%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141002120204+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141002120204+01'00') /Title (The Rituals and Rhetoric of Queenship; Medieval to Early Modern) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3433 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Rituals and Rhetoric of Queenship; Medieval to Early Modern)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rituals and Rhetoric of Queenship; Medieval to Early Modern)] TJ ET BT 355.652 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a collection of papers which originated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a conference held at Canterbury Christ Church University in August 2006. Perhaps by coincidence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005?6 appears to have been a high point for conferences on queenship as two similar collections from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conferences held during that period, )] TJ ET BT 209.972 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rule of Women in Early Modern Europe )] TJ ET BT 428.612 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 448.940 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queens and Power in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval and Early Modern England )] TJ ET BT 216.992 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were also published in 2009.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.644 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.644 214.905 m 368.636 214.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 368.636 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( All three books have a varied selection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of papers and an interdisciplinary approach, with contributions from historians, literary specialists and art )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. Another shared attribute is multiple papers on the Tudor queens, particularly on the magnificent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but over-represented Elizabeth I.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(940)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 July, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liz Oakley-Brown)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louise Wilkinson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846821783)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(287pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Four Courts Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elena Woodacre)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.6437 215.2195 368.6357 227.0995 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7809 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both )] TJ ET BT 60.356 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rituals and Rhetoric )] TJ ET BT 162.692 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 183.020 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rule of Women)] TJ ET BT 277.340 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( share a focus on the representation of female rule and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of ruling women by their contemporaries. The major difference between the two works is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical focus. )] TJ ET BT 130.988 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rule of Women)] TJ ET BT 225.308 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( takes a pan-European approach which takes in several oft-neglected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples such as Catherine of Brandenburg, Prince of Transylvania and the Spanish regent Juana of Austria. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although it is not specifically indicated in the title, )] TJ ET BT 281.348 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rituals and Rhetoric )] TJ ET BT 383.684 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has an entirely British thread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(running through to link the papers, even though some, such as the piece on Philippa of Lancaster?s reign as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Queen of Portugal, have a connection beyond the British Isles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queens and Power)] TJ ET BT 125.336 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also has a British focus with European connections and shares with )] TJ ET BT 453.956 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rituals and Rhetoric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers which examine Shakespeare?s queens and representations of Elizabeth I ?on stage and page?. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary difference between the two is not necessarily an emphasis on power over rituals and rhetoric, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead it is the subjects chosen beyond the Tudor queens. )] TJ ET BT 314.984 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rituals and Rhetoric )] TJ ET BT 417.320 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes papers on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plantagenet women and Mary Queen of Scots while )] TJ ET BT 286.640 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queens and Power )] TJ ET BT 380.960 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompasses work on the Empress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matilda and Stuart queens.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first section of )] TJ ET BT 128.000 575.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rituals and Rhetoric)] TJ ET BT 227.336 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is titled ?Rituals? and begins with a contribution from one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editors, Louise J. Wilkinson, on the marriage of Henry III?s sister, Isabella to the Holy Roman Emperor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fredrick II of Hohenstaufen. Wilkinson notes that although this marriage was politically significant and well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented in contemporary chronicles and official records, both the marriage and particularly the bride )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have not received a great deal of attention from historians. While the paper is interesting, thorough and goes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a long way toward redressing the lack of attention that Isabella and her imperial marriage have received, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilkinson admits more than once that many facets of Isabella?s life remain ?frustratingly uncertain? or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?unclear? \(pp. 33?4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second paper by Manuela Santos Silva focuses on the reign of Philippa of Lancaster as Queen of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portugal. Santos Silva discusses both the women who influenced Philippa during her childhood; her mother )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and her two step-mothers, Constanza of Castile and Katherine Swynford. Constanza?s Castilian influence on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John of Gaunt?s cultured household is cited as a ?multicultural model? for Philippa?s own court in Portugal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 44\). The author then discusses the Philippa?s own daughter Isabella which may have been disseminated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Burgundian court of her husband, Philip the Good.