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676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Masculinity, Shell Shock, and Emotional Survival in the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(World War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(944)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 August, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Roper)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719079184)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(368pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jessica Meyer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230222014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 221.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 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of war for nearly 100 years now. The content of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginings has undoubtedly changed over the decades, as a recent flurry of scholarship on the myth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory of the war has argued, but from the Armistice right up to the present moment, the events of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914?18 have been a crucial reference point for those seeking to understand not only war, but the world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around them. Few would now agree with the sweeping claim in Paul Fussell?s influential )] TJ ET BT 465.644 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Modern Memory)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.992 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.992 329.139 m 152.984 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 152.984 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that the First World War represented an absolute, unbridgeable break with the past; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet few would deny the truth in his assertion that it was the crucible in which the modern world was forged. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If nothing else, the fact that the war is still debated in terms of its status as the originating moment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity tells us much about its place in the contemporary imagination, and by extension the contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural and historical landscape; paradoxically, this is proof of the extent to which the world we know now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is shaped by that war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The key verb here is ?imagine?. In 1990, the literary scholar Samuel Hynes argued that the First World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an imaginative as well as a military and political event. It fundamentally altered the way men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women thought about the world, and as an imaginative event, it changed reality. In )] TJ ET BT 434.960 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A War Imagined: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(First World War and English Culture)] TJ ET BT 214.364 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hynes explored this transformation through the prism of literature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary culture. In the later stages of the book, almost in passing, he suggested that one such fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift was in the stock ?cast of characters? in imagined wars. The martial hero no longer took centre stage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unchallenged. Instead, he was superseded by, or at least jostled for space with, the coward, the frightened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boy, and the shell shock victim.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.344 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.344 131.811 m 200.336 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 200.336 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not to suggest that the First World War killed off the soldier hero: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Michael Paris as shown, the ?pleasure culture? of war continued to exert a powerful hold long after 1918.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 103.299 m 48.008 103.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is rather that after the First World War, trauma was an ever-present possible outcome of war, even if it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not present in every imagining. After 1918, the warrior hero acquired a shadow self; the broken mental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patient in a military hospital, or the silent and haunted veteran, would always be waiting in the wings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This shadow self has emerged into the light. Indeed, some would argue that it has been over-exposed. Today, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Lerner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780801440946)] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(326pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornell University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ithaca, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tracey Loughran)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.9917 329.4535 152.9837 341.3335 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 186.3437 132.1255 200.3357 144.0055 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 103.6135 48.0077 115.4935 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 9851 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the shell shocked soldier holds a central place in British imaginings of the First World War. In the factual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reporting of newspapers and history books no less than the fictional recreations of novels and films, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traumatised victims of the war claim their place alongside its heroes. The psychological effects of the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were of course widely discussed even while it raged, and forcefully represented in fiction, drama, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiography during and after the conflict. Yet the scale of the recent incorporation of shell shocked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veterans into narratives of the First World War is new. This is evident from even a brief glance at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological record of historical publications on shell shock. We are now so accustomed to viewing shell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shock as an integral part of the history of the First World War that it is surprising to realise that it was only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 2002, with Peter Leese?s )] TJ ET BT 169.328 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shell Shock: Traumatic Neurosis and the British Soldiers of the First World War)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 666.771 m 48.008 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that the first full-length English language historical monograph on trauma in this conflict was published.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since the mid-1990s, the volume of discussion on the topic in journals, edited collections, and sole-authored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monographs on overlapping areas had mushroomed. Leese?s book confirmed the status of shell shock as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hot new historical topic, but did not mark the culmination of a trend. Its publication coincided with that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ben Shephard?s )] TJ ET BT 114.668 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War of Nerves)] TJ ET BT 183.992 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which fitted the story of shell shock into a coherent, over-arching narrative, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and became an indispensable reference work for every student of the subject. Successive monographs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed over the next few years: Paul Lerner?s )] TJ ET BT 267.284 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hysterical Men)] TJ ET BT 341.600 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2003\), Peter Barham?s )] TJ ET BT 461.240 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forgotten Lunatics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the Great War)] TJ ET BT 115.676 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2004\), Edgar Jones and Simon Wessely?s )] TJ ET BT 326.312 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shell Shock to PTSD)] TJ ET BT 425.972 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2005\), and most recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fiona Reid?s )] TJ ET BT 100.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Broken Men: shell shock, treatment and recovery in Britain, 1914-1930)] TJ ET BT 444.296 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.288 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.288 540.723 m 496.280 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 496.280 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these titles suggest, the recent surge of interest in shell shock is undoubtedly related to a wider interest in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?genealogy? or historical construction of trauma, which has spawned an enormous body of boundary-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crossing research.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 119.984 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 119.984 497.955 m 133.976 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 133.976 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In turn, many factors have no doubt contributed to the popularity of histories of trauma, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including anxieties about the ongoing and long-lasting effects of war past and present, the perceived growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?therapy culture?, and the maturation of the history of psychiatry as a discipline. The result, however, is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renewed attention to shell shock, quite often in the context of a search for the origins of the distinctively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern concept and experience of trauma. In many of these writings, as elsewhere, the First World War is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the defining event which spawned modern ways of being.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A quest for the origins of traumatic modernity has provided one impetus to scholarly research on shell shock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the First World War. Another spur was the emergence of gender as a category of analysis from the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980s, and the subsequent realization that perceptions and experiences of masculinity, like femininity, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not monolithic, self-evident, or historically constant. An early analysis of shell shock as a gendered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diagnosis was made by Elaine Showalter in her )] TJ ET BT 263.984 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Female Malady: Women, Madness and English Culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1830-1980)] TJ ET BT 86.012 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The chapter on shell shock in this book, which Showalter expanded on in several other articles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and essays, has been so influential that the extent to which she was a lone pioneer is easily forgotten.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 517.940 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 517.940 314.883 m 531.932 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Showalter was frequently cited in the years following publication of )] TJ ET BT 363.968 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Female Malady)] TJ ET BT 460.616 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; indeed, along with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eric Leed and Martin Stone, she was part of a holy triumvirate which more or less defined historical writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on shell shock for at least a decade. Her work demonstrated that shell shock was fertile ground for historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explorations of gender, but until 1996, when Joanna Bourke?s )] TJ ET BT 334.976 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dismembering the Male:)] TJ ET BT 457.952 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Men?s Bodies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain and the Great War)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.348 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.348 243.603 m 178.340 243.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 178.340 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published, it remained the most in-depth consideration of the topic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the meantime, historical studies of masculinity moved on. In 1985, Showalter could write about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian masculine ideal with justified confidence that readers would know what she meant and share her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition: an ideal based on the stiff upper lip, self-control, self-restraint, and will-power.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.944 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.944 188.835 m 479.936 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 479.936 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This ideal has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not been written out of existence, but it is no longer self-evident. It sometimes seems as though the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity is written as a series of questions: not only ?What should historians do with masculinity?? but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?what should historians do with heroes??, and, more demandingly, ?what )] TJ ET BT 388.964 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(have)] TJ ET BT 411.620 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( historians done with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity??)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 100.676 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 100.676 131.811 m 120.668 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 120.668 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These echoes of John Tosh?s agenda-setting 1994 essay on masculinity testify to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence, and to a new sense of maturity within a relatively young discipline. The cumulative tendency of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent scholarship has been to emphasise that in the years leading up to 1900 and beyond Victorian models )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of masculinity were subject to internal and external redefinitions, generated powerful anxieties regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male identity, and did not permeate the value structure of large swathes of the working classes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 489.596 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 489.596 74.787 m 509.588 74.