%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 31 0 R 36 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723160341+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723160341+01'00') /Title (Cold War Kitchen: Americanization, Technology and European Users) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4181 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Cold War Kitchen: Americanization, Technology and European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Users)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How many of us would happily make do without a fully equipped modern kitchen ? even if it sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beats like a transplanted artificial heart at the centre of an artisan cottage stripped back to its original organic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(floorboards and fireplace? Some might take this present-day dependence as testament to the irresistible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal of American domestic technology, an appeal that guaranteed its spread during the second half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th century. If any find this story plausible, they would do well to study this handsomely produced and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-illustrated edited collection on the attempted transfer of the American ?modern kitchen? to Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the early Cold War period of the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the outset, editors Oldenziel and Zachmann position themselves at the cutting edge of the historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of technology. Following Langdon Winner?s classic lead )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 311.312 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 311.312 124.497 m 325.304 124.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 325.304 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, they see politics as embodied in the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kitchen, helping to bolster traditional women?s roles at time of challenge by feminism and other historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces. Rebutting any presumed unilinear account of the transatlantic diffusion of this particular set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovations, they define the modern kitchen as a culturally and ideologically laden technological artefact in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its own right ? one moreover that needs to be set within an array of large technological systems: electrical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grids, gas networks, water systems and the integrated food and transport chain. They insist that a ?host of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(935)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 July, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Oldenziel)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karin Zachmann)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780262151191)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(424pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MIT Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colin Chant)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 311.3117 124.8115 325.3037 136.6915 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8437 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social actors? shape all these technological components: ?kitchens are as deeply social as they are political? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 3\). They invite us to view the kitchen as a ?mediation junction? between producers and consumers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extending Ruth Schwartz Cowan?s influential call to attend to the ?consumption junction? in any analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social relations of a given artefact.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 216.968 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 216.968 752.307 m 230.960 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 230.960 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the work as a whole there are frequent citations of the notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?co-construction? of artefacts by producers and users, an analytical framework introduced by Oudshoorn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Pinch )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 84.680 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 84.680 723.795 m 98.672 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 98.672 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and also references to Madeleine Akrich?s concept of ?scripts? of users embodied in artefacts )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 709.539 m 48.008 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and Steve Woolgar?s idea of the ?configured user?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.604 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.604 709.539 m 315.596 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 315.596 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The contributors also explore intersecting planes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of analysis that are specific to the chosen topic. They examine the Cold War geopolitical confrontation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the United States and the Soviet Union ? in particular, the ideological debate over the economic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social significance of consumer goods. Cutting across the superpower divide, they also distinguish between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the market-driven US approach to housing provision and more state-led European solutions to their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war housing crisis, on either side of the Iron Curtain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The substantive chapters break much new geographic ground: in addition to studies on the Netherlands, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two German states and the UK, they reach out to the relatively unexplored periphery of Greater Europe: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Finland in the north down though the Eurasian hybrids Russia and Turkey to Yugoslavia. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters are organized into four sections. The first focuses on the presentation of a range of US exhibits ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model kitchens, a model home and supermarket ? at a variety of European trade fairs and exhibitions. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are chapters about a Dutch exhibition on ?The Atom? \(by Irene Cieraad\), and a trade fair in Zagreb \(by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shane Hamilton\), both mounted in 1957; but most attention is directed to the 1959 trade fair in Moscow?