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacqueline Johnson provides an intriguing paper next on the changing depiction of Elizabeth of York as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?mother of the Tudor dynasty?. The author notes significant change in how Elizabeth?s dynastic claims were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented both during and after her lifetime. As Henry VII?s queen, Elizabeth?s right to the throne was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged but deliberately downplayed which may have been due to the fact that her claim was arguably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stronger than her husband?s. Johnson analyses the imagery in a window from York Minister which she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues ?suggests that Elizabeth is being positioned in a subordinate role and, if the window as a whole is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representing the marriage, then we should consider that what is being promoted here is an unequal union, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where Lancaster is being promoted over York? \(p. 50\). By contrast, the author notes that Elizabeth?s role as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the heir of York is emphasized by later Tudor monarchs, such as her namesake Elizabeth I, who use her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lineage as a legitimizing gambit. In addition, Johnson cites works such as Shakespeare?s )] TJ ET BT 462.296 223.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Richard III )] TJ ET BT 518.948 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ballad of Lady Bessie )] TJ ET BT 163.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which portray Elizabeth of York as a royal heiress and suggest more of a joint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule with her husband than was actually the case.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next paper, by Anna Whitelock, moves from the woman who might have been England?s first female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereign to the first genuine English queen regnant, her granddaughter Mary Tudor. Whitelock?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph on Mary I came out this year and she has also published several papers on Mary which have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(added to the recent reassessment of this often controversial figure.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.944 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.944 124.323 m 365.936 124.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 365.936 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This paper focuses on the changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of Mary and her reign, noting the ?Eltonian hangover? which contributed to a dismissive evaluation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her government \(p. 68\). Whitelock also calls for a re-evaluation of Philip of Spain as a king consort as she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues ?a lack of a full-length study [on Philip] to date is perhaps indicative of nationalist prejudice which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains embedded in historical writing? \(p. 71\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 351.9437 124.6375 365.9357 136.5175 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7226 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another link between )] TJ ET BT 140.996 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rituals and Rhetoric )] TJ ET BT 243.332 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 263.660 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rule of Women)] TJ ET BT 357.980 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can be seen in the next paper; Kristin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bundesen?s ?Lousy with Cousins: Elizabeth I?s Family at Court? which has a counterpart in Carole Levin?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Elizabeth I as Sister and ?Loving Kinswoman??. Both authors study Elizabeth?s extended family; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly the Careys which Bundesen notes were linked by contemporaries to the ?Tribe of Dan? \(p. 78\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Levin and Bundesen both argue that while Elizabeth?s Tudor relatives could be threatening, her maternal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations provided a support network for the monarch and could be usefully deployed in governmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions. Bundesen includes several excellent charts which not only give a genealogy of Elizabeth?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maternal relatives but also illustrate the Careys? placements as ?points of contact? in the court and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last paper in the ?Rituals? section is ?Troubled Eulogies: Queenship and Sexuality in Lylyan drama? by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shehzana Mamujee. This paper is also linked to Elizabeth I and examines the queen?s role as Lyly?s muse. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two of Lyly?s plays, )] TJ ET BT 139.004 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sappho and Phao )] TJ ET BT 227.336 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 247.664 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Endymion)] TJ ET BT 296.324 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, both from the 1580?s are the particular focus of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study. While this paper is an interesting addition, it is more of a close reading of these two works and not as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly focused on queens and ruling women as the rest of the collection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kavita Mudan opens the second section of the volume, ?Rhetoric? with a paper on Elizabeth Woodville, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(??So mutable is that sexe?: Queen Elizabeth Woodville in Polydore Vergil?s )] TJ ET BT 405.632 546.