%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 45 0 R 55 0 R 84 0 R 101 0 R 157 0 R 199 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818150716+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818150716+01'00') /Title (A Vision of Britain Through Time) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3417 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Vision of Britain Through Time)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I recall a discussion with my supervisor at the outset of my postgraduate research about whether I should use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a database to organise my findings. I was nudged not to follow in her Linnaean footsteps with an index card )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system. Her tale of laying out thousands of cards on her office floor and connecting them with lengths of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coloured string in order to visualise linkages drove the point home. The development of database technology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has spectacularly expanded our ability to make sense of the world, and it is nothing new to observe that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applies as much to the study of the humanities and social sciences as it does to other fields.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, accurate cartography has a much older pedigree than electronic data analysis. In the 1340s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Rede, a fellow of Merton College, calculated the geographical coordinates of Oxford and, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(next decade, these measurements seem to have allowed a highly precise representation of the area around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city to be rendered in the Gough Map of Great Britain.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 296.300 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 296.300 202.905 m 310.292 202.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 310.292 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This may be said to be the earliest surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of accurate spatial mapping on this island.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(934)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 July, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paula Aucott)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Portsmouth)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portsmouth)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jackson Armstrong)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 296.2997 203.2195 310.2917 215.0995 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 10043 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 37.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The union of accurate mapping with the power of databases to categorise pieces of information ? and then to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ask complicated questions about the relationships between those pieces ? spawned Geographical Information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Systems \(GIS\). While GISs have been a very familiar tool in the geosciences since at least the 1970s, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(application to historical records and research has really only come about in the last two decades )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 495.920 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 495.920 740.307 m 509.912 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 509.912 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , as just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one aspect of a wider growth in ?digital humanities? research, evident in networks like the Alliance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Digital Humanities Organizations \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.000 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://digitalhumanities.org)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.000 711.795 m 334.016 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 337.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 351.008 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and arts-humanities.net \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.984 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.arts-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.984 711.795 m 555.980 711.795 l S BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanities.net)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 697.539 m 104.348 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 107.348 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 121.340 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The more specific field of Historical GIS has coalesced in recent years in gatherings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coordinated by the Historical GIS Research Network \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.956 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.hgis.org.uk)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.956 683.283 m 406.628 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 409.628 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 423.620 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) in the UK, and abroad in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conjunction with international humanities and social science GIS networks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is in this milieu that the Great Britain Historical GIS \(GBH-GIS\) Project \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.656 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(http://www.gbhgis.org)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.656 642.945 m 507.680 642.945 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 510.680 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 526.016 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged. The lead scholar in this project is historical geographer Dr Humphrey Southall, and since 2001 the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project has been hosted by the Department of Geography at the University of Portsmouth. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.284 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Vision of )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.284 614.433 m 524.624 614.433 l S BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain Through Time)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 600.177 m 139.364 600.177 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 142.364 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 160.700 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(hereafter)] TJ ET BT 207.332 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 290.348 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) is a web-based portal of the GBH-GIS Project. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important to be clear that this portal i)] TJ ET BT 212.336 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(s )] TJ ET BT 220.004 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a GIS in itself; rather, the GBH-GIS is what runs underneath it.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 541.964 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 541.964 585.747 m 555.956 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In July 2009 )] TJ ET BT 97.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain )] TJ ET BT 180.032 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was re-launched as a ?second edition? of the original site which first appeared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 2004, and it is this new edition that is the subject of the present review \(the older version now having been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replaced entirely\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The resources on hand are impressive. The site?s header proclaims it to be ?a vision of Britain between 1801 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 2001. Including maps, statistical trends and historical descriptions? [)] TJ ET BT 383.648 503.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sic)] TJ ET BT 396.980 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(]. The designers boast further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the site ?draws on and connects over 12 million historical facts, maps, observations and images to show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how life has changed in some 15,000 British towns and villages over the past 250+ years?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 469.064 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 469.064 473.955 m 483.056 473.