%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 45 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818085056+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818085056+01'00') /Title (The Culture of Nature in Britain 1680-1860) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4832 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Culture of Nature in Britain 1680-1860)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In our age of climate change and peak oil anxiety, environmental problems loom increasingly large in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics as well as everyday life. Yet even if ecology were to become the preeminent science, it is difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagine a future where the authority of nature will form a unified source of morality, aesthetic value, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific truth. Such a world seems irretrievably lost to us. The eclipse of this unity is the subject of P. M. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harman?s new book )] TJ ET BT 135.656 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Culture of Nature in Britain 1680?1860)] TJ ET BT 348.344 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Harman chronicles the heyday of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority of nature through the long 18th century between Isaac Newton and James Hutton and then charts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its decline starting with the Romantics down to Charles Darwin and John Ruskin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ambitious scope of )] TJ ET BT 149.336 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Culture of Nature in Britain 1680?1860)] TJ ET BT 362.024 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( justifies a comparison with such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magisterial works as Keith Thomas? )] TJ ET BT 212.324 161.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Man and the Natural World)] TJ ET BT 346.328 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Donald Worster?s )] TJ ET BT 442.304 161.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nature?s Economy)] TJ ET BT 533.960 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raymond Williams? )] TJ ET BT 136.016 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The City and the Country)] TJ ET BT 258.020 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.020 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.020 145.881 m 275.012 145.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 275.012 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( An urge ?for system, order and design? defined the unity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 18th-century thought according to Harman \(p. 340\). It gave birth to a ?culture of nature? which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successfully reconciled the modernity of science with traditional values \(p. ix\). Like Worster and Williams, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harman?s sprawling chronology extends across the conventional boundaries between the Georgian and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian periods. Harman?s background as a scholar of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell makes him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eminently suited for this sort of endeavor. The broad narrative includes a wide cast of intellectual figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both major and minor. While the argument for the dominance of natural theology is hardly new ? John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(931)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 July, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Harman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300151978)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fredrik Albritton Jonsson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.0197 146.1955 275.0117 158.0755 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7862 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pickstone and Peter Dear both make use of it in recent surveys )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 337.292 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 337.292 795.075 m 351.284 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 351.284 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? Harman tracks its diverse permutations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in far greater detail than other scholars. What gives the book much of its intellectual novelty is Harman?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insistence that we must connect the history of science firmly with the history of art and aesthetics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Landscape painting and color theory are given as much attention as natural theology, vitalism and botanical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classification. Perhaps most controversially, Harman makes the Victorian art critic and social visionary John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruskin a central end point to his narrative through which the unity and disunity of the ?culture of nature? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must be understood.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The methodological and theoretical basis for Harman?s analysis remains somewhat understated. While much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the argument is occupied with discursive unity, a certain amount of attention is given to social forces, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including agrarian capitalism, landscape gardening, and scientific travel. However, Harman avoids the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predilection of recent histories of science for detailed case studies of craft knowledge and experiments. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aesthetic orientation bears certain similarities with the work of Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison who have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also privileged the history of form and vision in their attempt to chart the development of 18th- and 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century natural knowledge.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.984 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.984 597.747 m 178.976 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 178.976 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In addition, Harman shares with them a style of crisscrossing arguments, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which leap back and forth over chronological and disciplinary boundaries. But he avoids the ?bottom-up? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to epistemology favored by Daston and Galison. There is no attempt here to link ethics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistemology at the level of epistemic virtues in order to explore how habits of attention have shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different scientific objects and their classification.