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglica historia )] TJ ET BT 486.308 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas More?s )] TJ ET BT 114.668 532.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of King Richard III)] TJ ET BT 245.996 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?. Mudan constructs a stimulating comparison between the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors? divergent treatment of Woodville. Ultimately Mudan concludes that the difference between their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayals of the queen derives from their opposing attitudes to the ?consolidation of monarchical power in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the person of the king? \(p. 116\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next two papers concern diplomatic letters during the reign of Elizabeth I. The first ??Highe excellente )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Queene?: the Rhetoric of Majesty in Diplomatic Letters Relating to Mary Queen of Scots? is by Alison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Findlay. Findlay bases her investigation of a selection of letters written in 1584?5 after the Throckmorton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plot. These letters are examined in close detail, noting the variable use of the royal signature, changes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address, the use of French and the queen?s own hand. Both the construction and content of the letters centre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the ?manipulation of royal status? as both queens jockeyed for position. Findlay concludes by noting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?A pawn could be elevated to a queen or a monarch cornered into checkmate by the elegant means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistolary politeness? \(p. 130\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rayne Allinson continues this epistolary analysis with ?Conversations on Kingship: the Letters of Queen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth I and King James VI?. This paper is connected to Allinson?s doctoral research on Elizabeth?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider correspondence with other monarchs. The letters between Elizabeth and James form an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse which illuminates the two monarchs? views on the nature and practice of kingship, the notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divine right and attitudes to female rule. One of the most intriguing elements that Allinson highlights in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence is the difference between how each of the sovereigns refer to Elizabeth. It appears that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth preferred to define herself by her office instead of by her gender, referring to herself more than 20 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times in their correspondence as ?king?. James by contrast generally referred to Elizabeth as ?prince?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?madam? or ?dearest sister? which Allinson suggests ?rhetorically undercut her claim to wield absolute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power as a woman? \(pp.134?5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lisa Hopkins? paper ?The words of a queen: Elizabeth I on stage and page? continues the Elizabethan theme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and also includes a discussion of the writing of the Virgin Queen. Instead of an analysis of her letters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hopkins surveys a wide variety of sources including the queen?s poems and translations. Hopkins examines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth?s spoken words as transcribed by others and also looks at the way invented speeches of the queen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were included in literary works and plays. Hopkins notes the queen?s acute awareness of the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance and import of her every word, both written and spoken. The author concludes by suggesting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this may explain ?the queen?s preference for circumlocution, indirection and off-the-record communication? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.156\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next paper also looks at Elizabeth I, but indirectly as a role model for a virtual queen, the great heiress )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7879 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Clifford. Jessica L. Malay?s paper ?Anne Clifford: appropriating the rhetoric of queens to become the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lady of the North? examines Clifford?s 40-year struggle to claim her impressive inheritance. Malay suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Clifford was inspired by Elizabeth?s endurance during her journey to the throne, through disinheritance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment and as heiress presumptive. The author also notes Anne?s use of Elizabeth?s favoured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stragems such as gift giving and ceremonial progressions through her territory as a way of asserting her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority and spreading her influence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third section, ?Subverting the Rituals and Rhetoric of Queenship? begins with two interesting papers on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Boleyn. The first, ??Which thing had not before been seen?: the rituals and rhetoric of the execution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Boleyn, England?s first criminal queen? by Nadia Bishai examines 12 accounts of Boleyn?s execution. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bishai compares these accounts with the medieval expectations of appropriate behaviour for criminals at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their execution which she argues revolve around the principles of ?repentance, restitution and reintegration? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.174\). The author examines divergent impressions of Anne at the scaffold and also notes the fact that none )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the accounts include a confession of guilt from the convicted queen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The controversial consort is also the focus of Paula de Pando?s paper ?Unqueening the Queen: the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Image of Anne Boleyn? which follows. The author specifically examines the depiction of Boleyn in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1627 play )] TJ ET BT 84.680 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Cisma de Inglaterra \(The schism in England\))] TJ ET BT 318.344 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Pedro Caldern de la Barca. She argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the play is politically motivated and connected to the conflict between Spain and England during the reign of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles I. In the play, Anne is portrayed as a dangerous temptress who leads Henry and his realm into heresy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when she usurps the rightful place of Catherine of Aragon. The author also notes the inaccurate but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting device of juxtaposing Anne?s conviction for adultery with news of Catherine?s death, citing an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional passage from Henry VIII?s character who is stricken with grief that he cannot undo his grievous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistake and make amends to his true wife \(p.195?6\). de Pando claims that the end of the play, where Mary I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is finally crowned as a Catholic queen is ?a declaration of war against Protestantism? \(p.196\) and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invitation for the audience to join ?in a new crusade against the followers of Anne Boleyn? \(p.198\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The two papers which follow return to the subject of Mary Queen of Scots, another figure who has remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial and has been the subject of both sympathetic and critical portrayals. Sandra Bell examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter in her paper ?The Queen?s Desire: George Buchanan reading Mary Queen of Scots?. Bell discusses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buchanan?s assessment of Mary?s personality and reign through his evaluation of the Casket letters and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sonnets. In his own writing, it is clear that Buchanan views Mary as a failure as a woman, wife and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly as a queen and sees the Casket letters as proof of ?Mary?s overt and covert corruption? \(p. 204\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bell argues however that the disputed authorship of the letters makes it difficult to judge Mary on this basis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but concludes that Buchanan had already condemned Mary and may have only been using the Casket letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to look for evidence of ?her emotional commitment to treachery as well? \(p. 208\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leticia lvarez-Recio returns to the theme of queenly executions with her paper ?Contemporary Visions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Stuart?s Execution: Saintliness and Vilification?. This paper differs Nadia Bishai?s study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(execution of Anne Boleyn in that it focuses on arguments for and against the Scottish queen?s execution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than on accounts of the execution itself. She draws on a fair number of contemporary sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including pamphlets, poems and letters from both Britain and the Continent to demonstrate the queen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayal as ?either a Catholic martyr or a treacherous heretic? \(p. 209\). The author notes that the common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thread binding all of these texts was the heady mix of politics and religion. Ultimately lvarez-Recio argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that what these texts truly demonstrate is that Mary?s execution ?radicalized both Protestant and Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions, turning her into a symbol of what they had to destroy or recover? \(p. 221\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next paper is the second contribution from an editor, Liz Oakley-Brown, ??My lord, be ruled by me?: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shakespeare?s Tamora and the Failure of Queenship?. Shakespeare?s treatment of queens is a popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme; both )] TJ ET BT 94.016 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rule of Women )] TJ ET BT 191.336 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 211.664 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queens and Power )] TJ ET BT 305.984 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature papers with a similar study. In )] TJ ET BT 490.616 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rule of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women)] TJ ET BT 70.004 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Sandra Logan contrasts Shakespeare?s portrayal of Katherine de Valois with the queen?s treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Michael Drayton?s )] TJ ET BT 140.996 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Englands Heroicall Epistles)] TJ ET BT 276.332 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The paper in )] TJ ET BT 345.980 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queens in Power)] TJ ET BT 428.636 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is arguably more similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Oakley-Brown?s as it focuses on another Classical queen, Cleopatra \(?Shakespeare?s Queen Cleopatra: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An act of Translation)] TJ ET BT 136.364 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? by Richardine Woodall\). Both Woodall and Oakley-Brown stress the influence of and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7064 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection to Elizabeth I and wider arguments regarding the merits of female rule. The popularity of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shakespearean strand of queenship studies does demonstrate the interdisciplinary emphasis of the field as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakley-Brown?s paper would be equally appealing to a historian or a literary specialist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final two papers form the final section of the volume, ?Towards Theorizing the Rituals and Rhetoric of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Queenship?. This section title, while admirably encapsulating the theme of the conference and collection, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doesn?t really summarize the theme of these two papers which both focus on representations of the queen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body. The first paper ?Ageing out Catholicism: Representing Mary Tudor?s Body? by Sabine Lucia Miller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws some fascinating comparisons between the representations of Mary and Elizabeth Tudor. Miller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that although both sovereigns begin as virgin queens, the perception of Mary?s body changes with her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage to Philip of Spain. She particularly examines descriptions of Mary?s controversial false )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pregnancies and how her barrenness became connected with her persecution of heretics and death itself. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to contemporary sources, Miller discusses the continuation of this negative imagery surrounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary in Victorian literature and the modern portrayal of Mary in films such as )] TJ ET BT 413.948 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth)] TJ ET BT 459.284 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final paper in the volume is yet another work based on a study of Elizabeth I, a joint paper by Elisabeth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bronfen and Barbara Straumann entitled ?Political Visions: the Two Bodies of Elizabeth I?. This paper also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes a link to modern portraits, contrasting the pictures of Elizabeth I with modern images of Claude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cahun, Marilyn Monroe and Gwyneth Paltrow. The authors argue that Elizabeth was an Early Modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?diva? and a forerunner of the modern obsession with celebrity. They also examine portrayals of Elizabeth in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginia Woolf?s )] TJ ET BT 120.668 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Orlando )] TJ ET BT 164.336 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and by the actress Bette Davis in )] TJ ET BT 324.644 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The private lives of Elizabeth and Essex)] TJ ET BT 516.632 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1939\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, this volume is another worthy addition to the field of queenship. The papers are well linked and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally well balanced, although there is a surfeit of papers on Tudor queens. The Tudor queens, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly Elizabeth I, have received far too much focus by biographers and queenship specialists, a trend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that looks set to continue with the publication of )] TJ ET BT 269.012 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tudor Queenship )] TJ ET BT 355.676 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this summer.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.680 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.680 445.443 m 431.672 445.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 431.672 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Some contributions on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plantagenet and particularly Stuart queens would have been a valuable supplement to the excellent papers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rituals and Rhetoric)] TJ ET BT 133.352 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. While this collection has emerged at the same time as )] TJ ET BT 399.980 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rule of Women )] TJ ET BT 497.300 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 517.628 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Power)] TJ ET BT 86.348 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, all three works contain informative and intriguing papers which add to our knowledge of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating women and demonstrate the continuing interdisciplinary development of the field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 324.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rule of Women in Early Modern Europe)] TJ ET BT 279.656 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Anne J. Cruz and Mihoko Sukuki \(Chicago, 2009\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 84.344 310.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queens and Power in Medieval and Early Modern England, )] TJ ET BT 376.976 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. Carole Levin and Robert Bucholz )] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Lincoln, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 294.387 m 196.328 294.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 281.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anna Whitelock, )] TJ ET BT 149.000 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mary Tudor: England's First Queen)] TJ ET BT 322.892 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.216 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.216 280.131 m 458.204 280.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 267.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tudor Queenship, )] TJ ET BT 153.680 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. Anna Whitelock and Alice Hunt \(forthcoming, London, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 472.964 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 472.964 265.875 m 526.952 265.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 241.013 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 222.031 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 204.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 204.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/940)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 202.857 m 322.316 202.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 177.880 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4876)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.080 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.6797 445.7575 431.6717 457.6375 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 294.7015 196.3277 306.5815 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 404.2157 280.4455 458.2037 292.3255 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 472.9637 266.1895 526.9517 278.0695 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 203.1715 322.3157 215.0515 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/940) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000573 00000 n 0000000662 00000 n 0000004147 00000 n 0000004256 00000 n 0000004366 00000 n 0000004475 00000 n 0000008036 00000 n 0000008164 00000 n 0000008248 00000 n 0000008277 00000 n 0000008405 00000 n 0000008441 00000 n 0000008525 00000 n 0000016387 00000 n 0000016417 00000 n 0000016545 00000 n 0000016581 00000 n 0000016646 00000 n 0000023925 00000 n 0000023990 00000 n 0000031922 00000 n 0000032034 00000 n 0000039151 00000 n 0000039181 00000 n 0000039309 00000 n 0000039345 00000 n 0000039473 00000 n 0000039528 00000 n 0000039656 00000 n 0000039711 00000 n 0000039839 00000 n 0000039894 00000 n 0000040022 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40117 %%EOF