%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721235718+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721235718+01'00') /Title (History of Islam in German Thought: From Leibniz to Nietzsche) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4494 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(History of Islam in German Thought: From Leibniz to Nietzsche)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the book about German Orientalism I felt I could not and did not want to write, and I am very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grateful to Ian Almond for having produced it. In a series of eight chapters, Almond, a professor of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Georgia State University and author of three other books on related topics, discusses sequentially the place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Islam in the works of leading German philosophers and poets from about 1680 to 1890. Very welcome are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Almond?s in-depth treatments of German thinkers ? famously excluded from Edward Said?s )] TJ ET BT 481.940 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Orientalism)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 542.276 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 542.276 229.161 m 556.268 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? and his reflections on their sources; he has wisely chosen to focus, too, on the German reception of Islam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Ottoman Empire, the part of the Orient that was most difficult for all Europeans to romanticize. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Almond also reminds his readers frequently of the changing nature of European-Ottoman relationships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against which works like Leibniz?s )] TJ ET BT 206.324 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thoughts on the Unfortunate Retreat from Hungary)] TJ ET BT 454.988 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1683\) were written. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All of these things make Almond?s book an important contribution to ongoing debates about the continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(validity of Said?s model, while his deep knowledge of the writings of all of these well-studied figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Leibniz, Kant, Herder, Friedrich Schlegel, Hegel, Goethe, Marx, Nietzsche\) make the book an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and profitable read. It is the first step, though not an entirely unproblematic one, toward a new understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of European-Asian cultural encounters in the era of )] TJ ET BT 283.280 102.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European)] TJ ET BT 330.608 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, rather than Ottoman or Chinese, empire-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers who are primarily interested in one or another of these figures can easily turn to the relevant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(939)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 July, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Almond)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978-0415995191)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(66.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(216pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suzanne Marchand)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 542.2757 229.4755 556.2677 241.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8047 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, and find therein a careful and concise discussion of the ways in which Goethe or Marx wrote about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Islamic world. But for the reader more interested in the general topic of Orientalism, certainly most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important part of the book is Almond?s brief introduction. Here the author discusses the process by which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandoned his original plan, provoked by Said?s critique of Europe?s ?discourse on the Orient?, ?to write a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the demonization of Islam in mainstream German thought? \(p. 1; we will leave aside for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment the question of what ?mainstream? might mean here\). Almond had to give up the demonization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative, first of all, in the face of ?the truly bewildering variety of responses in one thinker to the faith and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures of Islam, responses which were so zigzagging and contradictory in nature that I was forced to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rethink not merely the book, but my entire concept of what an ?author? is? \(p. 1\). Secondly, his original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision was complicated by the realization that the ?big thinkers? drew upon works by historians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philologists some of whom, rather than devoting themselves to defaming the Muslim world, ?dedicated their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(energies to correcting European images of the Turk with volume after volume of translated Turkish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings? \(p. 2\). Sometimes the philosophers took this Islamophilic scholarship into account; more often, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author admits at the book?s close, they ?tried hard not to think about Muslims at all? \(p. 166\). Almond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that we can no longer claim, as did Said, that ??What Orientalists ? made available, the literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowd exploited?? \(p. 84\). Rather, we have here to do with the development of compartmentalized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjectivities \(to which I will return below\) and what he calls ?a filtered Orient? \(p. 3\), a series of images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced as the German elite ?sifted through a variety of Orientalia, taking the nuggets they needed but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either overlooking or consciously rejecting anything which conflicted with their requirements? \(p. 