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sokolniki Park \(contributions by Greg Castillo, Cristina Carbone and Susan E Reid\). Here four model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kitchens gleamed in the American National Exhibition, which is variously likened to a ?Trojan Horse? in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Nylon War? waged by American economic and cultural imperialists against Soviet Communism. One such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kitchen was the futuristic RCA/Whirlpool ?Miracle Kitchen?; and another ? this time sponsored by General )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Electric ? was installed in the X-61 or ?Splitnik? prefabricated home. The GE kitchen was to stage a classic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold War debate between Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and US Vice-President Richard Nixon. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artefacts, and the debate they inspired, are analysed as part of an ideological struggle between the USA and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Soviet Union over the importance of consumer goods and the way of life they represented. Here the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis is on producer discourses: whether the propaganda battle among the superpowers; or US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporations? marketing strategies, which sought to establish and exploit the place of the modern kitchen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its technological content as the hub of a technical megasystem embracing refrigerated transport, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic fridges and freezers, supermarkets and private cars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second part, the authors uncover the real kitchens behind the propaganda, and weigh the contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of local users and cultures to their design and equipment. The underlying message is that the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dream kitchens on show were nothing like as influential in Europe as contemporary hype and subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconic status might suggest. Written out of a master narrative foregrounding the American ?fat kitchen? was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the European lean equivalent, notably the )] TJ ET BT 236.312 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frankfurter Kche)] TJ ET BT 326.636 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( devised by the Austrian architect Margarete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schtte-Lihotzky ? though she herself was inspired by American proponents of the scientifically managed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household, such as Lilian Gilbreth and Christine Frederick. The Frankfurt kitchen itself also turned out to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested terrain, not least in Frankfurt itself, when user behaviour failed to measure up to the rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculations of the designer/producers \(chapter by Martina Heler\). The author of this chapter also gives a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telling paragraph or two on residents? reasons for rejecting of electrical appliances: sometimes because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsatisfactory performance, but also because of the sheer cost of electricity \(p.176\). Subsequently, on its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transfer to Turkey, the modern European kitchen pitched Kemalist modernism against traditional gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roles - largely coincidentally, it was in Turkey that the Communist Schtte-Lihotzky herself found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temporary refuge from the Nazis during 1938-1940 \(contribution by Esra Ackan\). In the Netherlands, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kitchen manufacturers, with the input of user groups such as the Dutch Housewives Association and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women?s Advisory Groups on Housing, designed minimalist kitchens that were far removed from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?gadget-filled? products of American ?hedonistic corporate modernism? \(Liesbeth Bervoets\). There is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubting that the examples in this section effectively illuminate various gulfs between producer and user, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(donor and recipient, in the period of the collection; but Bervoets herself near the end of her discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentions that rising Dutch incomes led to US style mass-consumption from the 1960s. In the mind of this )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 216.9677 752.6215 230.9597 764.5015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 84.6797 724.1095 98.6717 735.9895 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 709.8535 48.0077 721.7335 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 301.6037 709.8535 315.5957 721.7335 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7701 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social historian of technology, the question therefore arose whether we need a longer perspective to make a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proper assessment of the transfer of American domestic technology to Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the second part offers a European ?counternarrative? to the American kitchen, the third ostensibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers how the American kitchen was appropriated and adapted to European contexts, and purports to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine the complexities of technology transfer. In fact, there is some blurring of the boundary between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two middle sections, and some doubt about the fulfilment of the third section?s remit. The chapters by Karin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zachmann on the GDR and Kirsi Saarikanga on Finland reinforce the conclusion of the second part that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern American kitchen was inappropriate to these national contexts, whether to the socialist ideology of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the GDR, or to established traditions of Finnish housing. Even in his piece on the relatively high-tech British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ministry of Works kitchen installed in the post-war prefab, Julian Holder argues that what was properly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British modernist design was often mistaken as American. Incidentally, like Liesbeth Bervoets in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous section, Saarikanga briefly refers to the rapidly rising adoption of domestic appliances in Finland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 1960s and 1970s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the fourth and final part, two papers by Ruth Oldenziel and Matthew Hilton in very different ways seek a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider perspective on the kitchen debate. Oldenziel?s chapter serves as skilful summing up and conclusion to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subject-matter of the volume. She easily debunks the American dream kitchen, and uncovers its main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose as a marketing tool for US corporations looking to switch from wartime to peacetime production, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and exploit European markets prepared for future profitable business by the injection of Marshall Aid. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilton?s chapter, for all its intrinsic merits, is a little harder to place for this social historian of technology, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming to the topic with some expectations ?configured? by Ruth Schwartz Cowan?s classic )] TJ ET BT 482.288 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(More Work for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mother)] TJ ET BT 69.344 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 72.344 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 72.344 485.955 m 86.336 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 86.336 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In other words, rather than extend beyond the tight focus of the collection on the Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kitchen to consumer politics in a later global context, it might have served the subject-matter better to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclude with a look ahead to the take-up of domestic appliances as wartime austerity lifted, and Europeans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took a more American consumerist path. In these changed circumstances, it would surely be of interest to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore issues tantalisingly raised in the volume. Was the modern kitchen the ?gilded cage? that some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminists saw as women were domesticated anew on the men?s return from battle? Or in a service economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that increasingly recruited women as paid employees, did the appliances of sheer necessity begin to save )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the domestic labour promised by the hype, instead of creating ?more work for mother??)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be unreasonable in view of its provenance in conference sessions and workshops, to expect a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unified view on the relations between technology and society, despite the lead given by the two editors. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professors Oldenziel and Zachmann are, it seems, the only out-and-out technology specialists among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors, the largest group being architectural by affiliation. The interdisciplinary composition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorship is a splendid thing in itself, and entirely appropriate given the chosen topic, but since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?technology? is given special emphasis, both in the title and the introduction, it seems reasonable to ask how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the collection is really about technology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To start with, the hoary question: What does ?technology? mean? If one follows the editorial lead, then the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?kitchen? in all its facets is by definition a technology, including layout and surface design \(noteworthy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this respect is the preference of the Finns for the colour white rather than blue, which had Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations\): consequently, the entire volume is about technology. The well-rehearsed problem with such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad definition ? I don?t have the answer! ? is that it tends to reduce the explanatory power of the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of technology by blurring the boundaries between technology and society. Technology in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular sense of hardware gets short shrift in many of the articles. There are exceptions, notably Karin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zachmann?s chapter on the GDR, which among other mechanical devices includes discussion of certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed East German multi-purpose kitchen machines. Another exception is Irene Cieraad?s chapter on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late inclusion of General Motors? Kitchen of Tomorrow in a Dutch exhibition of 1957 on the atom. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at last some detail offered on a kitchen exhibit, in a section titled ?Atom and Eve?, though the main thrust of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the piece is the Netherlands? shifting attitudes to American nuclear technology. Shane Hamilton?s chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Supermarket USA exhibit looks at technology in its widest sense of a technical megasystem, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis here being the contrasting motivation of the US and Yugoslav sponsors: the one seeking extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets, the other to encourage the collectivization of food production. This is story of failed aspirations, of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 72.3437 486.2695 86.3357 498.1495 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 7738 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inability of a transferred component of a technical system to conjure up the changes associated with that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system in its entirety and its homeland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The point here is not to argue for a narrow definition of technology, reducing it to machines or hardware. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is rather that in a collection on a contested technology that makes so much of its mechanical content, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might expect a bit more close description and analysis of the appliances. As it is, much of the discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the kitchen as a complex ensemble dwells on features that might be of rather more interest to my erstwhile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleagues on the )] TJ ET BT 120.332 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Design History )] TJ ET BT 248.996 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than to readers of)] TJ ET BT 332.636 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Technology and Culture)] TJ ET BT 452.300 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It is at times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to avoid the conclusion that some of the contributors regard the mechanical content of the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kitchen as a little unworthy of critical, historical analysis. At any rate, many seem happy to echo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Khrushchev?s ideologically-heavy disparagement of American domestic appliances, in his historic debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Nixon, as ?gadgets?