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, Harman seems to favor a poetic approach to the history of science. The aesthetics of design derived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from ?biblical imagery and classical literature? \(p. 341\). William Paley?s natural theology was grounded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the metaphor of mechanism? \(p. 32\). Similarly, the move away from design was predicated at least in part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a shift in representations. Darwin?s principle of natural selection blended the ?metaphor of warfare in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature? with a concept of fecundity borrowed from Humboldt \(p. 219\). Harman seems to suggest that images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspired new lines of inquiry while also covering up inconvenient silences. Specifically, Darwin?s use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphor served as a substitute for a proper mechanism of selection \(p. 227\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This poetic approach to the history of science places great stress on the transformation wrought by romantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aesthetics. By the end of the 18th century, critical observers challenged the old synthesis of classical culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and providential science epitomized in the horticultural discipline of the landscape garden. The century-old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consensus was breaking down \(p. 345\). A yearning for pure nature, free of human intervention, drove this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative vision \(p. 337\). Echoing the romantic generation, Ruskin called in 1843 for painters to study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?nature in her liberty ? nor stiffened into court-dress by the landscape-gardener? \(p. 338\). Hence, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(romantics and their successors severed the realm of nature from the sphere of human technology. The natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order could no longer be represented in terms of a ?designed artifact?. The ?accommodation between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aesthetics of nature and the language of design [in] natural theology ? was dissolved? \(pp. 346?7\). For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harman, this loss of justification wounded the enterprise of natural theology fatally since so much of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority was vested in the unifying force of ?aesthetic language? \(p. 346\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harman?s interpretation provokes a number of questions. First and foremost, it would be useful to hear a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more explicit discussion of the methodology and theory underpinning the thesis. What exactly was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation between metaphor and knowledge in the 18th century? The connection between aesthetics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplinary specialization also remains obscure. In Harman?s account, the ?re-ordering of the sciences into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new and specialized discourses? appears to follow as a consequence of the rise of romantic aesthetics \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(346\). Was there a strong causal connection between the two phenomena? Throughout the book, there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hints about the affinity between agrarian capitalism and natural theology. To what degree was the romantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critique of design predicated on changes within agrarian capitalism or other economic and political factors?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though Harman certainly can be forgiven for offering merely an ?illustrative rather than systematic? view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a vast topic \(p. ix\), some of his omissions seem particularly problematic. Notably, there is hardly any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of classical political economy. Margaret Schabas has forcefully reminded us of the central role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural philosophy and natural history in classical political economy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.988 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.988 65.043 m 378.980 65.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 378.980 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Schabas suggests that Adam Smith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his successors modeled the order of market exchange on Newtonian gravitation and Linnaean food )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 337.2917 795.3895 351.2837 807.2695 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.9837 598.0615 178.9757 609.9415 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 364.9877 65.3575 378.9797 77.2375 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8421 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chains. We might add that Smith?s famous image of the invisible hand contained an aesthetic element, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented in the section on the beauty of utility in )] TJ ET BT 274.664 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Theory of Moral Sentiments)] TJ ET BT 429.992 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. To what extent can we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(link Smith?s thought with the orientation of late eighteenth figures like James Hutton and Erasmus Darwin? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both according to Harman saw the cosmos ?as a self-regenerating system of circulating active powers? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(332\)? Hutton?s unpublished work on the elements of agriculture in fact attempted to integrate Smithian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economics with a theory of climate.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.988 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.988 723.795 m 219.980 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 219.980 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The development of classical political economy also raises a question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the legacy of the ?culture of nature? in the 19th century. Might we say that the naturalism of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy from Smith to John Stuart Mill conserved the 18th century urge for ?order and design? long after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural theology and aesthetics had come apart?