%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722101715+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722101715+01'00') /Title (The Foundations of Naval History: John Knox Laughton, the Royal Navy and the Historical Profession) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4574 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Foundations of Naval History: John Knox Laughton, the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Navy and the Historical Profession)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('He probably knows more naval history than any English speaking man living. Pity he don't produce a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work instead of piddling about in the byways of naval history'. So wrote Alfred Thayer Mahan to Stephen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luce in 1890 about John Knox Laughton. Mahan, the American naval captain whose books were reputedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kept next to the Kaiser's bed, has always interested historians and his influence, personality and authority has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the subject of lively debate for many years. Of Laughton almost nothing is known. He never did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produce that great work before his death in 1915. As he did not start writing naval history until he was forty-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five and did not start a civilian academic career at King's College London until he was fifty-five, he did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have the luxury of a full career. At first sight, therefore, the title of this intriguing book seems exaggerated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Professor Lambert, also of King's College, has to make a strong case to put forward Laughton as 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man who founded the modern discipline' \(p. 11\); and just as strong a case needs to be made for it being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuous, identifiable 'discipline' from then to now.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Born in 1830, John Knox Laughton, a mathematically-trained civilian naval instructor in HM Ships, served )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Baltic War and in the operations against the Chinese in the late 1850s. He came ashore in 1866 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teach at the Royal Naval College at Portsmouth. He moved with the College to Greenwich in 1873, as Head )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Department of Meteorology and Marine Surveying; but in 1876 he gave his first historical lecture. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1885 he left the navy and became Professor of Modern History at King's which he held until 1914. In 1893 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he became Secretary of the Navy Records Society and was knighted in 1907. Laughton wrote nine books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and many essays and reviews, listed by Lambert in a five-page bibliography, and almost all of them are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curiosities now. He also wrote hundreds of biographies of naval officers for the )] TJ ET BT 417.932 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dictionary of National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 40.355 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Biography)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(94)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Lambert)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatham Publishing)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Knight)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8037 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a feat for which he can be admired at least for his stamina. Lambert faithfully describes this great )] TJ ET BT 509.576 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noting those reputations over which Laughton' s objectivity slipped badly, demonstrating the fragility of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('scientific history' by which the late Victorians judged themselves. Chief amongst the casualties were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characters and careers of Admiral Sir Charles Napier and Lord Sandwich, the latter in particular offending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laughton's moral susceptibilities. Now that these biographies are being revised and rewritten for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Dictionary of National Biography)] TJ ET BT 234.020 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the suspicion that they needed overhauling long ago has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amply confirmed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So what is the significance of Laughton on history as it is written today? It can hardly be more than nominal. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the perspective of a hundred years, three men, Mahan, Sir Julian Corbett and Admiral Sir Herbert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richmond, dominated the historiography of Anglo-American naval history between the years of the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge to British naval power in the 1880s and the Second World War. Their books are still stimulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, in the case of Corbett's )] TJ ET BT 169.820 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England in the Seven Years War)] TJ ET BT 325.472 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1907\) and Richmond's three-volume )] TJ ET BT 510.608 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Navy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in the War of 1739?48)] TJ ET BT 142.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1920\), not superseded. The level of interest in their work is such that in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1990s well-attended conferences devoted solely to their work were held in America and proceedings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published \(1991,1993\). By comparison, Laughton was not a revolutionary thinker, nor did he develop a body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of tactical or strategic thought. His mathematical thought process, combined with his conservatism, did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead to newer and larger generalisations and thus new and original views were wanting. In 1888 G. P. Gooch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found Laughton's lectures 'rather uninspiring, for he conceived of history as a record of events than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(panorama of the many-sided life of humanity' \(p. 82\). Every circumstance, financial, domestic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual, militated against Laughton writing the big book. In the opinion of Don Schurman, who wrote an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admirably balanced essay on Laughton thirty-five years ago: 'What was missing was the quality of playing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination, the lyrical quality of the prose artist and the completeness of approach which comes from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind which was naturally philosophical' \(p. 84, )] TJ ET BT 265.160 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Education of a Navy)] TJ ET BT 384.488 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1965\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How then did a historian who did not write a major work found a discipline? Laughton was not the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professor to lecture on naval history, for since 1862 a naval officer, Montagu Burrows, had held the Chichele )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professorship of Modern History at Oxford, and often lectured on naval subjects. Curiously, when reviewing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laughton's first book )] TJ ET BT 139.172 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Naval History )] TJ ET BT 259.844 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1887\) in the )] TJ ET BT 324.836 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 450.836 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Burrows himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw a continuity of tradition in the book from the naval history of William James's in the 1820s. In fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laughton's main contribution was institutional. Through his influence upon senior naval officers whom he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had taught earlier in their careers, he was able to gain access to the Admiralty records at the Public Record )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office \(now the National Archives of the UK\), hitherto closed, in 1889. Only six years after the founding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 177.680 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he was the force behind the founding of the Navy Records Society in 1893. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was at this time that he was very much influenced by S. R. Gardiner, who taught him much. It was also at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this time came into contact with Alfred Mahan, and his influence on the younger man, and upon others, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes Lambert, was Laughton's great contribution. Rather than 'a polemical output', it was 'long-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence and personal contact' \(p.193\). He certainly influenced other, greater minds, in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richmond, to whom he passed on his original commission on the 1739?48 war and which the Admiral so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brilliantly finished.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This raises a further question. If the nature of John Knox Laughton's achievement rested on personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence, what manner of man was he? Clearly, the force of his personality was critical in what he achieved, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether it was getting access to the public records, or founding a scholarly society and winning high-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powered backing for it. However, Lambert's research and writing reveals little, beyond the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laughton was clearly a driven and obsessive character. Scholarly controversies with Oscar Browning and F. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Badham are well told here, and Laughton was capable retaining grudges; but the lack of personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentary evidence has made the author's task difficult. We are not told, for instance, the name of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second wife, Maria Josefa, merely that she was Spanish. It is made clear that his large second family and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial strain which this imposed constituted a real constraint on the time for reflection of an elderly man. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is no coincidence now that this broad church has begun to be embraced by the academic community. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are now five postgraduate institutes specialising in various aspects of maritime history. In the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year, two naval scholars \(one of them Lambert himself\) and one maritime historian have been appointed to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 2720 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal chairs, while the Institute of Historical Research is seeking funding to establish a chair in maritime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a single-minded book about a single-minded man. It is written to bring out of obscurity a scholar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who, in the retrospective thought recently given to the study of naval power, has been undervalued. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought provoking and always interesting and it reflects a dilemma which needs to be faced today, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Lambert makes clear in his introduction, 'how to balance the divergent strains of academic rigour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and service education' \(p. 11\). While Laughton was part of a generation which brought new rigour to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the past, there is no doubt on which side of that balance he belonged. Schurman, whose 1965 essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be read alongside this book, concludes that 'his outlook seems to have remained that of a naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officer' \(p.108\). Even the despised Callendar saw the point in the conclusion to his )] TJ ET BT 432.788 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(DNB)] TJ ET BT 456.788 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( article on Laughton: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Mahan, admittedly one of Laughton's disciples, startled the world with his complete edifice of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy in the very hour which Laughton dug down to the foundations on which alone such an edifice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be safely erected'. John Knox Laughton might have dug some foundations, but he did not found a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 553.903 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 536.123 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 536.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/94)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 534.729 m 316.316 534.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 509.752 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.352 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/651)] TJ ET BT 34.016 480.952 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 535.0435 316.3157 546.9235 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/94) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000594 00000 n 0000000676 00000 n 0000005302 00000 n 0000005411 00000 n 0000005521 00000 n 0000005630 00000 n 0000009191 00000 n 0000009319 00000 n 0000009403 00000 n 0000009468 00000 n 0000017558 00000 n 0000017642 00000 n 0000020415 00000 n 0000020543 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 20637 %%EOF