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 483.056 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boggling range of information at first arrival, and this is arranged under several headings: A ?places? search )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facility,)] TJ ET BT 74.012 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sections featuring historical maps, a statistical Atlas, census reports, travel writing, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?learning resources?. Reviewing a website opens a number of possible avenues of approach, and what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows will narrate a clutch of illustrative interactions with )] TJ ET BT 322.316 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain,)] TJ ET BT 405.332 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( chiefly through these headings)] TJ ET BT 555.308 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this way, I think it is worth pointing out even comparatively minor issues of concern because evolving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(online resources such as these, unlike printed books, may still be works in progress. My intention is to offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructive criticism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Places are understood in a complicated way by this website, and an example will help to illustrate. Type the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postcode HS3 3BG into the ?places? search facility on the home page and you will be taken to the associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point location on the Isle of Harris. However, this location is not identified as within the village of Tarbert. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead you will be informed that it falls within the modern Scottish district of Eilean Siar. Now, type )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Tarbert? in to the same search facility and you will be disappointed: no such place is found. The problem is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the system is based not on a list of places, but on administrative units. The results display explains that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(searchable places from the home page are confined to a short-list ?of the main towns, villages and localities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Britain which we have kept as simple as possible?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 290.648 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 290.648 248.115 m 304.640 248.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 304.640 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This simplified list, in turn, is derived from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying GIS of administrative units \(hereafter AUs\). Thus, for someone searching for Tarbert, Harris, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closest place findable from the home page search is in fact Stornoway, Lewis. This will seem a rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterintuitive and roundabout approach for those users more familiar with searching in various online )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(street map programmes. However, that said, for more populous regions, smaller places are findable in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplified search: Bradfield, Essex, or Castle Rising, Norfolk, by way of example.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conceptually, the GBH-GIS is based on an ?administrative unit ontology? which is restricted by its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition: the system is a virtual construction of the geographical entities which are legally defined as units )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of governmental administration, both current and historical. The major source used for these units in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England at least is Youngs' )] TJ ET BT 167.168 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England)] TJ ET BT 415.508 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Royal Historical Society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1979 and 1991\). A great advantage of working with AUs is that it allows relevant governmental and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(data and statistics to be linked to the geographical entity in question, such as a county or parish. A great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disadvantage is the cumbersome place search mechanism just described. Moreover, there is no ability to go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the scaffolding of governmental AUs, to look at less-clearly defined entities, for instance regions like )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 495.9197 740.6215 509.9117 752.5015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 202.9997 712.1095 334.0157 723.9895 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://digitalhumanities.org/) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 476.9837 712.1095 555.9797 723.9895 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.arts-humanities.net/) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 697.8535 104.3477 709.7335 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.arts-humanities.net/) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 294.9557 683.5975 406.6277 695.4775 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.hgis.org.uk/) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.6557 643.0855 507.6797 654.9655 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.gbhgis.org/) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 468.2837 614.5735 524.6237 626.4535 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 600.3175 139.3637 612.1975 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/) >> endobj 36 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 541.9637 586.0615 555.9557 597.9415 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 469.0637 474.2695 483.0557 486.1495 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 290.6477 248.4295 304.6397 260.3095 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R 50 0 R 53 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 8871 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Midlands, the Home Counties, the West Country, or Scotland?s Central Belt. What is more, there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real explanation or discussion of what )] TJ ET BT 219.320 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 299.336 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( means by ?place?, as a type of geographical entity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Places seem to be defined by the AU ontology, but it would be helpful to find comment on how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying GIS understands and identifies places \(and locations\), for instance to compile the simplified short-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(list just mentioned.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.696 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.696 738.051 m 139.688 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The results display for a failed search offers a clear explanation of alternative options: a search for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Bermondsey?, for instance, will suggest a direct search of the site?s gazetteer of AUs, noting the existence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the rural deanery of Bermondsey \(within the archdeaconry of Southwark\), and the sanitary district of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same name \(within London\). It will also suggest a direct search of the digitised text of three nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century descriptive gazetteers. These are Wilson's )] TJ ET BT 276.440 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Gazetteer of England & Wales)] TJ ET BT 468.092 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1872\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bartholomew's )] TJ ET BT 109.172 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gazetteer of the British Isles)] TJ ET BT 246.500 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1887\), and Groome's )] TJ ET BT 356.972 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1885\). I believe the first two of these are digitised by )] TJ ET BT 295.304 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 375.320 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for the first time, but the latter ? still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a standard reference work ? has previously been digitised by the online Gazetteer for Scotland \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/scotgaz)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 597.747 m 191.324 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 194.324 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 208.316 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). These historical gazetteers are a major source of information on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(site, yet they seem to be an add-on feature; not