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harman is careful to accentuate the diversity of views within the ?culture of nature.? For example, he traces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of a concept of ?active powers? in matter from James Hutton to Erasmus Darwin while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stressing the contrast between Hutton?s deistic eternalism and Darwin?s Lucretian materialism \(pp. 304-5\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet some of the deeper rifts in 18th-century British society do not surface so clearly in Harman?s analysis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Take the case of useful knowledge. Margaret Jacob and Larry Stewart )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 373.244 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 373.244 597.747 m 387.236 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 387.236 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have argued that a strong current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of popular Newtonianism was a crucial factor behind the Industrial Revolution. They point to a broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular movement of mechanics, chemists, and natural philosophers involved with technological innovation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including Erasmus Darwin?s Lunar Society of Birmingham. To a considerable extent, these circles were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically and socially radical, supportive of religious Dissent and the American Revolution. During the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same period in British history, a very different version of useful knowledge rose to prominence in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naturalist networks surrounding Sir Joseph Banks. Banks was an aristocratic patron of Linnaean natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history who gained fame and political influence after accompanying Cook?s first voyage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumnavigation on the Endeavour. Once back in Britain, Banks assumed control of Kew Gardens outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London and turned it into a hub for ecological exchange. As John Gascoigne and Richard Drayton have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown, Banks? political ambitions can best be described as a form of agrarian patriotism or neo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mercantilism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.680 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.680 440.931 m 113.672 440.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 113.672 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The great aim of Kew Gardens was to diversify the British colonies with new cash crops. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through the expertise of natural history, Banks sought to bolster the landed interest and revive the economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortunes of the empire in the age of political and military crisis between 1776 and 1815. What should we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make of this contrast between the manufacturing and landed interest? At a certain level of abstraction, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does seem possible to subsume both Newtonian manufacturers and Banksian natural historians under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rubric of a ?culture of nature.? No doubt both movements embraced an ethos of ?system, order and design.? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But do we miss something crucial by insisting on their overarching unity? To speak of a common culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here may stretch the concept of culture to a quite tenuous point.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A final question concerns the place of John Ruskin in Harman?s account. We have heard already about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruskin?s critique of landscape gardening. There are also stimulating discussions of Ruskin?s critique of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Darwin as well as the religious character of his theory of color among. But perhaps a stronger focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the environmental context of Ruskin?s ideas would serve to strengthen Harman?s larger argument. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxiety about industrial capitalism and atmospheric pollution in Ruskin?s late thought flowed from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing sense of nature?s fragility. While the 18th-century ?culture of nature? was ultimately expressed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the confident design of the landscape garden, Ruskin?s own garden at Brantwood in the Lake District )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifested a deep unease about the forces of modernity. Here, Ruskin hoped to restore a semblance of native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woodland even as the natural world around him showed alarming signs of deterioration. The garden also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted a social experiment in wasteland reclamation, employing local labor in virtuous agriculture. ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man who could remain a radical in a wood country,? Ruskin wrote, ?is a disgrace to his species?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.928 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.928 172.323 m 513.920 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hardwicke)] TJ ET BT 89.660 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rawnsley?s campaigns against railways and roads extended this idea of the )] TJ ET BT 454.592 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hortus Inclusus)] TJ ET BT 530.924 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Lake District as a whole and eventually contributed to the foundation of the National Trust.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 490.616 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 490.616 143.811 m 504.608 143.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 504.608 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?culture of nature? was predicated on the assumption of a harmonious fit between environment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology, Ruskin?s aesthetic and social critique of Victorian civilization forced him to imagine a natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world under severe pressure and lacking the resilience to withstand technological progress. Arguably, only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the loss of the ?culture of nature? made such a perspective possible in the first place.