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The historian of technology is likely to note that two programmatic approaches to the technology studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent times helped beget this stimulating and valuable collection. First, it adds to MIT Press?s prestigious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and by now voluminous and wide-ranging ?Inside Technology? series, under the general editorship of Wiebe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E Bijker, W Bernard Carlson and Trevor Pinch. Bijker and Pinch were the founders of the )] TJ ET BT 469.268 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(construction of technology)] TJ ET BT 162.008 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( tradition that took off in the mid-1980s. The bugbear of social constructionists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was ?technological determinism?: that is, grandiose claims or assumptions that technological innovations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have acted as the main driver of historical progress.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.624 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.624 528.723 m 295.616 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 295.616 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Whether in their actual or presumed guises, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technological determinists enjoined the view that social changes have their roots in the ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autonomous realms of science and technology. It was this supposed autonomy that social constructionism set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out to refute: and indeed, it got right ?inside technology? to do so. For social constructionists science and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology are essentially social in nature. Any technological artefact or design is always the outcome of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiations between the social groups that produced or used it. The finalizing or ?closure? a given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology results from the resolution of these groups? varying interests. Thus, the innovations that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technological determinists privilege in their historical explanations are themselves the product of prior social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A contingent feature of social constructionism has been the aspiration to consider technology from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumers? rather than the producers? perspective \(Oudshoorn and Pinch, 2003\) ? contingent, because one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could, as perhaps some did in the early days, have a social constructionist view of technology that privileged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful social actors, and portrayed the consumer as generally impotent and manipulated. The editors make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it clear that the kitchen is ?ideal entry point? for this kind of analysis. This is laudable and often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlightening - but \(to play devil?s advocate\) might the project be tinged with optimism about consumer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power to shape artefacts? The ambition to unmask technological determinism as an ideological construct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended to render the user/consumer uncritical of the controlling/manipulating agendas of producers is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(salutary; however, overplaying consumer power could have a similar masking function. Perhaps technology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialists need to encourage users to be more critical of the powerful sponsors of technology, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrate their unsuspected contributions \(a rather old devil?s advocate here, it might be thought\). To be fair, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the editors recognize that the power of consumer representatives is very much a contingent feature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of the kitchen in the period and space considered in the volume, and at times question whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposed user representatives really do represent all users. As Oudshoorn and Pinch make clear, there has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been much debate of late about the balance of power between producers and users in the shaping of artefacts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with fears again raised by the spectre of technological determinism. These are somewhat misplaced fears in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the opinion of this reviewer, as the meaning of the term is thereby shifted to autonomous technology \(one its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premises\) - in any case, shouldn?t autonomous technology be beyond the control of its producers, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its users?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One wonders to what extent the viability of the ?co-construction? model adopted by some of the contributors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relies on the choice of suitably supportive examples. How well does it apply in other technological domains? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One thinks of military technologies, large civil engineering projects, and so on. Even in this collection, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which surely has homed in on a very fruitful technology, period and location for user-producer analysis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are real doubts implicitly raised in Karin Zachmann?s chapter on the GDR as to whether ?co-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 281.6237 529.0375 295.6157 540.9175 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 7674 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction? can be applied when users have so little say in the production of artefacts ? and Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zachmann speaks with considerable authority, not just as a historian of technology, but also \(I understand\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a citizen of the former GDR. In addition, one wonders if the user herself or himself can be a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(romanticised, or perhaps better, ?socially constructed?. In the their very helpful review of recent thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about user-producer relations, Oudshoorn and Pinch point out that the latter emphasis on the user is due in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no small part to the efforts of feminist historians and sociologists of technology to counteract the writing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technological history about, by, and for men. Such users are in clearly need of rescue; but if the project is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assert the voluntary agency of the user against the force of American corporate power as embodied in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dream kitchen, what do we then say if they acquiesce in it? If we see this as a weak submission to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seductions of technology