%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150130102853+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150130102853+00'00') /Title (The Dawn of Green: Manchester, Thirlmere, and Modern Environmentalism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3834 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Dawn of Green: Manchester, Thirlmere, and Modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Environmentalism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Debates, disputes, and even injustice lay just beneath the outward signs of vaunted Victorian technological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress. The ascendancy of the imperatives of industrialization and urbanization over all other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerations was not inevitable or automatic; there were moments when those imperatives were challenged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and rival ones championed. There were all kinds of costs associated with new water supply and drainage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems celebrated then and now for blunting typhoid fever and routing cholera in Victorian cities. These are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the important conclusions to draw from Professor Harriet Ritvo?s close study of a contest between Lake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(District devotees and Manchester?s local government in the 1870s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the mid 1870s frock-coated and silver-bearded strangers were observed picking their way around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rough landscape surrounding Thirlmere in the heart of the Lake District. They were rumored to be asking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions about certain properties. They were rumored to employ spies and ringers. Word spread that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester was involved, that the famous water engineer J.F. Bateman was involved. By mid 1877, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secret was out: Manchester planned to buy Thirlmere and its environs, embank the lake, and pipe its water )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(100 miles to the growing and thirsty city.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And thirsty it was. Manchester?s population increased from around half a million in 1840 to nearly one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(933)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 July, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harriet Ritvo)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780226720821)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(248pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Chicago Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Broich)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6146 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(million in 1880. Its dyeworks, bleachworks, breweries, and many other industries consumed huge volumes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of water. And fire was an ever-present danger. Meanwhile, sanitarians and philanthropists pressed for ever-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more street-cleaning, home-cleaning, personal hygiene, and individual consumption of drinking water \(as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to alcohol\) by the working class. Demand was great and growing and Manchester?s existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reservoirs in the valley of Longendale would soon prove insufficient.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are the facts that make Manchester?s response seem merely automatic. But the effort to capture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirlmere was based on a wider, more complicated set of motives. The City Council acted on a vision of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new kind of local government. It pictured a government that took deeper and broader responsibility for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens? health and prosperity. It sought to create an urban fabric?infrastructure for water, light, transport, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other amenities ? that encouraged order, safety, freedom, industry ? in short, it sought to build an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment that nourished and sustained Liberal Victorian society.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 359.972 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 359.972 640.515 m 373.964 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 373.964 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Its members made a moral argument: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was the duty of modern governors to provide the community with what its individuals could not provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves, to wisely manage the community?s resources for the benefit of all classes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the moment Manchester revealed its design, opponents mustered. 60 individuals attended the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meeting of the Thirlmere Defence Association in 1877, marshalling no less than 3000 pounds. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Association included John Ruskin and Thomas Carlyle. The region?s bishop was an active member, as were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many Oxford academics. Octavia Hill helped organize the movement in London, where she gathered poets, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editors, and other intellectuals and artists. The Association was also comprised of local leaders; its tireless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secretary was the heir to an area shoe manufactory. Soon the group was claiming several thousand members. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is no doubt that more modest members of the local community were passionate about preserving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirlmere, but the documentary evidence preserves an elite and middle class membership profile.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Association charged that Manchester sought to ?vandalise? a wild and picturesque landscape, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspiration of Wordsworth and his fellow Romantic poets, and England?s common heritage. The group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that the Lake District offered workingmen a unique respite from the weariness of industrial toil. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sizing up its opponents in Manchester as calculative men of business, the Association also quantified in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monetary terms the utility of the Thirlmere left as a wild lake.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those opponents in Manchester were led by the Water Committee of the Manchester Corporation. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were successful burghers, some venerable urban patriarchs. And there is some evidence that opposition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Thirlmere Defence Association united Mancusians across class lines, with support for the scheme and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ridicule of its opponents appearing in music halls and newspaper cartoons. Local newspapers and churches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rallied, too.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Advocates of the project argued that Thirlmere was of far greater value to the laborers of Manchester as pure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drink than as part of a picturesque prospect. The most humble town dwellers could have no hope of traveling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Lake District and enjoying a ramble. The water committee charged that the defenders of Thirlmere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were merely sentimental elitists, something like Wordsworth wannabes, guarding their personal playground.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?If Manchester was the icon of the Victorian future?, Professor Ritvo writes, ?the Lake District was the icon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of nature, poetry, and heritage? \(p. 4\). And so the battle between rival symbols was fought. Ritvo tells a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic story peopled by passionate characters defending Thirlmere and others championing urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvement and the potential of technology with equal vehemence. She carefully draws these portraits, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including compelling and entertaining depictions of property owners who cleverly resisted Manchester in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to squeeze every last penny from the city.