquehannocks who had killed 2 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of his household. Not limiting his wrath to the Susquehannocks, Bacon and his followers decried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all Indian people living in the Potomac thus erasing any distinctions between Indian friend and foe. As this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude spread throughout the colony, Indian and settler relations continued to deteriorate, and over the next )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade settlers became increasingly brazen in their taking of Indian lands. Both Virginia and Maryland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership, by now realizing that they no longer needed Indian allies, instituted the reservation system for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian people in an effort to staunch the land disputes. However, as Rice documents, settlers soon began to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eye the reservations, forcing many Algonquin groups to once again relocate, away from their English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbors and some with the northern Iroquoian-speakers. By the 1690s, according the Rice, ?the Potomac )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nations were no more? \(p. 173\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clearly the Potomac nations did not disappear, as some of them are still here today. Rice's point, however, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not that they disappeared from history, but that they no longer occupied the Potomac basin, especially the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interior, which was now opened for English settlement. Here, Rice again challenges an age-old narrative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seamless westward expansion when Indian lands were opened. As Rice shows, European colonization of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interior was slow, in part because of the unfamiliarity of the land to settlers, because this was still a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundary zone between the northern and southern Indian groups and therefore subject to hostile incursions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from both, because ownership of these lands, according to English law, was quite sketchy and took several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years to straighten out, and finally because the tobacco economy, which was becoming concentrated into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hands of a few elites, could not be profitably expanded into the interior at this time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rice argues that, despite the quickening Indian wars in the region, the first wave of settlement into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interior was a cadre of European traders intent on expanding Virginia and Maryland trade westward. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Rice the interior, as a north-south crossroads, was inviting because traders, who were less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fearful of Indians than most settlers, could trade with Indians from all through the eastern Woodlands who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trekked into and out of this transitional zone. Rice devotes only a few pages to the Virginia trade at this time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but clearly the westward expansion of the trade was important to colonial leaders. In fact, they were in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continual conflict over it, and, as we have seen, Bacon's Rebellion was sparked over trade issues. Another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omission here is that Rice does not treat with the 17th-century colonial Indian slave trade, which in recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, scholars have shown to have been part of the Virginia 17th-century economy. Rice acknowledges the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(buying and selling of Indian slaves by Europeans, but his focus is squarely on the fur trade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the 18th century got underway, however, the problems for European settlement into the Potomac basin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interior began to be resolved. The Indian wars ceased with the Treaty of 1722, which set off a scramble for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interior lands between Indian groups as well as between Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and South )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6521 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolina. Wealthy low country tobacco planters and speculators especially took a keen interest in how these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lands were parceled out. Still it was not until the 1744 Treaty of Lancaster that the boundary disputes were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally settled, and Europeans began a large migration into the interior. But these were not all wealthy elites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moving into the interior. Rice documents that most of them were yeoman farmers, practicing sustainable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural techniques, and subsisting largely on the proceeds from their small farms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These interior farmers were drawn into the Atlantic market economy with the Seven Years War and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pontiac's War of the 1760s. As Rice argues, the two wars, much of which were fought in the Ohio and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interior Potomac basins, precipitated an infusion of cash into the region as the armies paid locals for goods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and services as well as the development of the infrastructure needed to connect the region to the Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ports. Numerous towns emerged at this time and after the war farmers increased the production of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial crops, especially wheat. Farmers also began to see profits from their commercial activities. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this also meant that the interior landscape was transformed as towns, connected by thoroughfares, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged across the region. Farmers expanded their land holdings and now modeled their farms after their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European counterparts. By the late 18th century, then, one can see that all of the Potomac had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed. The interior was now a European-like agrarian landscape; the inner coastal plain was dotted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with small urban centers surrounded by mostly tobacco-and-slave plantations; the outer coastal plain, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soils now barely suitable for tobacco planting, was only sparsely inhabited by slaves working any fields that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could still produce.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Rice does not take the step, one can also see that this book goes far in filling a hole in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of Virginia and Maryland ? this is one of the first full-length treatments of Indians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans in the Chesapeake that deal with Indians other than the Powhatans. If one were to read Virginia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, one could easily draw the conclusion that, after Opechancanough's wars of the mid 17th century, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians in the Potomac more or less disappeared. Rice's book is one of the first in a series of forthcoming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books that are beginning to correct this impression.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As an environmental history, though, )] TJ ET BT 215.672 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nature and History in the Potomac Country)] TJ ET BT 427.004 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is somewhat uneven. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book starts strong with an emphasis on how nature and Indian social systems worked together to create and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(re-create the Indians' world. However, once he enters the colonial era, Rice picks up other tendrils of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story that sometimes obscure the environmental story. One could conceivably pick up the book hoping to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learn about tobacco farming, crop rotations, estuary resource use in the colonial era, and so forth ? and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be a reasonable expectation. Such a reader would perhaps come away somewhat disappointed. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so, one should not be detracted from the fact that Rice's focal point ? that ?the Algonquian and Iroquoian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peoples who had forged that regional diplomatic configuration over the centuries had effectively regulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the timing, extent, and character of European colonization in the backcountry? \(p. 207\) ? is firmly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established in the relationship between nature and society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginia Magazine of History and Biography)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.vahistorical.org/publications/review_rice_swanson.htm)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 233.859 m 357.656 233.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 360.656 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Journal of American History)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/96.4/br_14.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 205.347 m 340.676 205.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 343.676 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 202.015 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 184.235 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 184.235 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/930)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 182.841 m 322.316 182.841 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 157.864 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.464 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4837)] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.vahistorical.org/publications/review_rice_swanson.htm)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.664 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/96.4/br_14.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 234.1735 357.6557 246.0535 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.vahistorical.org/publications/review_rice_swanson.htm) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 205.6615 340.6757 217.5415 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/96.4/br_14.html) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 183.1555 322.3157 195.0355 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/930) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000598 00000 n 0000000680 00000 n 0000002617 00000 n 0000002726 00000 n 0000002836 00000 n 0000002945 00000 n 0000006506 00000 n 0000006634 00000 n 0000006718 00000 n 0000006783 00000 n 0000014208 00000 n 0000014273 00000 n 0000021667 00000 n 0000021732 00000 n 0000029208 00000 n 0000029306 00000 n 0000035880 00000 n 0000036007 00000 n 0000036123 00000 n 0000036250 00000 n 0000036364 00000 n 0000036492 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36587 %%EOF