as corporations cleverly ?fan consumer desire?, is there not the risk of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ontological and moral double standard? Is there some beatification of the user and demonization of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producer implicit in the analysis? This is surely very often plausible, but is it always so? One thinks, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, of well-intentioned segregation of pedestrians from potentially lethal modes of mechanized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transport, and the subsequent exploitation of underpasses and walkways by muggers and rapists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second programmatic view on the history of technology associated with this volume is the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Science Foundation?s Tensions of Europe programme on technology and the making of 20th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. Its declared starting point is that economic, social, cultural and political histories have paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inadequate attention to technology, despite its ?pivotal? role in the making of contemporary Europe. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspiration is far removed from the early days of social constructionism, and its definitive attack on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarry of technological determinism? Which programme does this collection under serve better? The choice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of subject-matter and period clearly lends itself to the social constructionism approach. It was a time when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technological hubris reigned, and producers could readily be identified as pushing economic and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests, often at odds with recipient cultural values. There was also a clear gulf between donor aspirations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and those of many European users. The general message of the collection is that the iconic American dream )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kitchen was hype. Its relatively affluent homeland failed to adopt it, and it was even less likely to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affordable, let alone culturally acceptable, in the context of a war-ravaged and ideologically divided Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? and even here, both sides arguably had more common economic and social ground than they had with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transatlantic creditor. But how much of this scenario of technological weakness and cultural power was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of timing? As argued above, a much longer historical perspective is surely needed to decide just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how much of the analysis in this collection serves a full assessment of the transfer of this set of technologies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For practitioners of the social history of technology, rather than its sociology ? or so it seems to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journeyman looking back on a couple decades of collective teaching of the subject to more than ten thousand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Open University students ? there seems in retrospect to have been a professional downside to the intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hegemony of the social shaping or social construction of technology. \(I speak here as the last, soon-to-depart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teacher of the history of technology at the Open University, whose senior policymakers have taken the view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the history of science, technology and medicine ? unlike the history of art, music, literature and religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? is insufficiently distinct from mainstream history to justify its separate existence\). It is the underlying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feeling that to emphasize the importance of technological innovation in the course of human history would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear decidedly uncool to specialists in technology studies. I suggest that this inherently modest, self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical stance has hardly helped to advance the cause of the history of technology in Britain, which already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a rather low profile with its traditional orientation to internalist accounts of hardware, industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeology and the engineering professions. It would be silly to blame this on the pioneers of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructionism, who have done so much to lift the credibility of technology studies at a time of theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ferment in history and the social sciences. That said, if historians of technology themselves have suspected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as tainted with technological determinism )] TJ ET BT 237.668 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(almost any)] TJ ET BT 290.000 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( suggestion that fundamental social and historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change might be causally linked to technological innovations, why should social, urban and other historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give them more than the customary cursory attention?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In my view, social historians of technology need to learn from the practical work and theoretical insights of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sociology of technology, and then revisit traditional technological-determinist territory. We need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcend the crudities both of technological determinism, and of wholesale accusations of technological )] TJ ET endstream endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R ] /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 6622 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determinism, and also to go beyond a preoccupation with the social relations of technology. To me, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion of the ?mutual shaping? of technology and society could help resolve the Hegelian thesis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technological determinism and the antithesis of social constructionism. Though in sore need of honing, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could well turn out to be a sharper tool of analysis than the prevailing multi-factorial contextualization. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could bring into the mix the constraints and possibilities that are surely inherent in the material reality of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology, as well as the scripts of its designers. ?Co-construction? goes some considerable way towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this goal, though the focus appears to remain on the artefact itself, rather than on its social consequences and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical significance. The concept of the ?mutual shaping? of science, technology and society is wider than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the co-construction of artefacts, and points to a synthesis in which science and technology are recognized as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being socially shaped, but would in their turn be given their due weight in explanations of subsequent social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change. The end-point could be an enriched account of the reciprocal and mutually reinforcing historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships between science, technology and social and historical change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 604.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Winner, ?Do artifacts have politics??, )] TJ ET BT 261.632 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daedalus)] TJ ET BT 307.628 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 109 \(1980\), 121?36.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 410.948 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 410.948 572.739 m 464.936 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. S. Cowan, ?The consumption junction: a proposal for research strategies in the sociology of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology?, in )] TJ ET BT 141.008 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and History of Technology)] TJ ET BT 192.344 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. W. E. Bijker, T. P. Hughes and T. Pinch \(Cambridge, MA, 1987\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(261?80.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2 \))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 515.715 m 159.332 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(How Users Matter: the Co-construction of Users and Technology)] TJ ET BT 379.328 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. N. Oudshoorn and T. Pinch )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, MA, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.668 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3 \))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.668 487.203 m 240.656 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Akrich, ?The de-scription of technical objects?, in )] TJ ET BT 324.296 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shaping Technology/Building Society: Studies )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Sociotechnical Change)] TJ ET BT 187.340 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. W. E. Bijker and J. Law \(Cambridge, MA\), pp. 205?44.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.628 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4 \))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.628 458.691 m 535.616 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Woolgar ?Configuring the user: the case of usability trials?, in )] TJ ET BT 378.980 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Sociology of Monsters: essays on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(power, technology and domination)] TJ ET BT 231.344 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. Law \(London, 1991\), pp. 57?99.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.316 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5 \))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.316 430.179 m 478.304 430.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 417.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. S. Cowan, )] TJ ET BT 130.688 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(More Work for Mother: the Ironies of Household Consumption from the Open Hearth to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Microwave)] TJ ET BT 135.668 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1983\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 253.304 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6 \))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 253.304 401.667 m 310.292 401.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 388.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Does Technology Drive History? The Dilemma of Technological Determinism)] TJ ET BT 439.976 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. M. R. Smith and L. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx \(Cambridge, MA, 1994\); L. A. White, )] TJ ET BT 279.320 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Evolution of Culture: the Development of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civilization to the Fall of Rome)] TJ ET BT 215.696 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1959\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 333.332 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7 \))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 333.332 358.899 m 390.320 358.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 334.037 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 315.055 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 297.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 297.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/935)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 295.881 m 322.316 295.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 270.904 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4858)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.104 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 410.9477 573.0535 464.9357 584.9335 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.3437 516.0295 159.3317 527.9095 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 183.6677 487.5175 240.6557 499.3975 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.6277 459.0055 535.6157 470.8855 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 421.3157 430.4935 478.3037 442.3735 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 253.3037 401.9815 310.2917 413.8615 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 333.3317 359.2135 390.3197 371.0935 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 296.1955 322.3157 308.0755 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/935) >> endobj xref 0 61 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000670 00000 n 0000004903 00000 n 0000005012 00000 n 0000005122 00000 n 0000005231 00000 n 0000008792 00000 n 0000008920 00000 n 0000009004 00000 n 0000009033 00000 n 0000009161 00000 n 0000009197 00000 n 0000009302 00000 n 0000017792 00000 n 0000017822 00000 n 0000017950 00000 n 0000017986 00000 n 0000018016 00000 n 0000018142 00000 n 0000018178 00000 n 0000018208 00000 n 0000018334 00000 n 0000018370 00000 n 0000018400 00000 n 0000018528 00000 n 0000018564 00000 n 0000018648 00000 n 0000026402 00000 n 0000026432 00000 n 0000026558 00000 n 0000026594 00000 n 0000026678 00000 n 0000034469 00000 n 0000034499 00000 n 0000034627 00000 n 0000034663 00000 n 0000034728 00000 n 0000042455 00000 n 0000042588 00000 n 0000049263 00000 n 0000049391 00000 n 0000049446 00000 n 0000049574 00000 n 0000049629 00000 n 0000049757 00000 n 0000049812 00000 n 0000049940 00000 n 0000049995 00000 n 0000050123 00000 n 0000050178 00000 n 0000050306 00000 n 0000050361 00000 n 0000050489 00000 n 0000050544 00000 n 0000050672 00000 n trailer << /Size 61 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 50767 %%EOF