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 205.9877 724.1095 219.9797 735.9895 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 373.2437 598.0615 387.2357 609.9415 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.6797 441.2455 113.6717 453.1255 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.9277 172.6375 513.9197 184.5175 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 490.6157 144.1255 504.6077 156.0055 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 5052 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Thomas )] TJ ET BT 135.344 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Man and the Natural World)] TJ ET BT 269.348 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1996\); Donald Worster, )] TJ ET BT 434.312 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nature?s Economy)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1994\); Raymond Williams, )] TJ ET BT 261.344 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The City and the Country)] TJ ET BT 383.348 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1975\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.996 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.996 729.555 m 515.984 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Pickstone, )] TJ ET BT 142.352 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ways of Knowing)] TJ ET BT 227.024 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, IL, 2000\); Peter Dear, )] TJ ET BT 388.652 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Intelligibility of Nature)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chicago, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 145.004 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 145.004 701.043 m 198.992 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison, )] TJ ET BT 236.648 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Objectivity)] TJ ET BT 289.304 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Boston, MA\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.636 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.636 686.787 m 416.624 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Schabas, )] TJ ET BT 156.320 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Natural Origin of Economics)] TJ ET BT 317.660 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, IL, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.976 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.976 672.531 m 472.964 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NLS MS 23165-66.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 159.020 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 159.020 658.275 m 213.008 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Jacob and Larry Stewart, )] TJ ET BT 233.960 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Practical Matter)] TJ ET BT 314.288 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 436.940 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 436.940 644.019 m 490.928 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Gascoigne, )] TJ ET BT 146.336 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Science in the Service of Empire)] TJ ET BT 301.964 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1998\); Richard Drayton, )] TJ ET BT 488.936 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nature?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Government)] TJ ET BT 123.332 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.636 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.636 615.507 m 299.624 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Illingworth, ?Ruskin and Gardening?, )] TJ ET BT 274.328 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Garden History)] TJ ET BT 349.988 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 22, 2 \(Winter 1994\), 218-33.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 494.300 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 494.300 601.251 m 548.288 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ruskin and Environment)] TJ ET BT 182.672 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Michael Wheeler \(Manchester, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 388.940 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 388.940 586.995 m 442.928 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to read the review and does not wish to comment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.877 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 516.895 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 499.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 499.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/931)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 497.721 m 322.316 497.721 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 472.744 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.344 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4842)] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.944 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 461.9957 729.8695 515.9837 741.7495 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 145.0037 701.3575 198.9917 713.2375 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 362.6357 687.1015 416.6237 698.9815 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.9757 672.8455 472.9637 684.7255 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 159.0197 658.5895 213.0077 670.4695 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 436.9397 644.3335 490.9277 656.2135 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 245.6357 615.8215 299.6237 627.7015 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 494.2997 601.5655 548.2877 613.4455 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 39 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 388.9397 587.3095 442.9277 599.1895 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 42 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 498.0355 322.3157 509.9155 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/931) >> endobj xref 0 67 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000545 00000 n 0000000634 00000 n 0000005518 00000 n 0000005627 00000 n 0000005737 00000 n 0000005846 00000 n 0000009407 00000 n 0000009535 00000 n 0000009619 00000 n 0000009648 00000 n 0000009776 00000 n 0000009812 00000 n 0000009910 00000 n 0000017825 00000 n 0000017855 00000 n 0000017983 00000 n 0000018019 00000 n 0000018049 00000 n 0000018177 00000 n 0000018213 00000 n 0000018243 00000 n 0000018369 00000 n 0000018405 00000 n 0000018517 00000 n 0000026991 00000 n 0000027021 00000 n 0000027149 00000 n 0000027185 00000 n 0000027215 00000 n 0000027343 00000 n 0000027379 00000 n 0000027409 00000 n 0000027536 00000 n 0000027572 00000 n 0000027602 00000 n 0000027730 00000 n 0000027766 00000 n 0000027796 00000 n 0000027924 00000 n 0000027960 00000 n 0000028107 00000 n 0000033212 00000 n 0000033340 00000 n 0000033395 00000 n 0000033523 00000 n 0000033578 00000 n 0000033706 00000 n 0000033761 00000 n 0000033889 00000 n 0000033944 00000 n 0000034072 00000 n 0000034127 00000 n 0000034255 00000 n 0000034310 00000 n 0000034438 00000 n 0000034493 00000 n 0000034621 00000 n 0000034676 00000 n 0000034804 00000 n 0000034859 00000 n 0000034987 00000 n trailer << /Size 67 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35082 %%EOF