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 359.9717 640.8295 373.9637 652.7095 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6613 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the fight began, Manchester was caught on its heels. Support for the Thirlmere Defence Association )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poured in from newspaper editors around the kingdom. The issue was suddenly a national one. To the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(TDA?s delight, Parliament recognized this when it took the extraordinary step of inventing a unique select )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committee to consider the bill for authorizing the Thirlmere purchase. The committee was charged with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering whether or not the project would affect the national public interest by altering the scenery of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lake.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But though it received a good many unexpected body blows, the Manchester Corporation prevailed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fight. Manchester?s needs were evident, its action purposeful, and focus unwavering; meanwhile, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defenders of Thirlmere included self-interested landowners, local governments, preservationists, and others. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Parliamentary committee was assured that Manchester would properly compensate property owners and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be duly responsible to local governments. And though the final bill included the requirement that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester minimize the disruption of local scenery, Parliament was satisfied that transforming the lake did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not amount to defacing it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the end, Parliament was not prepared to take the drastic step of turning the Lake District into some sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national park like America?s Yellowstone created in 1872. And it was hardly prepared to halt the growth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester, on which the trade of the entire kingdom was partly dependent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Ritvo argues that the story is part of the deep history of environmentalism because its basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlines have reappeared in case after case. ?The Thirlmere debate has been replicated in controversies about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many other settings threatened with similar transformations during the last century and a quarter? \(p. 178\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Ritvo, this was the ?dawn of green?, too, because it was the first of many ?noble defeats? suffered by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(righteous but ineffective defenders of Hetch Hetchy, and suffered still today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the importance of Professor Ritvo?s book does not lie in whether or not she has identified the dawn of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern environmentalism. It is in its revelation of details about the battle over Thirlmere. It is in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminder that dissension went hand-in-hand with Victorian technological triumphalism. It is in its liberating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preservation of numerous voices that called into question the transformation of the landscape by those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privileged consumption and productivity above nearly all else.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With its clear prose and argumentation, this book is suitable for undergraduate syllabi. \(Indeed, it behooves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her colleagues to emulate Professor Ritvo?s fine writing.\) The book would be a valuable component of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of technology course or an urban history course. And sections of the book could serve a course on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of environmentalism as an important chapter on the history of early landscape preservation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 276.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 245.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 245.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On this phenomenon in British and imperial cities, see Patrick Joyce,)] TJ ET BT 395.324 245.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Rule of Freedom: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 231.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberalism and the Modern City )] TJ ET BT 221.684 231.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2003\);)] TJ ET BT 303.344 231.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chris Otter,)] TJ ET BT 360.008 231.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Victorian Eye: A Political History )] TJ ET BT 64.016 217.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Light and Vision in Britain, 1800?1910)] TJ ET BT 265.712 217.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, 2008\); John Broich, ?Engineering the Empire: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 202.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British water supply systems and colonial societies, 1850?1900?, )] TJ ET BT 379.328 202.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of British Studies )] TJ ET BT 505.340 202.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(46 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 188.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2007\), 346?65.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 140.336 188.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 140.336 187.107 m 194.324 187.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 162.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.989 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 107.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 106.083 m 240.992 106.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 107.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 93.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education Supplement)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 78.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 77.571 m 270.668 77.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 78.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 74.239 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 56.459 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 56.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/933)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 55.065 m 322.316 55.065 l S endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 140.3357 187.4215 194.3237 199.3015 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 106.3975 240.9917 118.2775 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=30573) >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 77.8855 270.6677 89.7655 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=409083) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 55.3795 322.3157 67.2595 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/933) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 436 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4849)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=30573)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.154 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=409083)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000572 00000 n 0000000654 00000 n 0000004540 00000 n 0000004649 00000 n 0000004759 00000 n 0000004868 00000 n 0000008429 00000 n 0000008557 00000 n 0000008641 00000 n 0000008725 00000 n 0000014924 00000 n 0000014954 00000 n 0000015082 00000 n 0000015118 00000 n 0000015223 00000 n 0000021889 00000 n 0000022017 00000 n 0000022072 00000 n 0000022199 00000 n 0000022300 00000 n 0000022425 00000 n 0000022541 00000 n 0000022667 00000 n 0000022762 00000 n 0000022827 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 23315 %%EOF