%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721124321+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721124321+01'00') /Title (The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1799 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(943)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 July, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert C. Allen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521868273)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(344pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emma Griffin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5077 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the past two decades, Robert Allen?s researches into English agriculture have fundamentally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reshaped our understanding of the nature and pace of rising agricultural productivity between the late middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ages and the 19th century. More recently, Allen has turned his attention to the study of real wages as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measure of economic development and begun investigating the progress of wages in other parts of the globe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These different strands have come together in this book, )] TJ ET BT 306.632 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the British Industrial Revolution in Global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Perspective)] TJ ET BT 89.996 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The book is neatly divided into two parts, the first looking at the British economy prior to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialisation, and the second looking at the industrial revolution itself. Whilst parts of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recapitulate research previously published, there is much that is new and Allen presents us with a clear yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many-layered argument about the nature and causes of the industrial revolution, and about why it occurred in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, as opposed to anywhere else, when it did. These of course are questions that have already received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial attention, yet there can be no doubting that this book makes an important contribution to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing literature. Though by training an economic historian, Allen manages to present complex economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis in a clear and intelligible style, and the book largely succeeds in the series? remit of writing guides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible to undergraduates. This is more than a student textbook, however. )] TJ ET BT 405.284 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British Industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution in Global Perspective)] TJ ET BT 193.664 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides a novel interpretation of the industrial revolution that will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important to experts in the field. So without further hesitation let us start to unpack Allen?s account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world?s first industrial revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part one of the book begins with an introductory chapter, covering some of the existing literature and laying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out the structure of the book. Chapter two opens with some evocative contemporary accounts suggesting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English living standards, whilst low when contrasted with the present day, were relatively high when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared with those of workers in Asia and other parts of Europe, and proceeds to present fresh statistical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence confirming their view. From the outset, the reader is offered a taste of the ?global perspective? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promised in the title with information about wages and living costs offered for several European cities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Delhi, Beijing and Massachusetts, as well as for London, Oxford, and York. Allen?s results are presented as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?subsistence? and ?respectability? ratios \(defined as the ratio of income to the cost of a subsistence, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectable, lifestyle\) rather than the more familiar ?real wage?, making comparison with other indices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tricky. Nonetheless, Allen develops a convincing case for a high wage economy confined to Britain and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities of the Low Countries and points to the pivotal role played by international trade in creating these high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wage economies. Furthermore, Allen points out that income surplus to that required for subsistence left the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labouring population with money to spend, money that was fed back into the economy in a number of ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? on more and better food, on small consumer goods, or schooling for children. Higher levels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption and education, therefore, were not simply the outcome of a dynamic economy but also an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important contributor to it.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7415 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three considers agriculture and tells a story that those familiar with Allen?s work will quickly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognise. Allen argues that the rise in agricultural productivity between 1500 and 1750 was sufficient to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labelled an ?agricultural revolution?, but rejects the view that enclosures, capital investment, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernisation of agriculture fuelled this growth. The old open farms, he suggests, were equally capable of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive innovations and points instead to the role played by the expansion of world trade, rural industry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and urban manufacturing as ?engines of growth?, forcing up agricultural productivity. In this account, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift to large farms and enclosures was the endpoint of this process, not the cause. Whilst most of Allen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments about agriculture have already been made elsewhere, this chapter also underscores two themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the previous chapter more germane to his account of industrialisation. Firstly the evidence from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculture, like that from real wages, points to the underlying strength of the English economy during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-industrial period and suggests that trade and urbanisation had been key driving forces of growth. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, rising agricultural productivity, like high wages, had a number of positive consequences for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy. The agricultural revolution freed large numbers of workers from the land \(the proportion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(total population working the soil approximately halved between 1500 and 1800, from 74 per cent to 35 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent\). The consequence was a steady flow of labour moving into rural industry and urban trades. It all helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to create an economy and a society uniquely positioned for the dramatic restructuring that we know was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about to occur.