part of the AU ontology, but linked to it. Their inclusion is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicative of the designers? need to provide some basis for detailed place-name searching. Not many visitors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will automatically think to look for the name of an urban sanitary district. Yet even the links between these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical gazetteers and the AU ontology can prove cumbersome: Whereas a search for ?Cardiff? \(in head )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, anywhere in Britain\), returns two hits both linked to the corresponding AU of Glamorgan, the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Wetheral? returns a further pair of hits, but only one correctly puts this place in the AU of the pre-1889 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient county of Cumberland, the other puts it in Northumberland. It seems that this confusion is due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations of the textual mark-up which has misinterpreted part of the entry in Wilson?s )] TJ ET BT 461.972 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Gazetteer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A final point on places in )] TJ ET BT 158.672 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain:)] TJ ET BT 242.684 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the website hardly confines its AU ontology to Great Britain. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather, a search for ?Tarbert? in the historical gazetteers returns four hits, one of which is for Tarbert in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kerry, Ireland. Pursuing the AU hierarchy into which this place is tied through the unit history link, reveals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only that some statistical material \(more on this below\) is incorporated for Ireland before 1922, but that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland and the UK are both AUs within ?The Isles?, which is within ?Europe?, which in turn is within ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World? ? the system?s ultimate root unit. Europe is then broken down into 9 continental organisation AUs, 6 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sub-continent AUs \(including The Isles\), and 107 state-level AUs. All of these break down further: The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future ambitions and possibilities for the GBH-GIS Project seem global in scale. Yet all this, and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationale, is not made plain to the visitor. It would seem that this is indicative of a more fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(haziness of purpose and coherence in the scope of this resource, a point to which I shall return.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 114.032 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( presents plenty of historical maps. These are furnished in two ways. Oddly prominent on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the home page is a link to another website produced by the GBH-GIS Project, entitled the ?Land of Britain?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That external site assembles land use surveys from the 1930s to the 1990s and presents layer-able maps of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these surveys along with other maps for the Brighton and Hove area as an exemplar. This is certainly an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting enterprise, but it remains an unfinished aside, ?just a demonstration of what could be done? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 529.280 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 529.280 245.859 m 543.272 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 543.272 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it is not clear why this link should be given such prominence on the main site. The other \(and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant\) way is the historical mapping section of )] TJ ET BT 285.992 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 366.008 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( itself. This offers a selection of map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series supplied by repositories like the British Library, the National Library of Scotland, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Environment Agency. Included are three land use surveys \(from the 1920s to the 1940s\), thirteen British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundary series \(Ordnance Survey and Boundary Commission Reports from 1803 to 1949\), and ten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topographical series \(certain Ordnance Survey series from 1805 to 1948, and British War Office Maps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covering Europe from the 1940s and 1950s\). Again, a rationale for the European maps is not given, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless the cartographical feast is wonderful. Individual sheets covering particular areas can be visually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selected from a simple ?index? map \(provided by )] TJ ET BT 273.968 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(OpenStreetMap\),)] TJ ET BT 356.948 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and then opened in a new viewing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(window which is very useable. All maps are ?slippy?, that is, with the ability to pan just by grabbing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sliding the image. It is all too easy to get distracted for hours on end simply browsing this visual collection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Census reports, dating from 1801 to 1961, are another main feature of the site. These are not the census data )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for individuals, but the information published in the aggregate reports. The full text of selected abstracts, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.6957 738.3655 139.6877 750.2455 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 598.0615 191.3237 609.9415 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/scotgaz) >> endobj 52 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 529.2797 246.1735 543.2717 258.0535 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 58 0 R 61 0 R 64 0 R 67 0 R 70 0 R 73 0 R 76 0 R 79 0 R 82 0 R ] /Contents 56 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Length 9708 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preliminary reports, and general reports for England and Wales is made available and searchable. Helpfully, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the text of )] TJ ET BT 85.676 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guide to Census Reports: Great Britain 1801?1966)] TJ ET BT 355.340 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1977\) is also presented. The real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substance of this part of the site is in the selected tables supplying data from these reports, typically covering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population and households. This is a potentially valuable single-stop collection of empirical data for a social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science researcher. Unfortunately, it is not very clear exactly what is actually available. Tables in a number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of reports appear to be listed, but without any data supplied \(for example, ?Population Tables I? from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1851 Census )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.684 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.684 709.539 m 112.676 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 112.676 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , Table 3 ?Population, Acreage, Private Families and Dwellings? for Berkshire from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1921 Census )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.684 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.684 695.283 m 112.676 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 112.676 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , or any data at all for the 1939 national registration reports )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.960 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.960 695.283 m 421.952 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.952 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , to name just a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacunae\). Yet a user may learn from filled tables that there were 47,341 private households in Flintshire in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1961 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 61.