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, studies of gender, war, and identity have uncovered the extent to which women were able to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 667.0855 48.0077 678.9655 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 482.2877 541.0375 496.2797 552.9175 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 119.9837 498.2695 133.9757 510.1495 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 517.9397 315.1975 531.9317 327.0775 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.3477 243.9175 178.3397 255.7975 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 465.9437 189.1495 479.9357 201.0295 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 100.6757 132.1255 120.6677 144.0055 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 489.5957 75.1015 509.5877 86.9815 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 54 0 R 57 0 R 60 0 R 63 0 R ] /Contents 52 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Length 8689 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopt, adapt, and exploit apparently ?masculine? ideals of service and patriotic duty in pursuit of personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fulfilment or collective goals.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.000 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.000 780.819 m 195.992 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 195.992 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As the certainties surrounding the historical construction of gender have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crumbled, and as trauma studies have blossomed, the appeal of shell shock as a window into the effects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war on masculine ideals and male subjectivities has widened.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The four books under review are all manifestations of these historical trends. Mark Micale?s )] TJ ET BT 480.920 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hysterical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Men: the Hidden History of Male Nervous Illness)] TJ ET BT 271.652 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2008\) is a panoramic survey of the history of male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hysteria, stretching from c.1900 BC to c.1900 AD. The very existence of this book demonstrates how far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of psychiatry and masculinity have come in only a few short years. In 1995, when Micale?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magisterial historiographical survey of writings on hysteria, )] TJ ET BT 323.984 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Approaching Hysteria: Disease and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Interpretations)] TJ ET BT 106.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published, only a handful of pages could be devoted to male hysteria because so little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been written on the topic. Much of the short discussion centred on Micale?s own research and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Showalter?s essays on shell shock, although Micale could also point to recent research on literary male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nervousness and was sanguine that future scholarship would be fruitful.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.960 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.960 612.003 m 397.952 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 397.952 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the intervening years, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awareness of the extent to which the construction of mental illness is a gendered process has grown, yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hysteria has continued to be identified as a female malady. )] TJ ET BT 318.296 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hysterical Men)] TJ ET BT 392.612 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( therefore fills a noticeable gap in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the literature, and although it stops short of 1914, it is a history with important consequences for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings of shell shock.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Between writing )] TJ ET BT 116.672 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Approaching Hysteria)] TJ ET BT 223.664 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 246.992 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hysterical Men)] TJ ET BT 321.308 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Micale co-edited one of the most important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collections of historical essays on trauma in recent years, )] TJ ET BT 310.628 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Traumatic Pasts: History, Psychiatry and Trauma )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in the Modern Age, 1870?1930)] TJ ET BT 183.668 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.668 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.668 500.211 m 206.660 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 206.660 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The other editor of this essential collection, Paul Lerner, is also an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expert on male hysteria, although to date the chronological and geographical scope of his studies has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat narrower. Lerner?s )] TJ ET BT 179.960 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hysterical Men: War, Psychiatry, and the Politics of Trauma in Germany, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1890-1930)] TJ ET BT 86.012 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, first published in 2003, has recently been reprinted in paperback form. It therefore formed part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the wave of works on shell shock in the early 2000s, and the reprint attests to the continued appeal of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic. In the more affordable format this excellent book, still the only English language monograph on shell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shock in Germany, will hopefully reach the wider audience it deserves.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.272 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.272 414.675 m 395.264 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The studies of Micale and Lerner both begin with, and largely focus on, hysteria as a formal medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diagnosis. Each author demonstrates that medical concepts of hysteria were not objective scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptions of natural phenomena, but were rather shaped by prevailing social and cultural mores, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some times and places, driven by powerful political and economic imperatives. Both also show that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine has never been able to contain hysteria; it has always also existed as metaphor and cultural trope. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is medical history in its most generous dimensions, firmly embedding notions of physical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological health and illness in the broader historical context, and therefore encompassing not only the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations of doctors to the state or to their patients, but also such diverse topics as the formation of class and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender identities and the interplay of medicine, literature, and art.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next two books under review consider male psychological subjectivity rather than medicine and male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental illness. Michael Roper and Jessica Meyer take very different approaches to this topic, but both books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflect the emphasis on fluidity and adaptability in recent scholarship on the making of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinities. Meyer?s )] TJ ET BT 147.668 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Men of War: Masculinity and the First World War in Britain)] TJ ET BT 439.664 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2009\) examines a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of ?personal narratives? ? letters home from the front, wartime diaries, letters of condolence, letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from disabled servicemen to the Ministry of Pensions, and post-war memoirs ? to explore ?how British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serviceman who fought in the First World War used their experience to define themselves as men, both in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation to other men and to women? \(p. 2\). She argues that two identities emerge most clearly as masculine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideals in these texts, the domestic and the heroic, and that these identities were central to social definitions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate masculinity during and after the war although they were also fraught with tension for individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men. Her focus is therefore on the construction of male identities in different narrative forms, including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different ways in which the expression of these identities was affected by the audience being addressed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Meyer only makes a few explicit comments on his work, Michael Roper is one of the historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who have done most to establish and invigorate the modern history of masculinities in Britain. The volume )] TJ ET endstream endobj 53 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.9997 781.1335 195.9917 793.0135 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 377.9597 612.3175 397.9517 624.1975 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 186.6677 500.5255 206.6597 512.4055 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 375.2717 414.9895 395.2637 426.8695 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 68 0 R 71 0 R 74 0 R ] /Contents 66 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Length 8381 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of essays he co-edited in 1991 with John Tosh, )] TJ ET BT 261.992 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manful Assertions: masculinities in Britain since 1800)] TJ ET BT 524.000 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an important text in confirming within the mainstream of historical thought the notion of masculinity as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historically and culturally constructed. Now Roper is once again at the forefront of his field in moving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond cultural construction. Since the beginning of the decade, he has published a series of articles on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First World War and memory, masculinity, and subjectivity which have explored the immediate and lasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional and psychological repercussions of the war for individuals and their families.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.288 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.288 723.795 m 475.280 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 478.280 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Secret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Battle: emotional survival in the Great War)] TJ ET BT 244.004 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2009\) extends and deepens this research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Using many of the same types of source as Meyer, with a particular reliance on letters, diaries, and memoirs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roper shows that although some soldiers may have felt alienated from the civilian world during wartime, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home and front were ?structurally connected and inter-dependent? \(p. 6\). Soldiers relied on families for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodily comforts and for emotional sustenance, and these needs ensured a constant physical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological traffic between home and front. Like Meyer then, Roper stresses both martial and domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of soldiers? subjectivities, although he avoid any hint of the bifurcation she suggests: indeed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole force of his argument is directed towards showing that the domestic and the soldierly were mutually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent aspects of identity. In contrast to Meyer?s emphasis on the textual construction of male identity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roper is concerned with emotional subjectivity and psychological survival, and particularly how family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships influenced men?s experiences of the Western Front.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neither of these books is ?about? trauma, but it would not be possible to write a full history of the emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of soldiers, or the effects of war upon masculine identities, without touching upon the subject. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roper and Meyer therefore both tackle shell shock in the course of their books, but are concerned with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of servicemen more generally rather than those of soldier-)] TJ ET BT 372.248 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(patients)] TJ ET BT 410.252 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in particular. This is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important distinction: in academic studies as well as in the popular imagination, the coward, frightened boy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and shell shock victim invoked by Hynes as new characters in the cast of war are often conflated or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compressed into a single historical actor. Yet there were clearly differences in the experiences of those men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so incapacitated that they were removed from active military service, and those who managed to cope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficiently well to remain with their units. As Roper notes, studies of shell shock often have little to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about ?the majority who continued to carry out their military duties with at least a minimum of competence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but who suffered from periodic or even chronic emotional disturbances? \(p. 247\). These are not the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men who feature in the archives of shell shock, which record the experiences of those formally diagnosed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and processed by the medico-military bureaucratic complex. Yet the shell shocked and the ?merely? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering existed on the same experiential, and therefore emotional, spectrum. To understand how the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was experienced by serving soldiers, we must move beyond trauma; to understand trauma, we need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand how the war was experienced by serving soldiers. The four books under review suggest the many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different ways in which such understanding might be achieved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Hysterical Men)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hysteria is at the heart of historiographical interpretations of gender and shell shock. This is in no small part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(due to the influence of Elaine Showalter?s work, which is imprinted on virtually every discussion of the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neuroses which makes reference to gender.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 240.608 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 240.608 219.603 m 260.600 219.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 260.600 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Showalter?s reading of shell shock was driven by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary feminist scholarship on hysteria as ?the daughter?s disease?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.608 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.608 205.347 m 413.600 205.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 413.600 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Within this tradition, hysteria )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was viewed as both the product of female oppression, and a physical and mental rebellion against this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repression. Hysteria encapsulated the history of female suffering, protest, and stigmatisation. Showalter?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of shell shock as ?an epidemic of male hysteria? therefore carried heavy ideological freight. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her view, shell shock was both perceived )] TJ ET BT 233.972 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 251.972 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( experienced as emasculating )] TJ ET BT 395.264 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 413.264 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( effeminising its subjects. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shell shocked soldiers felt themselves to be less than men; they were also viewed by others as displaying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminine characteristics. In fact, ?shell shock? was a popular term because it provided ?a masculine-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sounding substitute for the effeminate associations of ?hysteria??. Shell shock was, moreover, a ?disguised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male protest? against both the war and the Victorian masculine ideal. The influence of this model of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manliness was also evident in the differential application of diagnostic labels and treatments applied to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranking men and officers. The hysterical soldier was, like the hysterical woman, perceived as ?simple, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional, unthinking, passive, suggestible, dependent, and weak?, and was treated with harsh disciplinary )] TJ ET endstream endobj 67 0 obj [65 0 R /Fit] endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 455.2877 724.1095 475.2797 735.9895 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj [65 0 R /Fit] endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 240.6077 219.9175 260.5997 231.7975 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 73 0 obj [65 0 R /Fit] endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.6077 205.6615 413.5997 217.5415 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 79 0 R ] /Contents 77 0 R >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Length 7691 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therapies. The ?complex and overworked neurasthenic officer was much closer to an acceptable, even heroic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male ideal?, and so was treated with analytic therapies which stressed self-knowledge.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.256 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.256 780.819 m 468.248 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians of shell shock have tended to accept Showalter?s account of the relationship between hysteria and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shell shock even where they have rejected the finer details of her argument or the validity of her general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach. The standard view, then, is that doctors saw hysteria as a female disorder, and therefore perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shell shock as a type of feminine behaviour in male subjects; this led to the belief that traumatised soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were effeminate or unmanly. Showalter?s interpretation of the war neuroses, which has become the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant historiographical reading of shell shock as a gendered diagnosis, rests on the identification of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hysteria as the quintessential female malady. If hysteria was not historically a female disorder, this version )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the relations between medicine, shell shock and gender is much less convincing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Mark Micale?s )] TJ ET BT 157.664 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hysterical Men)] TJ ET BT 231.980 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( constitutes a major revisionist reading of the history of history, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only partially challenges the view that hysteria has been constructed predominantly as a female malady. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Micale?s central argument is that at several moments in hysteria?s long history, doctors have borne witness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the existence of the disorder in men. These glimpses of recognition, however, have been repeatedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppressed from the official discourses of science and medicine. The history of male hysteria is a history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical ?anxiety, ambivalence, and selective amnesia? \(p. 7\). The book, which is organised chronologically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traces the history of the male hysteria concept from the late Renaissance \(when the gynaecological model of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the disease favoured by the ancients was first disputed\) up to fin-de-sicle Vienna and the work of Freud. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first century of its existence, between the 17th and 18th centuries, male nervousness flourished in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture which recognised no hard-and-fast divisions between science, psychology, and literature. Between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late 18th and the mid 19th centuries, however, all this changed. As gender dichotomies were constructed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and strengthened within science and culture, female hysteria flourished in medical discourse while male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hysteria was submerged. As scientific and artistic commentaries on mind and body gradually diverged, male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nervousness disappeared from medical texts and became the preserve of artists and writers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Micale argues that male physicians had a range of reasons and a number of strategies for distancing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves from hysteria. The weakness and emotionality hysteria appeared to reveal could not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countenanced by male physicians because it undermined the image of strength and authority they needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project, and threatened their self-image as rational men of science. Male hysteria did not disappear, but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was feminized, sexualized, pathologized, and portrayed as a moral deviation. It was flatly denied, re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diagnosed, or qualified to the point of non-existence; when acknowledged, the male hysteric was portrayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as effeminate and barely a man at all. Even such an important champion of male hysteria as the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot \(1825?1893\), who consciously sought to subvert the stereotypes attached to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the disorder, produced a model of the illness that was subtly and complexly gendered. Perhaps most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, one group never appeared in Charcot?s work on male hysteria, even though he treated it in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private practice, and belonged to it himself: wealthy bourgeois men.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The heightened cultural anxiety of fin de sicle Europe, which provided the backdrop to Charcot?s work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male hysteria, encouraged radical explorations of masculinity in a range of new biomedical discourses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including evolutionary biology, eugenics, criminal anthropology, endocrinology, and sexology. Yet although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in France discourses of male hysteria flourished, there was still a strong current of resistance to the subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within medicine. Even Freud, who diagnosed himself as hysterical and encountered male hysteria at several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial points in his early career, chose not to publish case studies of male hysterics. For Micale, this proves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?how difficult it would be for any male scientist of this era to transcend the inherited categories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity and femininity and to break out of the historical ?prison of gender?? \(p. 275\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a valuable book which, as the subtitle promises, exposes ?the hidden history of male nervous illness?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Micale has amassed an impressive quantity of material on male hysteria, and it will be difficult for future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars to ignore the historical existence of the disorder. There is an impressive tradition of feminist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship of hysteria, and the role of feminine ?nerves? in cultural constructions of womanhood has long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been appreciated by historians of women. )] TJ ET BT 236.972 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hysterical Men)] TJ ET BT 311.288 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides an important parallel history of male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nervousness and its role in structuring visions of ideal masculinity. In arguing that male physicians ignored )] TJ ET endstream endobj 78 0 obj [76 0 R /Fit] endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.2557 781.1335 468.2477 793.0135 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 84 0 R ] /Contents 82 0 R >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Length 7684 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hysteria in their own sex, Micale does not challenge the historical association of hysteria with femininity, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he does add a new layer to our understanding of the construction and operation of this association, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how it affected men as well as women. This is often achieved through a re-reading of apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar episodes in the history of history, gender, or sexuality: as, for example, when he highlights the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of male hysteria in Charcot?s work, or when he points out the radical de-stabilisation of ?male? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?female? in the work of sexologist Otto Weininger, whose anti-Semitic and misogynist writings are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more usually portrayed as upholding gender conservatism. The intersections of the medical, cultural, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political are thoughtfully explored, and he has a gift for placing particular texts or thinkers within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader sweep of history without over-simplification.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As with any synoptic history, some chapters are stronger than others. The middle part of the book, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deals with the Victorian ?eclipse? of male hysteria, the work of Charcot, and fin de sicle explorations of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disorder, show Micale at his most assured. By contrast the opening chapter, which ranges from the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention a wondering womb in an Egyptian papyrus dating from c.1900 BC up to Samuel Johnson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rasselas in 1759, inevitably seems sketchy in places. There are numerous scholars of early modern Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who would dispute his throwaway assertion, in the course of arguing that demonological theories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptualised hysteria as archetypally female, that ?There were no male witches? \(p. 10\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter, on Freud and the origins of psychoanalysis, poses certain challenges. Micale convincingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that male hysteria played an important part in formulating Freud?s thought at critical junctures in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early history of psychoanalysis, but at times seems eager to excuse Freud for imagined ?flaws? in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes towards male hysteria, gender, and sexuality. He suggests, for example, that if the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative Breuer had not co-written )] TJ ET BT 224.300 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Hysteria)] TJ ET BT 315.632 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it may have included case studies of male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hysterics. This is presented honestly as pure speculation, but it is unnecessary and unconvincing speculation: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if Breuer was one of the forces preventing Freud from making his heartfelt commitment to a gender-neutral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory of hysteria public, why did he not publish any studies of male hysterics after his short-lived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association with Breuer ended? This type of special pleading undermines an otherwise thought-provoking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to the volume of scholarship on Freud, gender, and hysteria.