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I like very much the idea of a ?filtered Orient,? a conception that takes into account German thinkers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(openness to non-European cultures, as well as their continuing and undigested prejudices, and their willful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disregard of evidence, and thus makes it possible to escape the Saidian notion that before the 1970s, no one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was able to think outside his or her continental box. As critiques of the Saidian paradigm now make it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtually impossible to uphold, this may well be the best over-arching concept now available for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the great variety of European engagements with the cultures, histories and languages of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vast region to Europe?s East. But we need to figure out how, for Almond, this filtering process works, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what it is that is actually being filtered. A clue here comes only in the final pages, where Almond says that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his book has tried ?to provide an idea of how a history of German thought might look to a Muslim observer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? more specifically, to an observer who was only interested in how their [sic] own culture and faith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced, featured in and interacted with the German philosophical tradition? \(pp. 165?6\). This imaginary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observer, moreover, is clearly presumed to be one who believes, as does Almond, that his Ottoman Empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is ?every bit as complex and tolerant? and we might add, industrialized and democratic, as the Europe of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day. And Almond seems to want to find this relativistic treatment of the Islamic world in sympathetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgments of that world )] TJ ET BT 152.012 314.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(as a whole. )] TJ ET BT 209.348 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The upshot of these assumptions is that negative statements ?including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comments about Ottoman ?decadence?, ?backwardness?, or ?barbarism? ? even when they are addressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only to )] TJ ET BT 70.688 285.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(parts )] TJ ET BT 98.360 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Islamic world, are treated as effects of the filtering devices, as mere prejudice. But what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if we note that European philosophers regularly made critical indictments of the ?backwardness?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?decadence?, or ?barbarism? of some aspects of their own or neighboring states? \(Has anyone read recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what Marx said about the Czar, or Schopenhauer about the Catholic Church, or Max Nordau about Ibsen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plays?\) Then we could conclude that some, at least, thought some parts of the European world ?every bit as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degenerate and bigoted? as the Ottoman Empire ? or simply that intellectuals tend to be critical of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural worlds around them. What, moreover, if we acknowledge that some of their ?prejudices? about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman world might have )] TJ ET BT 166.676 185.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(some)] TJ ET BT 191.336 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( basis in reality?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This would be a tricky, and possibly politically uncomfortable \(if not ?incorrect?\) thing to do; one could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juxtapose, for example, 19th-century Istanbul and Naples, or Cairo and Marseilles, and produce a picture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equivalent Ottoman and European modernities. Certainly, one doesn?t want to overstate European toleration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or even generalize about it as a whole; Czar Nicholas I was more despotic than his contemporary Sultans, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mahmud II and Abdlmecid I, and even English liberals often held racist views about Jews, Africans, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Catholics. Indeed, rather ironically, )] TJ ET BT 231.980 88.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(actual)] TJ ET BT 261.980 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Turkish visitors to Europe were by no means insensible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the forms of ?backwardness?, ?decadence?, or ?barbarity? abroad in the Muslim world \(though they would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have identified different sources or causes of these things\). Many of them ? like Enver Pasha, or Osman )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8295 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamdi Bey, for example ? were themselves extremely critical of Islam, and of modern Turkish culture, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eager to learn how to modernize their military, medical and cultural institutions by modeling them on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European equivalents. But Almond has not studied these visitors, and it seems as if he would rather not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention that in the Ottoman lands, there )] TJ ET BT 230.672 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(were)] TJ ET BT 254.000 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also periodic stabbings in the seraglio, sultans with multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wives, massacres of Christians, financial chaos; nor does it seem that he really takes on board the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the Orientalist literature )] TJ ET BT 194.324 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did)] TJ ET BT 209.660 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have unpleasant things to say about Islam and the Ottomans, not all of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them accurate or consistent with one another! One wishes Almond had introduced into his book a little of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real-world perspective available in Paula Fichtner?s study of early modern Austrian Orientalism, )] TJ ET BT 501.596 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Terror and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Toleration: The Habsburg Empire Confronts Islam, 1526?1850)] TJ ET BT 339.692 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.692 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.692 681.027 m 356.684 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 356.684 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Taking such a perspective would make it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible to identify critical comments as more or less well-informed generalizations or critiques, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as pure prejudice, or as deviations from a supposedly consistently Islamophilic Orientalist literature. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might even find that critiques of the Ottoman world have their roots in Ottoman subjects? own complaints, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finding that would, again, help us escape the Saidian house of mirrors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Almond?s ?imaginary Muslim observer? model, then, ends up favoring those who tended to give Islam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and/or the Ottomans a positive spin, and Europe a negative one. I found, accordingly, the chapters on Marx, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herder, Nietzsche, and to some extent, Leibniz most rich and interesting, as Almond, cutting across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saidian grain, shows how willing these writers were to praise Arab poetry or Muslim manliness \(though in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some parts, or compartments, of their works, all of these figures also drew on negative stereotypes, as did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herder, for example, in his theological works, and Marx in rendering ?the Turk? a stumbling block to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress \(p. 142\)\). Less satisfying are Almond?s chapters on Kant, Friedrich Schlegel, Goethe and Hegel, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part because for most of these figures, there are very few direct statements to analyze, and the author must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(push his texts very hard to get them to say anything at all relevant. Sometimes, as in his treatment of Kant?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?fear of Islam,? one feels the claims are much overblown; I suspect that Kant treats Islam cursorily not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because he is trying to contain his anxieties, but because he is much less anxious about Muslim )] TJ ET BT 493.976 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Schwrmerei)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than about Christian fanaticism. In fact, it is hard to see how Kant, or Hegel, can fight free of their filters, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escape being blamed for the constraints and conventions of the genres in which they wrote. Almond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticizes Kant for attempting to contain and dismiss Islam when he treats Muhammed dispassionately \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50\), and though Hegel ?spares no criticism? in describing the Crusaders? murders of the inhabitants of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople and Jerusalem, his critique is said to be ?primarily metaphysical, not humanitarian? \(p. 119\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps so; but after all, this is )] TJ ET BT 184.676 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hegel )] TJ ET BT 216.332 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we?re dealing with, and, as Marx showed, a metaphysical critique can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be deployed for practical purposes with relative ease. Though Almond is more sensitive than his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessors in his appreciation of the ways in which the same author, writing in a different genre or for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different audience, might portray ?the Turk? differently, we still need to refine the idea of ?a filtered Orient? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so that we don?t simply criticize authors for not saying what we think they should have said, in the way that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we today might say it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the nice things about Almond?s book is that he does, in the space of a very concise book, sketch the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical contexts in which his writers worked; but this historian, at least, wishes he had really taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in of ideas over time, and across the many different genres in which these authors wrote, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously. Almond recognizes, for example, why Goethe and Friedrich Schlegel developed more powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prejudices against Islam after the Napoleonic wars; in the first instance, the Greek Wars of Independence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Restoration convinced the poet that the Ottoman Turks were reactionary suppressors of what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed to be modern, secular quests for freedom. In the case of Schlegel, as Almond nicely puts it, after his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversion and his political shift to the right, he discovered that his ?substantial knowledge of Sanskrit, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Persian and Arabic? had become excess baggage ? and he had to jettison it, or at least the pieces of it that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had used to criticize European culture \(p. 106\). But rather than embracing the notion that individuals? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worldviews might really change over time, or that there might be some consistency in liking Arabic \(secular\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry and disapproving of the Sultanate?s religious policies, Almond favors the view that these figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ultimately? held contradictory ideas, in which negative conceptions consistently got the upper hand \(cf. p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2, p. 86, p. 102\). In fact, rather than seeing the increasing number of contradictory statements in the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century as a function of the accelerating pace of changes in the Ottoman Empire \(or as a function of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massively increased accessibility of news, images, and scholarly publications in Europe\), Almond sees an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 342.6917 681.3415 356.6837 693.2215 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7213 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing tendency on the part of European writers to ?compartmentalize problematic and narrative-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upsetting information.? This leads him to posit ?a correlation between the )] TJ ET BT 390.644 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Romantik)] TJ ET BT 436.640 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cultivation of a multi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chambered self ? and the ability to construct an imaginary Europe of tolerance and sophistication, abiding in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blissful denial of an Ottoman world on its borders every bit as complex and tolerant as its European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbours? \(pp. 164?5\). It is possible that this was happening: but it is also possible that the object \(?the? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islamic world\) under scrutiny )] TJ ET BT 179.324 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(was )] TJ ET BT 200.996 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictory in nature. Once again, the context matters, and it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been nice to have more of it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is one more area that Almond might have profitably explored, and that is the ?Germanness? \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps, non-Germanness\) of the figures he treats. His subjects all wrote primarily in German, and are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps the major thinkers of the era 1680?1890 ? though a case could be made for the inclusion of others, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Lessing, Schopenhauer, Schelling, and Schleiermacher; personally, I would have liked to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeper treatment of some of those who were both orientalists and cultural figures of note, like J. D. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michaelis, Friedrich Rckert, Julius Wellhausen, and Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall, referred to in the index )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply as ?von Hammer.? Perhaps exploring what it is that these ?Germans? did and did not share might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have also helped Almond understand the filtering process, and to explain why it was that in the end, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition didn?t have very much to say about Islam, or said contradictory things about it. It would also have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been helpful to have some sense of what religious and historical subjects )] TJ ET BT 385.964 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did )] TJ ET BT 404.300 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure large in the works of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these thinkers. I think Almond?s conclusion would have been that much Central European ink was spilt in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing Christianity and Judaism \(often the subject of Islam arose in connection with studies of this other, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucially important, ?Semitic? people\), or about the ancient Greeks. For some, like Herder and Friedrich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schlegel, the ancient Indians were important, at least for a time; for others, the medieval Germans took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(center stage. In general, German intellectuals thought more about Europeans than non-Europeans, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about Near Eastern than Far Eastern peoples, more about poetry, mythology, theology and philosophy than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about science or economics, and more about ancient than modern peoples. Islam was sidelined ? or treated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chiefly by liberals, Jews, or diplomats ? partly because this religion was relatively new and still alive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well, and partly because the Turks were so near, and had so recently conquered bits of Central and Southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. As we perfect our studies of the ?filtered Orient,? we will need to add these elements into our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the shape and functioning of the filter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We have much work to do to tease out what ?mainstream?, middle-class Germans read and thought about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islam in the modern period, and why they didn?t care )] TJ ET BT 293.636 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(more)] TJ ET BT 318.296 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( about an Ottoman world that was indeed rich in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, culture and languages, and was, moreover, virtually on their doorsteps. But, thanks to Ian Almond, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we now have a concise and interesting account of the diverse directions the leading intellectuals pursued, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and inspiration to investigate more fully how and why they did or did not think deeply and seriously about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Islamic world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.123 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Said, )] TJ ET BT 131.672 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Orientalism)] TJ ET BT 189.008 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1978\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 283.316 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 283.316 235.107 m 337.304 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paula Fichtner,)] TJ ET BT 136.676 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Terror and Toleration: The Habsburg Empire Confronts Islam, 1526?1850)] TJ ET BT 501.356 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.672 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.672 206.595 m 179.660 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 181.733 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German History)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://gh.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/2/230.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 151.827 m 271.688 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.688 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 148.495 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 130.715 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 130.715 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/939)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 129.321 m 322.316 129.321 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 104.344 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.944 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4871)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.544 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://gh.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/2/230.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 283.3157 235.4215 337.3037 247.3015 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.6717 206.9095 179.6597 218.7895 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 152.1415 271.6877 164.0215 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://gh.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/2/230.full) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 129.6355 322.3157 141.5155 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/939) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000653 00000 n 0000005199 00000 n 0000005308 00000 n 0000005418 00000 n 0000005527 00000 n 0000009088 00000 n 0000009216 00000 n 0000009300 00000 n 0000009329 00000 n 0000009457 00000 n 0000009493 00000 n 0000009558 00000 n 0000017658 00000 n 0000017742 00000 n 0000026090 00000 n 0000026120 00000 n 0000026248 00000 n 0000026284 00000 n 0000026389 00000 n 0000033655 00000 n 0000033783 00000 n 0000033838 00000 n 0000033966 00000 n 0000034021 00000 n 0000034148 00000 n 0000034250 00000 n 0000034378 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34473 %%EOF