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 61.016 666.771 m 81.008 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 81.008 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , or read the report on the occupations of the blind in 1891.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.628 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.628 666.771 m 390.620 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 114.032 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( uses the census data as a major component of its statistical Atlas. It is these statistics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pinned to different AUs which are really the original core of the GBH-GIS, so the authors explain.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 506.588 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 506.588 626.259 m 526.580 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Statistical information across ten themes is projected on to a standard map of Britain, which colour-codes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(but does not label\) the different AUs for which data is reported. Other sources here include measures like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys of schools, and censuses of religion and agriculture, but it is not clear exactly from where the data )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for particular statistical maps are drawn, a major limitation for academic and other research users. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information is very much about historical human geography: Themes cover population, industry, social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure, language and learning, agriculture and land use, births and deaths, employment and poverty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housing, roots and religion, and political life. One can call up a projection for different years of sheep per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acre by Scottish county )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 149.336 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 149.336 512.211 m 169.328 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 169.328 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , or of male unemployment.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 305.648 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 305.648 512.211 m 325.640 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 325.640 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is here that comparisons can be drawn with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 114.032 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s American cousin, )] TJ ET BT 214.676 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Explorer)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 293.336 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 293.336 497.955 m 313.328 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 313.328 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a demographics website presenting aggregated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(U.S. census data through online map projections. The free edition of )] TJ ET BT 365.300 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Explorer)] TJ ET BT 440.960 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( compares favourably in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of its usability \(for example, its labelled base map does not change with each projection, unlike the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maps in )] TJ ET BT 74.684 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 154.700 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which may frequently include blank areas in the map where no data exist, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tends to distort\). In its favour, )] TJ ET BT 180.008 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 260.024 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides analytical discussions of varying length \(never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than a few paragraphs\) appended to most statistical maps, which offer helpful context and explanation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the most interesting aspect of the statistical Atlas is the inclusion of election results and voter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turnout data under the ?political life? theme. This is a major new addition to the re-launched site. These data )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are for all general elections and by-elections to the UK Parliament since 1833. A brief synopsis of each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election and pie charts for votes and seats are provided. Elections data is linked to particular AUs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representing parliamentary constituencies, and can be approached in two ways: either from the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elections page for a national overview \(projecting voting patterns just as on the statistical maps\), or through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historical statistics linked to a particular constituency. The first way will clearly be a useful tool for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching. There are pie charts of aggregate data for votes and seats won by each party, and the map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projections are a ready means of illustrating voting patterns across Great Britain as, for example, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general elections of 1979, 1983, 1987 and 1992, when Scotland?s Central Belt maintained a strong Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vote, by contrast with fluctuating Tory success elsewhere in Scotland. Equally, a strongly Liberal vote in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eastern Scotland throughout the 19th century is readily visualised. In the second approach to this data, charts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be displayed for a given constituency, for instance to show the percentage of the vote going to nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties in Aberdeen North since the 1940s, compared with the rest of Great Britain. These charts are clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and usable, with the major exception that the colour contrast between the trend-lines is a very subtle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference between two shades of red. Two distinct primary colours would make things much more readable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of more significant concern is that, for the 19th-century elections data, it is unclear whether Ireland is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included in the aggregate results.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quite unrelated to the rest of the website?s largely statistical focus is a significant section on travel writing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The text of publications by 16 well-known travellers \(including William Camden, Celia Fiennes, Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wesley, and William Cobbett\), accompanied by a selection of six 19th-century ?artisans and agitators? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Feargus O?Connor the best known among them\) is presented. It is a collection that continues to grow ? four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the former writers were added only in December 2009. The journals of James Boswell and Samuel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johnson are indications of the wide geographical coverage achieved here but, in terms of temporal depth, the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 57 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.6837 709.8535 112.6757 721.7335 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.6837 695.5975 112.6757 707.4775 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 63 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 401.9597 695.5975 421.9517 707.4775 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 66 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 61.0157 667.0855 81.0077 678.9655 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 69 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.6277 667.0855 390.6197 678.9655 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 72 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 74 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 506.5877 626.5735 526.5797 638.4535 ] >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 75 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 149.3357 512.5255 169.3277 524.4055 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 78 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 305.6477 512.5255 325.6397 524.4055 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 81 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 293.3357 498.2695 313.3277 510.1495 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 87 0 R 90 0 R 93 0 R 96 0 R 99 0 R ] /Contents 85 0 R >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Length 8960 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only medieval traveller to be included is Gerald of Wales. In total, thirteen of these travellers date from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century or earlier, and so a question may be asked about the extent to which this content really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suits the heading ?a vision of Britain between 1801 and 2001?. What has been done with these travel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts is no small piece of work. They have been marked-up so that place-names appearing in the text are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in most cases\) linked to existing places or AUs within the system. A small map beside the text highlights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlabelled places that are mentioned \(a click takes you to the occurrence in the text\). A click on the place-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name takes you to the relevant page for the place or AU elsewhere in )] TJ ET BT 368.588 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain.)] TJ ET BT 451.604 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Certainly this makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading travel accounts a potentially rich visual experience, and a distracting one, and it demonstrates what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the site is capable of. One wonders about the possibility in future incarnations for a facility by which users )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might import their own text, and have this automatically marked-up and linked into the system?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final content link from the home page is to a section called ?learning resources?, which is a collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four animated tutorials to introduce the topics of travel writing, land use surveys, franchise reform and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing constituencies, and a history of census taking. These are helpful overviews of aspects of the site?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contents, directed at a non-specialist audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whom the designers intend as their audience is a good question, and this speaks to wider issues. The site?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(FAQ states that it is ?intended mainly for a very wide non-academic audience, whose immediate interest is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mostly in local history?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 150.020 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 150.020 542.979 m 170.012 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 170.012 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I suspect that )] TJ ET BT 239.336 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 319.352 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has a much more diverse pool of potential users )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than this, and by conceiving its audience in this way it is limiting its own utility to others. Dr Southall claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an astonishing unique user hit-rate of between 70 and 80,000 per month.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 381.632 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 381.632 514.467 m 401.624 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 401.624 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If all these are local history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthusiasts, would I be remiss to speculate that they will be most interested in the historical maps, and leave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the statistical and census data aside for social science, geography and history researchers, or policy makers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps it is political pundits, or the parties themselves, who are making most use of the electoral data, and I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have already alluded to the immediate potential of this material for teaching. There is a very wide potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience indeed, but it is perhaps also one with more diverse expectations and interests than what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designers have so far envisioned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A related point, important to bear in mind, is that this site is entirely free-access. The original site was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funded by a major grant from the National Lottery?s Big Lottery Fund, and the re-launched Vision of Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee \(JISC\), with enough support to keep it running )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until 2014. These are huge awards, the National Lottery alone supplying three-quarters of a million pounds.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 345.651 m 54.008 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Income is also generated by a modest amount of advertising, most visibly in the form of an Ads by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Google banner at the bottom of the screen, usually featuring two or three discreet links to sites of related )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest, including an ad taken out by the Liberal Democrats in the run-up to the next general election.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 522.932 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 522.932 317.139 m 542.924 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 542.924 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would not rush to condemn this mild commercial intrusion if it means that free access for a wide audience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be maintained. Even )] TJ ET BT 154.988 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Explorer)] TJ ET BT 230.648 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the US exists in two-tiers, with both a free and a subscription )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edition. It is paradoxical that, while online databases of all types have potentially democratised scholarship, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or at least access to information and source materials, they have also tended to be so expensive that only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealthy academic institutions can afford subscription fees. There is a balance to be struck here and I think )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 114.032 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is proceeding creditably.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With a huge audience and real commercial capacity, one wonders what the UK higher education funding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodies will make of a ?research output? like )] TJ ET BT 248.636 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 328.652 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the next national research census upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which state funding for university research depends. This seems to tick many boxes of the proposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Impact? category which seeks to reward scholarship that shows a wide relevance beyond academia to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy, society, public policy and culture, and other areas.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 325.292 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 325.292 148.323 m 345.284 148.