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The decision to end the book with Freud is interesting. As the master historiographer of hysteria, Micale was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely aware that in this respect his book echoes the structure of Ilza Veith?s classic )] TJ ET BT 439.592 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hysteria: the History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a Disease)] TJ ET BT 81.008 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, first published in 1965 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 198.344 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 198.344 359.907 m 218.336 359.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 218.336 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and it is difficult to believe that this was not a deliberate decision. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Veith has been criticised for a teleological reading the history of hysteria, combing medical texts for traces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of pre-Freudian thought and presenting the birth of psychoanalysis as the end point of the history of hysteria. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Micale may have left himself open to a similar set of charges. There is, however, a good case for arguing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that twentieth-century hysteria was a different type of beast, not least because from a few decades in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freudian viewpoint became so pervasive, and that this is a logical end point for the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A more important question is whether Micale?s central argument stands up: producing a great mass of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical writing on male hysteria makes the argument that the concept has been rigorously suppressed for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most of its history problematic. He convincingly argues that when forced to acknowledge male hysteria, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physicians have employed a range of strategies which served to minimise its importance; but if these doctors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been completely unable to countenance the psychological frailty male hysteria threatened, then they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have left no record of it at all, and this history could not have been written. It may just be that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppression was partial because of the supreme self-confidence of white, heterosexual, middle-class male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physicians, and that they were able to successfully ?other? male hysterics. This is a possibility denied by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Micale in his conclusion because male hysteria was, apparently, ?a discourse of the self? rather than ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of [?] collective others?. Yet surely it is only with psychodynamic psychology that hysteria did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become a discourse of the self, rather than a collection of symptoms or a sign or hereditary taint? Ultimately, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, although not every reader will agree with Micale?s conclusions, all should appreciate the range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions he has asked ? and, more than this, should find it surprising that these questions have not been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked before. This is not only a fine book, but an essential one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although it stops short of 1914, Micale?s work should be of interest to historians of shell shock and gender )] TJ ET endstream endobj 83 0 obj [81 0 R /Fit] endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 198.3437 360.2215 218.3357 372.1015 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 87 0 R >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Length 7505 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it shows that, contrary to assumption, the existence of hysteria in men did not necessarily surprise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime physicians. Yet although hysteria was not an exclusively female malady, it was a highly feminised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and stigmatised disorder, and, if Micale?s central argument is accepted, one which doctors preferred to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignore or evade. To this extent, his research mounts only a limited challenge to conventional views of shell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shock as a gendered diagnosis, and even confirms a modified version of the Showalter thesis. Paul Lerner?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hysterical Men: war, psychiatry, and the politics of trauma in Germany, 1890?1930)] TJ ET BT 439.988 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is potentially far more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disruptive for this argument, although its full implications do not appear to have been realised since its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original publication in 2003.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lerner argues that in late 19th-century Germany, male hysteria was not denied or suppressed. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrary, for some ambitious medical men, it became the diagnosis of choice. This is explained by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peculiar history of the male hysteria concept in Germany, where it emerged hand-in-hand with debates on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the traumatic neuroses. In the 1880s, as a result of rapid industrialization and coinciding with both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bismarck?s social insurance legislation and Wilhelmine concern with collective health, industrial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(railways accidents multiplied. As more and more men involved in these accidents presented hysteria-like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symptoms, medical debates raged over the origins of these disorders. The neurologist Hermann Oppenheim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that the traumatic neuroses originated in material damage to the nervous system, but his critics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countered that they were nothing more than hysteria. The question had important political implications: if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the symptoms were caused by the pathological mental processes of the hysterical individual, then the state or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employers were not liable to pay compensation to the victims of accidents. The association of hysteria with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work therefore displaced its traditional gender identity, and made it a preferable diagnosis for employers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state. When the war broke out and soldiers began to break down, these debates were replicated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reached the same conclusion. German military doctors decided that soldiers were hysterical rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering from traumatic neurosis; this was seen as a patriotic diagnosis which not only minimised the cost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the state, but prevented the individual from developing a crippling ?pension neurosis? in pursuit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compensation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this thoughtful and comprehensive book, Lerner traces the origins and consequences of the trauma )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept from the 1890s into the post-war years. The recurrent theme is how ?the surrounding political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic, and social context influence[s] diagnostic change in the history of psychiatry and how scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas can resonate with broader cultural patterns? \(p. 62\). He never denies individual suffering, but always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how it is ?constructed by larger social and medical forces? \(p. 10\). In 1914, German neurologists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychiatrists greeted the outbreak of hostilities with patriotic fervour, portraying war as a health-giving agent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which would cleanse the nation. This encouraged them to see mentally ill soldiers as a threat to national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unity, and themselves as loyal servants of the nation performing an essential duty by combating male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hysteria. The stigmatization of war hysteria had one benefit for soldiers. Men who had broken down once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were perceived as liable to crack under pressure if returned to active service, where they risked spreading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hysteria among their units \(it was widely perceived as contagious\) and putting the lives of healthy German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers in danger. This meant that psychiatrists defined cure as the ability to work rather than the return to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting fitness, and unlike in other combatant nations German war neurotics were not returned to the front. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?In such a way, health, morality, and productivity were blended into a normative concept of appropriate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculine behaviour? \(p. 127\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Their loyalty to the state also meant that German military doctors were willing to experiment with a range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therapies in the interests of turning broken soldiers into productive workers. These ranged from the relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benign, such as the suggestive therapies most strikingly illustrated by the neurologist Max Nonne?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theatrical displays of hypnosis, or the programme of work therapy and rehabilitation developed at special )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neurosis stations, to the wholly unexpected, such as the alliance between the leaders of the psychoanalytic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement and the political and the military authorities of the Central Powers \(lured by the promise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeper cures which could return men to the field\) which, had the war lasted longer, would have resulted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the creation of special psychoanalytic clinics for the treatment of war neurosis. The dark side to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experimentation was the acceptance of methods which relied on pain and humiliation to succeed, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notorious Kaufmann cure \()] TJ ET BT 163.652 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(berrumpelingsbehandling)] TJ ET BT 296.312 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), which involved the application of strong electrical )] TJ ET endstream endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 89 0 R >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Length 6075 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currents accompanied by relentless verbal suggestion. This proved popular because it was seen to produce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapid cures and to be an easy method to learn even for inexperienced physicians. There were a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objections to the method ? it was inhumane, painful, and there were documented cases in which it produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(injury and even death ? but use of the Kaufmann technique was still not restricted until the final weeks of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, when it met with patient protest and popular resistance. The collectivist ethos of medical men meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the ends were seen to justify the means. In the post-war years, when their wartime activities were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavily criticised, psychiatrists even argued that such unjustified attacks made them the real victims of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war; and in their attempts to deny veterans compensation and thereby to avoid crippling the state with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormous pensions bill, they portrayed Weimar welfare provision, rather than war, as the true threat to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental health and national efficiency.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is possible that specialist historians of imperial or Weimar Germany might criticise some of Lerner?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertions; certainly he is not shy of challenging historiographical constructs such as the notion of the special )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(path \()] TJ ET BT 61.676 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sonderwag)] TJ ET BT 115.676 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) of German history, or the Weimar ?culture of trauma?. This historian of shell shock, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, finds it difficult to discover flaws in the book. One of the major achievements of Lerner?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hysterical Men)] TJ ET BT 108.332 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is its deep ?historicization of World War I ? era psychiatry into its multiple early-twentieth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century contexts? \(p. 4\). This means not only a lively and continual awareness of the social and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimensions of the male hysteria diagnosis, but a keen appreciation of the motivations of psychiatrists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neurologists, including the jostle for scientific and professional supremacy between the two groups, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social context of psychiatric practice, and the ways in which practice shaped theory and vice versa. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, for example, that Hermann Oppenheim?s championing of the traumatic neurosis concept was rooted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in nineteenth century liberal traditions, in which patient complaints were taken seriously and patients )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves were minutely examined. The new, younger generation of doctors did not work in private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice with individual patients, and were likely to take a collectivist approach to social problems in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the individual patients was submerged. The prevalence of anti-Semitism meant that it was easy to depict the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish Oppenheim as alien and unpatriotic when his ideas seemed to threaten the full-blooded pursuit of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. The victory of the male hysteria diagnosis is therefore presented as the concatenation of a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces: political and economic imperatives, racial/religious prejudice, generational conflict, and trends within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other major achievement of Lerner?s research is to provide the fullest and most nuanced national history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of masculinity and trauma in the First World War. Here, gender is not relegated to a separate chapter or its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operation as a historical construct assumed; rather, the importance of gender in shaping medical attitudes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations, and consequently patient experiences, permeates every page. Lerner acknowledges his debt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the work of Elaine Showalter, and explains that there has been little written on gender and trauma in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German context. He argues that, in contrast to Showalter?s analysis of shell shock as a gendered diagnosis in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, there is an absence of explicit feminization of traumatised patients in German medical writings. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operative opposition here is not between masculinity and femininity, but between healthy masculinity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pathological lack of male behaviour such as working, fighting, and patriotism. Lerner sees this as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of the particular national context of the debates on hysteria, work, and war which he discusses, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it could also be argued that it demonstrates the necessity for more in-depth attention to how male hysteria )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was constructed, and the concept deployed, in all combatant nations.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 91 0 R >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Length 7472 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Micale?s work shows that male hysteria has a surprisingly long history, and that it has shifted shape in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to political and social developments as well as changes in the doctor-patient relationship; Lerner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirms that the meanings of male hysteria were determined by the perceived needs of the nation, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex of relations between state, medicine, and soldier-worker-patients, and that this combination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances was enough to overthrow the traditionally feminine associations of hysteria. Together, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books suggest that more detailed research on the specific contexts \(historical, national, and chronological\) in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the diagnosis of male hysteria has been deployed may yet alter our understandings of its operation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime. If doctors were familiar with male hysteria, or if in one country they believed it was the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate diagnosis for soldiers who had broken down, surely it is time to reconsider how the label is used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in histories of masculinity, shell shock and trauma?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Masculinity and Emotional Survival)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A number of labels, old and new, were applied to men who were processed by the medico-military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratic complex between 1914 and 1918: not only hysteria, neurasthenia, traumatic neurosis, and shell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shock, but also manifold hybrid diagnoses and permutations on the same theme. The precise choice of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appellation reflected the symptoms displayed by the patient and the aetiological explanation favoured by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctor. From the point of view of the medical historian, the differences in these labels, the nuances of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion they reveal and conceal, are fascinating and integral to understanding the construction of trauma as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diagnosis. For others, the differences in diagnostic terminology are meaningless, and what is important is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these labels have the same subject: men in pain as a result of their exposure to war. Yet of course, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labels do not cover the full spectrum of suffering, or the range of ways in which men could be affected by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. In all combatant nations, the number of men diagnosed and treated for shell shock during the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formed only a small proportion of all those who fought. The trauma suffered by many soldiers was doubtless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored or misdiagnosed, but the fact remains: although the First World War pushed men to the limits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their endurance, most )] TJ ET BT 140.660 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did)] TJ ET BT 155.996 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( endure. Yet stating the fact does not explain it. The questions of how such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endurance was achieved, and what the war ultimately cost even those who seemed to emerge relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unscathed, continue to exert a grim fascination.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Endurance? seems a particularly apt word to describe the qualities required of soldiers in the trenches. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jessica Meyer argues that the notion of endurance as a masculine ideal was actually a product of the war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian and Edwardian models of masculinity had emphasised self-control, but endurance was something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a little different. ?Men who endured were those who controlled their emotions not only in the moment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fear and stress but also when confronted with the on-going horrors of warfare? \(p. 142\). As this example )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests, the very terms in which we think about soldiering are a result of the redefinition of masculinity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caused by the First World War. Meyer?s work uses a range of personal narratives to examine the complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes by which masculine identities were constructed and reconstructed during and after the war, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the fluidity and complexity of male identities in wartime. Civilian and domestic identities were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial in shaping perceptions of martial masculinity among volunteers and conscripts, and the version of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiering they presented to their families and friends. The civilian persisted within the soldier. Similarly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideal of the soldier hero persisted long after the experience of the trenches had shown most men the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulty of ever attaining this ideal, although it was also modified \(as through the new emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endurance\) and had to sit alongside new ?culturally powerful identities? such as that of the male victim \(p. 5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The decision to focus on personal narratives is one of the strengths of this book. Meyer shows that although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are potential problems with using such narratives, such as the extent to which any narrative can be held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as representative of a mythical unified ?war experience?, common threads of understanding nevertheless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerge from these sources which enable a greater understanding of the effects of war on representations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male identity. The chapters in )] TJ ET BT 179.996 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Men of War)] TJ ET BT 237.320 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( focus on different textual sources and proceed chronologically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowing Meyer to reflect on the role of memory in shaping narratives of war. The first two chapters deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with wartime material \(letters from the front and wartime diaries\); a chapter on letters of condolence bridges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wartime and post-war worlds; and the final two chapters on letters from disabled ex-servicemen to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ministry of Pensions and war memoirs deal with soldiers? attempts to negotiate the world after the war. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 93 0 R >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Length 6963 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are occasional problems with this structure: soldiers appear to have recorded many of the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns in diaries and in memoirs, and although there is clearly a point in comparing the subtle differences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in these narratives, the material on horror \(for example\) seems repetitious in places. For the most part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, the structure highlights both the particularity of different types of sources and the diverse arenas in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which martial masculinities were acted out. It has the benefit of showing not only how soldiers constructed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own masculine identities, but how these varied with intended audience, and how others \(mothers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military superiors, pension officials\) contested or supported these constructions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s other great asset is the wealth of original source material, generously quoted, which Meyer has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unearthed. Letters of condolence, and letters to the Ministry of Pensions, are excellent and under-explored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources for the social history of the First World War. Although soldiers? letters, diaries, and memoirs are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonly used by historians of the First World War, it is rarer to find attention given to these as texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governed by particular rules and narrative forms, as well as shaped by intended audience ? and, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the stories told by these men are thoroughly absorbing. The case study of a particular soldier which ends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each chapter illustrates general themes and provides an in-depth analysis of an individual?s construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own identity as a soldier or veteran in a particular narrative form, but is particularly welcome as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity for greater engagement with these life stories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Men of War)] TJ ET BT 91.340 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is therefore undoubtedly an interesting book, but it is also flawed in certain respects. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, Meyer emphasises that ?not all men experienced the same war in the same way?; differences in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social class, regional background, and the particularity of individual experiences of the war militate against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the assumption of one shared war experience \(p. 10\). Yet throughout the book, all too often she does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide relevant information about individuals. Their pre-war lives remain a blank. In part, this may be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result of the types of source material ? surely few individuals began their letters home by listing all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information a census-taker might require ? but any type of personal narrative usually produces some clues as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the writer?s social status or pre-war occupation. The failure to comment on these aspects of identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermines the analysis in places. For example, the opening sentence of an in-depth analysis of one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual states, ?One man who was undoubtedly changed by the war was Lt C. S. Rawlins? \(p. 40\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(next sentence summarises his war experience from enlistment until the Battle of Loos. As far as the reader is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned, Rawlins had no life before 1914; it is therefore difficult for Meyer to show, or the reader to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judge, how Rawlins was changed by the war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meyer?s use of Rawlins also illustrates an occasional tendency to strain too hard to make the evidence fit the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis. Consider the following quotation from one of Rawlins? letters:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Our best and fittest men are daily being killed & wounded: all our best blood is going to waste, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(& our race is bound to suffer terrible depreciation in consequence & we ought to do all in our )] TJ ET BT 64.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power to lessen this for the sake of our country?s future ? every single man will have to marry )] TJ ET BT 64.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?after the war?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Meyer, this ?casting of the problem of manpower in terms of marriage and fatherhood exposes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extent to which the domestic and the military were merged in his view of the world? \(p. 45\). Yet surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extract quoted does not display a concern with military manpower, but rather with racial decline as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result of war? It does not discuss marriage and fatherhood as part of a traditionally domestic identity, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather as )] TJ ET BT 77.996 156.