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The theme of British distinctiveness is developed yet further in chapter four, which turns to the nation?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheap energy economy. Between 1560 and 1800, output from British mines increased 66 fold and by the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the period Britain enjoyed the cheapest energy supplies in the world. This cheap energy was to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profound implications for future economic growth, but for the present Allen confines himself to questions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causation: why did this expansion occur in Britain \(not elsewhere\) and why now \(and not earlier\)? Once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again, Allen points at Britain?s success in the world economy and the role that international trade played in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoting urbanisation in general and the growth of London in particular. In a style that will be more fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed in the second half of the book, Allen also pays close attention to the role that human actors played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in causing economic change. Heating London?s homes with coal, he observes, was not a straightforward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter as the traditional open hearth situated at the centre of the home was unsuited for the burning of coal. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before London?s demand for fuel could power the growth of the coal industry, builders needed to design )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new homes with hearths and chimneys suitable for burning coal. But once this had occurred, the capital?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insatiable demand coal for domestic heating began to exert a powerful force on the nation?s coal-producing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions. Coal producers increased output to meet the demand, and Britain?s cheap and abundant coal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplies created an energy situation unique in the world. This, coupled with Britain?s high wage structure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set the stage set for inventive activity designed to substitute the expensive labourer for the relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inexpensive fuel instead.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before looking at the ways in which high wages and cheap coal came together to foster the technological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation that underpinned the industrial revolution, the strands of these opening chapters are brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together in the and final chapter of the first half of the book, which turns to mathematical representation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain why Britain succeeded in industrialising when it did. Using simultaneous equations to represent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and economic development, Allen tests four variables ? the wage rate, urbanisation, agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productivity, and proto-industrialisation ? in several European countries. The model shows England and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Netherlands developing along a different trajectory from 1500, characterised by urbanisation, rising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural performance, and high real wages. Allen further tests a number of possible causes for England?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive economy ? representative government; enclosure; the new draperies; trade owing to Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire; and energy costs. The first two he largely discounts as factors accelerating growth; the second three, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by contrast, all contributed to England?s economic growth throughout the early modern period. He thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorably concludes that ?The success of the British economy was ? due to long-haired sheep, cheap coal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the imperial foreign policy that secured a rising volume of trade? \(p. 131\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second part of the book, Allen switches into a different gear. Part one has sketched the contours of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British economy with a broad brush, highlighting its key distinctive features ? high wages and low energy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(costs ? and developing an account of how it had come to take this form. Part two, turns away from the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7118 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general and focuses instead upon the particular. Starting from the observation that Britain?s industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution was essentially characterised by a series of stunning technological breakthroughs, Allen seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain why some of these key inventions took place in Britain, rather than elsewhere. Rejecting the idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the British possessed a special genius for invention, Allen instead focuses upon how the combination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expensive labour and cheap energy provided industrialists with an incentive to innovate. What follows are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three tightly-focussed case studies tracing the ways in which abstract ideas were transformed into inventions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with practical utility, and contrasting British receptiveness to new technologies with the indifference towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them initially displayed by manufacturers in other parts of the globe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven takes as it subject the invention often considered most pivotal to British industrialisation: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steam engine. Allen identifies two phases of the development. First came Thomas Newcomen?s ?macro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invention? ? the atmospheric engine, which used steam to convert heat energy into mechanical energy. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulty with the Newcomen engine, however, was that it operated with a jerky motion and had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prodigious appetite for fuel ? both of which served to limit its usefulness to pumping water from coal mines. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, engineers and manufacturers were quick to grasp the steam engine?s potential to improve a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of industrial and transport processes, and this opened the way for a very long second phase ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession of micro-inventions designed to engineer Newcomen?s engine into something far more versatile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and efficient. Allen convincingly argues that making versatile and fuel-efficient engines that actually worked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a complex and expensive process, and looks in detail and how and why British engineers invested so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much time and effort into solving this problem. He points to the way in which inventors responded to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precise engineering challenges posed by local conditions and to how this promoted numerous piecemeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvements. He also observes, however, that once British engineers had successfully reduced the fuel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption of engines and improved their operation, the way was paved the way for their use first in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide range of British industries, and ultimately for their export across the globe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters eight and nine tell a largely similar story for two different industries. Chapter eight looks at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession of inventions that transformed cotton spinning and carding between the 1760s and the 1830s; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter nine turns to coke-smelting. Both examples carefully trace the ways in which big ideas were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translated into working machines. In each case, Allen makes a convincing case for the pivotal role played by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s high wage economy in providing a demand for processes that substituted energy and capital for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is at this point that one might hope for more in the way of global comparisons. The chapter on cotton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spinning provides a brief comparison with France, arguing that low wages in that country ensured that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new inventions at first brought no economic benefit: it was only once the productivity of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(machines had been improved that their purchase made economic sense to French cotton manufacturers. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slow adoption of coke-smelting on the continent also gets some attention, but the global context for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the steam engine receives scarcely a mention. Of course it is not difficult to relate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence for Britain?s relatively high wages and low fuel costs presented in the first part of the book to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem, but the argument would be yet more strongly grounded if the analysis of British inventiveness was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterpoised with more concrete evidence concerning the actions and choices of French, Belgian, Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or Indian manufacturers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The tenth and final chapter, looking at ?inventors, enlightenment and human capital?, takes us to the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book. In a fascinating discussion of why high wages and cheap energy promoted industrialisation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain in the 18th century, when a similar combination of forces after the Black Death had not had the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result, Allen suggests that culture and education also played a role in promoting technological inventions. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some ways this final chapter seems to complicate the very neat and tidy account that has been presented in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the preceding chapters with its tight focus on wages and energy costs, though this is not to the book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detriment. What emerges is a realisation that the British industrial revolution was a very large, complex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(untidy event, not amenable to any single explanation. Whilst Allen brings wages and fuel to the fore of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account, he nonetheless leaves space for a complex of cultural and social forces to play their part in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3609 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though published as part of a textbook series, this is more than a standard textbook ? indeed students in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(search of a basic understanding of the industrial revolution will no doubt continue to turn to the existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textbooks on the subject.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.344 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.344 754.563 m 167.336 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 167.336 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In place of the standard survey of agriculture, population, finance, and so forth, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book provides an important and novel argument about why industrialisation took root when and where it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did ? it is an interpretation of, not an introduction to, the subject. Allen has convincingly argued that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of high wages and cheap fuel deserves a central place in our analyses of industrialisation. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will not of course be the final word on the matter, but with such a clearly articulated and strongly-supported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument, )] TJ ET BT 85.340 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective)] TJ ET BT 352.004 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is sure to become required reading for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both students and scholars for many years to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 604.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. King and G. Timmin, )] TJ ET BT 183.356 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making Sense of the Industrial Revolution)] TJ ET BT 385.676 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, 2001\); Martin )] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daunton, )] TJ ET BT 111.344 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain 1700-1850)] TJ ET BT 484.652 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995\); Pat Hudson, )] TJ ET BT 160.016 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Industrial Revolution)] TJ ET BT 283.352 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.676 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.676 574.995 m 418.664 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 550.133 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightened Economist)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://blog.enlightenmenteconomics.com/blog/_archives/2009/6/6/4212398.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 520.227 m 421.028 520.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 424.028 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 516.895 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 499.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 499.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/943)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 497.721 m 322.316 497.721 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 472.744 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.344 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4887)] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.944 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://blog.enlightenmenteconomics.com/blog/_archives/2009/6/6/4212398.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 153.3437 754.8775 167.3357 766.7575 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 364.6757 575.3095 418.6637 587.1895 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 520.5415 421.0277 532.4215 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://blog.enlightenmenteconomics.com/blog/_archives/2009/6/6/4212398.html) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 498.0355 322.3157 509.9155 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/943) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000565 00000 n 0000000647 00000 n 0000002498 00000 n 0000002607 00000 n 0000002717 00000 n 0000002826 00000 n 0000006387 00000 n 0000006515 00000 n 0000006599 00000 n 0000006664 00000 n 0000011794 00000 n 0000011859 00000 n 0000019327 00000 n 0000019392 00000 n 0000026563 00000 n 0000026668 00000 n 0000030330 00000 n 0000030360 00000 n 0000030488 00000 n 0000030524 00000 n 0000030652 00000 n 0000030707 00000 n 0000030834 00000 n 0000030961 00000 n 0000031089 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31184 %%EOF