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 345.284 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Perhaps more to the point, how would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 114.032 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( stand up to actual scrutiny by research assessment panels? If this is not a clear example of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the proposed category of ?Impact?, then what is? Yet even so, the problems with potential assessment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criteria for this category are clear: beyond total user numbers alone, how can the way this resource is used be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated? To what extent is the ?Impact? of )] TJ ET BT 270.632 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 350.648 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( spontaneous, or actually intended by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(design team? It remains to be seen whether this website will bring its host institution its virtual weight in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gold, or whether this is the sort of ?output? that university research committees across the land will be keen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to foster. William Rede was, after all, not just an isolated medieval scholar: He was a bishop, a doctor of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 86 0 obj [84 0 R /Fit] endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 88 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 150.0197 543.2935 170.0117 555.1735 ] >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 89 0 obj [84 0 R /Fit] endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 91 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 381.6317 514.7815 401.6237 526.6615 ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 92 0 obj [84 0 R /Fit] endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 94 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 345.9655 54.0077 357.8455 ] >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 95 0 obj [84 0 R /Fit] endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 97 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 522.9317 317.4535 542.9237 329.3335 ] >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 98 0 obj [84 0 R /Fit] endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 100 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 325.2917 148.6375 345.2837 160.5175 ] >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 104 0 R 107 0 R 109 0 R 111 0 R 113 0 R 115 0 R 117 0 R 119 0 R 121 0 R 123 0 R 125 0 R 127 0 R 129 0 R 131 0 R 133 0 R 135 0 R 137 0 R 139 0 R 141 0 R 143 0 R 145 0 R 147 0 R 149 0 R 151 0 R 153 0 R 155 0 R ] /Contents 102 0 R >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Length 12176 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology, a pioneering astronomer, a parliamentarian, and a creditor to the king.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.608 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.608 795.075 m 437.600 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By way of drawing this together, I am left uncertain of whether )] TJ ET BT 340.952 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 420.968 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a scholarly digital source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edition \(and a collection of divergent types of sources at that\), or a virtual reference library built upon its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own catalogue. This is an impressive array of material, for the greater part attractively presented, and there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis, although it is scattered. Undeniably )] TJ ET BT 251.996 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 332.012 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a stunning illustration of the major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technical achievement of the GBH-GIS Project team in linking a number of visual and textual sources into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an overarching database, and presenting it all in an accessible way. Yet, this user is left with uncertainty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about what pulls all the diverse information here together. Election results, travel writing, land use maps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographical statistics, and more; despite the claim that this is ?a national resource for local history? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 527.612 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 527.612 669.027 m 547.604 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 547.604 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is a lack of overall coherence and purpose ? I think the hidden hierarchy of European states and sub-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(units highlights the grounds for this more fundamental hesitation most clearly. Yet as I said above, this is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a review of a book, and a book might more fairly be subjected to such criticisms about coherence. Perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the real limitation is the extent to which users are allowed to define their own data selections, rather than pull )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from an off-the-shelf range. If the statistics and maps supplied by the site are to be used in a really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaningful way by academic researchers, students, or policy makers, for example, then there should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope to manipulate the AUs from which particular data are derived. In this way, custom regions could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined by users to conduct their own analyses. If a web-based resource like )] TJ ET BT 402.584 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Britain)] TJ ET BT 482.600 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s strength is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its ability to escape the constraints of coherence, then it will really come into its own is when it allows its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(users to define their own terms of coherence, and make of it what they will. It is in such unintended and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult-to-measure impacts where the value of scholarship is always found.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.707 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nick Millea, ?Britain's first road map?, )] TJ ET BT 254.816 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Today)] TJ ET BT 321.812 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 18 \(2006\) <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.oxfordtoday.ox.ac.uk/2005-06/v18n2/08.shtml)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 432.435 m 345.680 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 348.680 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 362.672 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 10 March 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 501.728 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 501.728 432.435 m 555.716 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See )] TJ ET BT 84.344 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Science History)] TJ ET BT 192.992 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 24, 3 \(2000\), special issue on ?Historical GIS: the Spatial Turn in Social )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Science History?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.664 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.664 403.923 m 202.652 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See also I. N. Gregory, C. Bennett, V. L. Gilham and H. R. Southall, ?The Great Britain Historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(GIS Project: from maps to changing human geography?, )] TJ ET BT 338.312 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cartographic Journal)] TJ ET BT 464.984 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 39, 1 \(2002\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(37?49; H. R. Southall, ?A vision of Britain through time: making sense of 200 years of census )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reports?, )] TJ ET BT 108.668 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Local Population Studies)] TJ ET BT 230.012 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 76 \(2006\), 76?84.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.332 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.332 346.899 m 375.320 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Media Resources area <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.744 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.gbhgis.org)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.744 332.643 m 288.416 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 291.416 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 305.408 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 10 March 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 444.464 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 444.464 332.643 m 498.452 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.784 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://vision.port.ac.uk/place/place_not_found_page.jsp?st=tarbert&from=match_page)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.784 318.387 m 486.932 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 489.932 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET BT 509.924 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([accessed 10 March 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.304 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.304 304.131 m 247.292 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, see the off-site comment by Dr Southall about these matters at: <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin?A2=ind0909&L=GBHGIS&T=0&F=&S=&P=53)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 275.619 m 527.636 275.619 l S 0.000 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