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(public)] TJ ET BT 107.996 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( duties which must be performed for racial regeneration. If these comments prove anything, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not Rawlins? negotiation of domestic and martial identities, but the prevalence of discourses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degeneration and eugenics in wartime Britain \(it might also be added, that they suggest some clue as to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class identity of C. S. Rawlins, never mentioned in Meyer?s discussion of his letters\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the focus on different types of text suggests, )] TJ ET BT 265.316 87.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Men of War)] TJ ET BT 322.640 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is concerned with the construction of male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities rather than psychological subjectivity. The emphasis on construction often results in the lack of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of identities as inhabited, as lived realities. Men did not simply construct martial and domestic )] TJ ET endstream endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 95 0 R >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Length 7663 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities: they lived as soldiers, with all the bodily deprivations and psychological turmoil that entailed, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were fathers, brothers, and sons. To speak of constructing an identity implies a degree of agency and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awareness in regard to subjectivity which may be proper to self-representation, but does not cover the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitable blind spots in self-knowledge. Of course, to a certain extent, all historians deal with retrospective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructions rather than unmediated experience. The text stands between scholar and subject. Some would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue that, properly speaking, the text )] TJ ET BT 218.648 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is)] TJ ET BT 226.652 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the subject and there is no unmediated experience ? even the oral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian has to wrestle with the manifold problems of memory. Yet there is nevertheless a gap between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience and representation which is never fully explored or acknowledged in Meyer?s book, and in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she is representative. It is a gap which few historians attempt to negotiate, either because they do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subscribe to social and cultural constructivism, or because they believe it is impossible to find a way round )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(or through\) the text without a retreat to essentialism. Michael Roper may not escape charges of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentialism, but in )] TJ ET BT 129.356 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Secret Battle: Emotional Survival in the Great War)] TJ ET BT 396.668 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( he has produced a work which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolutely about experience rather than representation, which is methodologically innovative and empirically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flawless, and which is theoretically sophisticated yet should appeal to a wide reading public, not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roper seeks to explain how young British civilian soldiers survived the First World War. He argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family relationships were ?a source of practical survival skills and support, and played a crucial role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustaining the morale of this largely young, amateur army?. During the war these relationships were largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducted through the long-distance means of letters and parcels, ?but drew their strength from a much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer history, whose legacy could be seen not only in the soldier?s domestic skills and memories of home, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but in his deepest states of mind? \(p. 1\). The book is divided into three sections: ?Mothers and sons?, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the psychological and physical interchange between home and trenches in the form of letters and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parcels; ?Mothering men?, which considers the relations between maternal care and domestic survival; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Falling apart?, which explores the emotional experience of trench warfare and its aftermath: grief, terror, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horror, dread, anger, alienation, revulsion and love. Throughout, Roper shows that home and the Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(front were not separate spheres, and men?s identities were not split into aspects of the soldier and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian. The two fronts were organically blurred, not only through physical and emotional traffic between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the man and his family, but in the person of the soldier who might sometimes feel alienated from good old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blighty and all in it, but who nevertheless carried home with him wherever he went.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The men Roper writes about are not martial heroes, or even simply officers or sergeants, but fathers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brothers, nephews, and above all sons. The emphasis throughout the book is on maternal relationships. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation for this is the inspiration Roper derives from psychoanalytic ideas, which he explains helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him to understand the impact of trench warfare on the mind as well as how to interpret letters, diaries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoirs. Another, however, is that the mother-son relationship did govern the emotional lives of most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young men in the early 20th century, albeit in ways dependent on the social class and particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances of different individuals. One page into the book, Rope presents us with examples of men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crying out for their mothers as they died; he spends the rest of it attempting to explain why this was, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what it tells us about the emotional lives of soldiers. An interest in psychoanalysis might explain the decision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to highlight these stories, but it does not explain why the dying word of so many men, of so many different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalities, was ?Mother? \(or, for the more cynically-minded, it does not explain where such stories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originated or why they were so often repeated\). Psychoanalytic theory informs and enriches this history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than dictates its content, although it is nevertheless integral to the history that Roper has produced. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put it another way; it would be possible to remove most of the explicit references to psychoanalysis in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book without altering the interpretations and conclusions that are arrived at through its use, and still satisfy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most anti-psychoanalytic and empirically-minded historian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book gathers force through the accumulation of flashes of revelation which appear to the reader as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moments of recognition. Most of these examples involve linking up men?s pre-war and domestic experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with their experiences as soldiers, and they usually demonstrate a keen awareness of the importance of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class in structuring both emotional and bodily experience. In many of these cases, Roper is not unveiling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new evidence but placing information in a different context which exposes new dimensions or significance )] TJ ET endstream endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 97 0 R >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Length 6815 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to it. Often, they reveal the extent to which assumptions about gender have governed the questions previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians and asked and the histories they have written as a result. For example, he not only reminds us of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the well-known fact of overcrowding among poor families, but illustrates this with reference to a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case and suggests how social background differentiated experiences of war:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Charles Taylor, a tunnel construction worker, signed up in April 1915, fourteen people were living in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his mother?s six-roomed house in South London, and he slept on the couch in the front room. Officers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes wondered how the men managed to get to sleep in primitive billets or funk holes, but many had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never enjoyed the privacy of a separate bedroom. While the clerk might have found it bewildering at first to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have to sleep twelve to a bell tent in the Army, the semi-skilled working man Charles Taylor probably did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not; and he was used to putting away his bedding by day \(p. 181\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elsewhere, he shows that although historians have started to investigate the influence of civilian resources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on wartime survival, they have usually focused on the public sphere. For working-class men, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbourhood, workplace, and mutual associations have been discussed at great length, but the home has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been underplayed. For the officer class, historians have assumed that the experience of looking after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boarders at public schools determined the nature of relations with rankers, rather than exploring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of relationships with domestic servants. Yet given the youth of British Army recruits, the home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than the public sphere was the most immediate source of knowledge and point of reference for most. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not only this, but the army itself was also a domestic institution, which fed, clothed and sheltered its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recruits. Therefore)] TJ ET BT 64.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([when] the soldier took out his sewing kit or ?housewife? to mend his tunic, heated up his )] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rations of a Tommy cooker, or tried to rid himself of the ubiquitous louse, he performed a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic task, sometimes with help or advice from his mother. How things had been done at )] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home influenced how, in this largely non-professional Army, things would be done at war \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(161?2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It might be speculated that historians have downplayed the influence of the private sphere, or failed to look )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the home, because they are so used to conceptualising masculine identities as formed in the public world. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly, only rather rigid preconceptions about sex and gender roles can explain why historians have often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described the caring roles performed by subalterns as ?paternal?. Yet as Roper points out, the practical tasks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performed by officers \(ensuring that men were fed, watered, sheltered and generally kept in the greatest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical comfort possible\) were those most usually performed by mothers, not fathers, while the emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualities they were required to demonstrate \(keeping order and regulating minor punishments, while all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time remaining sympathetic and alive to their charges? needs\) were again maternal rather than paternal. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps most tellingly, subalterns often compared themselves to mothers, not to fathers; yet historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transmuted these direct comparisons into evidence of ?paternal? feeling simply because the tasks were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performed by men \(pp. 165?6\). This is a perfect illustration of Roper?s ability to make the reader see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar material with fresh eyes, and in doing so to turn old assumptions about gender, masculinity and war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upside down while providing an enriched and deepened understanding.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These examples also demonstrate how the book fulfils its overarching aim of moving experience to centre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage. This involves a more thoughtful approach to memory than is often taken in such histories. Roper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacks \(elegantly, but nonetheless fatally\) the orthodoxy that retrospective accounts are ?tainted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory? and that contemporary sources are somehow closer to the ?truth? of the event. He points out that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proximity to events could sometimes prevent understanding. ?What these men experienced was sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too disturbing to take in; the very ability to think was under attack?, meaning that experiences ?were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholly constituted in language? \(pp. 20?1\). In practical terms, this means reading sources such as letters and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diaries in a different manner. Roper quotes from a letter written by Captain Herbert Leland: ?Oh! Such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crump has just fallen. Mud, dust, splinters of wood all over me, but I am hanging on to this piece of paper?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is easy to imagine another historian using this as evidence of the ability of soldiers to mediate the horror of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 101 0 R ] /Contents 99 0 R >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Length 6938 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war through humour, a stance which often falls into arguing that horror was not as extreme as it might first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem to us, because it was not felt as such by those who experienced it. Roper reads the letter quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differently:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the jokey tone scarcely conceals his terror of being rent apart, which was less evoked than )] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performed in the very writing [?] Only a scrap of paper, his one connection to home, kept )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leland sane amidst the shellfire, and if he lost his grip on it, he might not hold together? \(p. 21\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elsewhere he points out the significance of certain slips of the pencil. Words written by accident and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crossed out show memory running ahead of the ability to put experiences into words \(p. 66\). The counterpart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this sensitivity to the potential readings of contemporary records is an awareness of the value of reflection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in retrospective accounts. These may not tell us exactly how someone believed they felt at the time, but they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tell us something of equal value; how someone felt afterwards, when they had a chance to mediate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience and to reflect on where it fitted into the broader outlines of a war and a life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Secret Battle)] TJ ET BT 116.672 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( marries the best of social history, psychohistory, and histories of emotion. It is a strident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter to the recent trend within First World War studies to argue that the horror of the war is largely a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of myth, memory, and anti-war sentiment. The fact that not every man who served died does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mitigate the bleakness of the casualty lists. The fact that not all men saw active service, or that even for those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who did, ?going over the top? was an exceptional rather than daily occurrence, does not make the killing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dying, and dismemberment which did occur somehow less terrible. The ability of human beings to cope in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the face of pain and terror does not justify the events which caused these emotions. Of course it is important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to realise that the meanings attributed to the war by subsequent generations have often been shaped by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary political and cultural landscape, or that many prominent representations of the war can be read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differently, or read alongside other accounts which emphasised different aspects of war experience. But in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuing these research agendas, the lived experience of this war ? its daily discomforts as well as its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outermost limits of horror ? has sometimes been lost. The attempt to understand the emotional experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war beyond coping or breaking down, meanwhile, has been attempted only very rarely, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuities between pre-war and wartime emotional experience never shown in such a rounded and nuanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion. This is a book in a class of its own, which should be read not only by scholars of the First World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War, or historians of gender, but anyone interested in the human mind and human society, past or present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Conclusion)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Our understandings of modern wars are formed within and against the shadow of the First World War. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn, our perceptions of this originating conflict are shaped by what we have learnt or imagine we now know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the costs of war. This does not mean the ?real? meaning of the war has been lost, but that new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimensions of the experience, significance, and lasting influence of the events of 1914?18 are continually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being uncovered. The rash of interest in shell shock over the past twenty years certainly tells us something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about attitudes to war, trauma and psychiatry in contemporary culture, but as the four books under review )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amply demonstrate, it also means that we are continually gaining new perspectives on the past. Although all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these books are concerned with the emotional and psychological suffering of men, they are very different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to each other. The range of approaches employed, areas addressed, and conclusions reached suggest that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is plenty of mileage yet in the overlapping subjects of male hysteria, shell shock, and the emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of men at war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first two books under review, those by Micale and Lerner, prove that medical history still has much to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer. In recent years historians of shell shock have self-consciously moved away from a reliance on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published medical literature, pleading that to understand the war neuroses, a variety of sources and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives must be consulted.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 185.996 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 185.996 86.067 m 205.988 86.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 205.988 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Shell shock studies have been dominated by cultural historians over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last decade. The tendency has been to move away from an analysis of the formal contents of diagnostic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categories used by doctors and the intellectual framework within which shell shock was constructed. While )] TJ ET endstream endobj 100 0 obj [98 0 R /Fit] endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 102 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 185.9957 86.3815 205.9877 98.2615 ] >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 107 0 R 109 0 R 111 0 R 113 0 R 115 0 R 117 0 R 119 0 R 121 0 R ] /Contents 104 0 R >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Length 9352 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this has resulted in a secondary literature which is immensely rich, as well as dynamic, the rejection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical history raises certain problems. Most obviously, it is impossible to write a history of a category such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as shell shock, which originated as a medical label applied by doctors to patients \(a category therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enmeshed in the network of medical relations at the most basic level\), without including some reference to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical ideas and practices. The books by Micale and Lerner are both concerned with the diagnosis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pathological masculinity and the motivations of doctors in formulating such diagnoses, but also show how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine reflects and refracts wider socio-economic, political, and cultural aims and assumptions. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work is clearly of relevance to scholars in a number of fields beyond medical history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The books by Roper and Meyer, on the other hand, show that histories of trauma are perhaps most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productive, and tackle their subject most properly, when they extend beyond the medical. The term shell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shock long ago escaped from medical journals into the vernacular; we might speculate that it has survived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there because it seems so peculiarly apt as a way of describing not only on those individuals who have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergone medical diagnosis and treatment, but others who experienced traumatic events without being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject to such interventions, or even the effects of war on whole societies. Indeed, Susan Kingsley Kent?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent )] TJ ET BT 66.332 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aftershocks: politics and trauma in Britain, 1918-1931)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 333.668 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 333.668 583.491 m 353.660 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 353.660 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even argues that political events in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately post-war years are best explained as a result of collective shell shock among Britons. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be too extreme for some tastes, but both Roper and Meyer show that the war had lasting psychological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and emotional repercussions on those who fought it. Not all men were traumatized, but many had borne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witness to traumatic events, and the wartime and post-war histories of these men also need to be written.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of trauma beyond the purely medical, or of wartime emotional experience beyond trauma, can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fruitfully interact with medical histories: what was the difference between a traumatized soldier and a shell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shock patient, or between those who were diagnosed and those who were not? What determined the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation of an emotional state into a formal medical diagnosis? Or, just as importantly what made some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men break down while others coped, however well or badly? The last question foxed doctors during the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War, and we still have no convincing answer to it today. Although this is depressing to acknowledge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it does suggest one reason why shell shock continues to hold us in its thrall; these are live mysteries about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the possibilities and limitations of the human mind. In many respects, these are not historical questions, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if they can be answered, it will not be through history. Yet as these books show, albeit in their very different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways, it is important as historians that we keep asking these questions, not only to learn about humans in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past but because the act of asking continually throws up new questions and new ways of seeing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Fussell, )] TJ ET BT 128.360 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great War and Modern Memory)] TJ ET BT 305.996 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1975\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.320 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.320 292.131 m 441.308 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Hynes)] TJ ET BT 107.348 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, A War Imagined: the First World War and English Culture)] TJ ET BT 397.676 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1991\), pp. 214?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 263.619 m 118.004 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Paris, )] TJ ET BT 110.684 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Warrior Nation: Images of War in British Popular Culture 1850?2000)] TJ ET BT 450.368 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 531.692 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 531.692 249.363 m 559.352 249.363 l S BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 235.107 m 90.344 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Leese, )] TJ ET BT 125.660 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shell Shock: Traumatic Neurosis and the British Soldiers of the First World War)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.676 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.676 206.595 m 217.664 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Lerner, )] TJ ET BT 126.332 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hysterical Men)] TJ ET BT 200.648 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ithaca, NY, 2003\); Peter Barham )] TJ ET BT 369.272 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forgotten Lunatics of the Great War)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Haven, CT, 2004\); Edgar Jones and Simon Wessely, )] TJ ET BT 349.304 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shell Shock to PTSD: )] TJ ET BT 455.960 179.477 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Military Psychiatry )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(from 1900 to the Gulf War)] TJ ET BT 195.692 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hove, 2005\); and Fiona Reid, )] TJ ET BT 348.344 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Broken Men: Shell shock, Treatment and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Recovery in Britain, 1914?1930)] TJ ET BT 218.000 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.324 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.324 149.571 m 353.312 149.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 136.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example )] TJ ET BT 144.992 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tense Past: Cultural Essays in Trauma and Memory)] TJ ET BT 397.988 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. Antze and M. Lambek )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1996\); and )] TJ ET BT 202.316 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Traumatic Pasts: History, Psychiatry, and Trauma in the Modern Age, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1870?1930)] TJ ET BT 118.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. M. Micale and P. Lerner \(Cambridge, 2001\); R. Leys, )] TJ ET BT 406.304 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trauma: a genealogy)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000\); A. Young, )] TJ ET BT 342.992 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Harmony of Illusions: Inventing Post-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Traumatic Stress Disorder)] TJ ET BT 192.020 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.340 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.340 78.291 m 355.328 78.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 65.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Showalter, )] TJ ET BT 132.008 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Female Malady: Women, Madness and English Culture, 1830?1980)] TJ ET BT 480.644 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1987\), pp. 194?7. This analysis was expanded in several other works by Showalter: E. Showalter, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F4 /BaseFont /Times-BoldItalic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 106 0 obj [103 0 R /Fit] endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 108 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 333.6677 583.8055 353.6597 595.6855 ] >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 110 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 387.3197 292.4455 441.3077 304.3255 ] >> endobj 110 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 111 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 112 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 263.9335 118.0037 275.8135 ] >> endobj 112 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 113 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 114 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 531.6917 249.6775 559.3517 261.5575 ] >> endobj 114 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 115 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 116 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 235.4215 90.3437 247.3015 ] >> endobj 116 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 117 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 118 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.6757 206.9095 217.6637 218.7895 ] >> endobj 118 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 119 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 120 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.3237 149.8855 353.3117 161.7655 ] >> endobj 120 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 121 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 122 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 301.3397 78.6055 355.3277 90.4855 ] >> endobj 122 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 123 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 125 0 R 127 0 R 129 0 R 131 0 R 133 0 R 135 0 R 137 0 R 139 0 R 141 0 R 143 0 R 145 0 R 147 0 R 149 0 R 151 0 R 153 0 R ] /Contents 124 0 R >> endobj 124 0 obj << /Length 12508 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Rivers and Sassoon: the inscription of male gender anxieties?, in )] TJ ET BT 382.976 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Behind the Lines: Gender and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Two World Wars)] TJ ET BT 146.024 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. M. Higgonet )] TJ ET BT 233.684 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 254.684 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. \(New Haven, CT, 1987\), pp. 61?9; E. Showalter, ?Hysteria, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminism and gender?, in )] TJ ET BT 188.996 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hysteria beyond Freud)] TJ ET BT 300.308 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. S. Gilman )] TJ ET BT 375.308 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 396.308 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. \(Berkeley, CA, 1993\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(286?344; E. Showalter, )] TJ ET BT 179.672 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hystories: Hysterical Epidemics and Modern Culture)] TJ ET BT 437.312 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke, 1997\), pp. 30?112.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.008 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.008 738.051 m 272.996 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Bourke, )] TJ ET BT 116.012 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dismembering the Male: Men?s Bodies, Britain and the Great War)] TJ ET BT 439.976 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 521.300 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 521.300 723.795 m 548.960 723.795 l S BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 709.539 m 90.344 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The now classic statement of this ?masculine stereotype? is provided by G. Mosse, )] TJ ET BT 464.960 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Image of Man: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Creation of Modern Masculinity)] TJ ET BT 237.344 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York and Oxford, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.636 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.636 681.027 m 443.624 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Tosh, ?What should historians do with masculinity? Reflections on nineteenth-century Britain?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Workshop Journal)] TJ ET BT 192.008 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 38, 1 \(1994\), 179?202; M. Jones, ?What should historians do with heroes? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reflections on nineteenth- and twentieth-century Britain?, )] TJ ET BT 346.304 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Compass)] TJ ET BT 429.308 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 5, 2 \(2007\), 439?54; K. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvey and A. Shephard, ?What have historians done with masculinity? Reflections in five centuries )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of British history, c. 1500-1950?, )] TJ ET BT 226.676 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of British Studies)] TJ ET BT 349.688 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 44, 2 \(2005\), 274?80.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 459.008 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 459.008 609.747 m 518.996 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manliness and Morality: Middle-Class Masculinity in Britain and America, 1800?1940)] TJ ET BT 484.676 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mangan and J. Walvin \(Manchester, 1987\); )] TJ ET BT 275.972 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manful Assertions: Masculinities in Britain since 1800)] TJ ET BT 539.312 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. M. Roper and J. Tosh \(London, 1991\); L. A. Hall, )] TJ ET BT 324.656 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality, 1900?1950)] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1991\); A. Smith, )] TJ ET BT 211.016 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Demons: Medicine, Masculinity and the Gothic at the Fin-de-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sicle)] TJ ET BT 92.672 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, 2004\); J. Tosh, ?Masculinities in an industrializing society: Britain, 1800-1914?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of British Studies)] TJ ET BT 187.028 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 44 \(2005\), 330?42.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 284.348 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 284.348 524.211 m 344.336 524.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 511.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Nicoletta Gullace, ?)] TJ ET BT 179.984 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Blood of our Sons?: Men, Women, and the Renegotiation of British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Citizenship during the Great War)] TJ ET BT 225.356 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2002\), and )] TJ ET BT 351.344 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fighting Different Wars: Experience, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memory and the First World War in Britain)] TJ ET BT 275.012 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.332 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.332 481.443 m 432.320 481.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 468.586 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Micale, )] TJ ET BT 120.008 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Approaching Hysteria: Disease and Its Interpretations)] TJ ET BT 382.988 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, N.J., 1995\), pp. 164?8, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 249?53, and p. 260.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.672 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.672 452.931 m 236.660 452.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 440.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see footnote 6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 134.336 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 134.336 438.675 m 194.324 438.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 425.818 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andreas Killen?s )] TJ ET BT 149.996 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Berlin Electropolis: Shock, Nerves, and German Modernity)] TJ ET BT 435.956 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, CA, 2005\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covers a similar chronological period but war and trauma is not the explicit focus of the work, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although students interested in the subject will find it well worth reading.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.328 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.328 395.907 m 475.316 395.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 383.050 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manful Assertions: Masculinities in Britain since )] TJ ET BT 303.356 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1800, ed. M. Roper and J. Tosh \(London, 1991\); M. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roper, ?Re-remembering the soldier hero: the composure and re-composure of masculinity in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memories of the Great War?, )] TJ ET BT 206.636 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Workshop Journal)] TJ ET BT 334.628 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 50 \(2000\), 181?205; M. Roper, ?Maternal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations: moral manliness and emotional survival in letters home during the First World War?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Masculinity in Politics and War: Rewritings of Modern History)] TJ ET BT 368.684 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. S. Dudink, K. Hagermann and J. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tosh \(Manchester, 2004\), pp. 295?315; M. Roper, ?Between manliness and masculinity: the ?war )] TJ ET BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation? and the psychology of fear in Britain, 1914?1970?, )] TJ ET BT 370.292 297.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of British Studies)] TJ ET BT 493.304 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 44, 2 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2005\), 343?63, 345; M. Roper, 'Between the psyche and the social: masculinity, subjectivity and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First World War veteran', )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.812 268.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Men's Studies)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.812 267.777 m 308.708 267.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 311.708 268.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 327.044 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 333.044 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15, 3 \(2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 395.036 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 395.036 267.603 m 455.024 267.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 254.746 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Compare Showalter?s reading with that given by J. Bourke, )] TJ ET BT 353.648 254.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dismembering the Male)] TJ ET BT 469.628 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 112, or J. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Busfield, ?Class and gender in twentieth-century British psychiatry: shell shock and psychopathic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disorder?, in )] TJ ET BT 127.004 226.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sex and Seclusion, Class and Custody: Perspectives on Gender and Class in the History )] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of British and Irish Psychiatry)] TJ ET BT 210.020 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. Andrews and A. Digby \(Amsterdam and New York, 2004\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(295?322. For briefer discussions displaying Showalter?s influence, see B. Shephard, )] TJ ET BT 472.628 197.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A War of Nerves: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldiers and Psychiatrists, 1914?1994)] TJ ET BT 249.356 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2002\), p. 148; P. Barham, )] TJ ET BT 426.680 183.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forgotten Lunatics of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Great War)] TJ ET BT 115.676 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 2004\), pp. 116?7 and pp. 161?4; E. Jones and S. Wessely, )] TJ ET BT 487.952 169.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shell Shock to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 154.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(PTSD)] TJ ET BT 92.684 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 49; J. Rutherford, )] TJ ET BT 198.344 154.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forever England: Reflections on Race, Masculinity and Empire )] TJ ET BT 507.968 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997\), pp. 72?3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 139.299 m 202.328 139.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 126.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nancy Tomes provides a useful critical review of the place of hysteria within feminist histories of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychiatry, including Showalter?s approach to the disorder. N. Tomes, ?Feminist histories of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychiatry? in )] TJ ET BT 134.672 97.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discovering the History of Psychiatry)] TJ ET BT 316.652 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. M. Micale and R. Porter \(Oxford and New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, 1994\), pp. 348?83. See also M. 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