%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150428001321+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150428001321+01'00') /Title (The History of Parliament: The House of Commons 1820-1832) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1797 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The History of Parliament: The House of Commons 1820-1832)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(945)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 August, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Fisher)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521193146)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(425.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6512pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jon Parry)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7624 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though these volumes cover just 12 years of parliamentary history, they are the most substantial yet to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in the great series that will eventually make up the History of Parliament project. Seven stout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes contain well over five million words, making their immediate predecessor, the volumes covering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1790?1820 edited by R. G. Thorne, look comparatively svelte. Work on 1820?32 began when the Thorne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes were published in 1986, and the editor, David Fisher, had been assistant on the previous enterprise, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus devoting an entire career to the project. Of the 1367 biographical articles on MPs, and 383 constituency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles, he alone has written nearly 500. In approach and format, these volumes are a continuation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thorne tomes. Not only is the traditional tripartite division of introductory survey, biographical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituency articles maintained; the content and style of each are essentially unaltered. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelmingly a work of reference, bulging with fact. Its enormous size is the consequence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferation of source material: division lists, local newspaper accounts of elections, parliamentary diaries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Its relentless factuality is both its greatest strength and its necessary weakness. It is indispensable, but it aims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at neither analytical novelty nor analytical coherence ? and it would be pointless and unfair for a reviewer to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticise these absences, however much one might regret them. Nonetheless, as many critics have pointed out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the years, the result is not really a history of parliament: there is scant coverage of its institutional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procedural history, the culture of debate, the nature of representation, the operation of interest groups and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other lobbies, and much else besides.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The constituency articles are frequently magnificent, and have benefited the most from the increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(availability of local material. Not the least of their virtues is to supply a more accurate rendering of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual results and the size of the electorate. For most scholars, however, the heart of the project will remain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the biographical articles, which weigh in at nearly three and a quarter million words. In general these do a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very good job of setting out information on MPs? attitudes to administrations and their voting and speaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour. A great deal of evidence has been quarried, professionally.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the whole that evidence is left to speak for itself. MPs? character, personality and general political views )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are revealed mostly by occasional quotations from contemporary material, frequently gossipy and usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented artlessly and chronologically, not connecting with the surrounding material. So these are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rounded biographies, and contradictory assessments by friends and foes are given with little attempt at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciliation. Yet some of the contributors make particularly sterling efforts to transcend the limitations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this traditional format, and Stephen Farrell?s articles on Canning and Palmerston are a model in this respect. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fisher?s approach is more conventional, and since he gets most of the plum subjects, it cannot be denied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the end-product can be hard going, certainly when an article runs to over 32,000 words, like that on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peel. In such circumstances, his astringency can grate, such as when he tells us, after 25,000 plodding words )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the ?rather dim ? bore? Joseph Hume, that of the two existing biographies of Hume ?neither is up to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much?. But the scholarship is immensely impressive, and it is also welcome that the tendency in the Thorne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes to group too many references in one footnote has lessened.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One merit of these longer biographical articles is that, albeit intermittently, they give some sense of the skills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary to lead in parliament, a theme to which historians still do not devote quite enough attention. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not exactly eloquence that was necessary; Lady Holland regurgitated the )] TJ ET BT 385.268 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bon mot)] TJ ET BT 424.268 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that Castlereagh liked all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxes but syntax. He was frequently an uninspired wordsmith who led the Commons by character: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of rank, management skills, courage, steadiness and sheer stamina. After his death in 1822, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Croker famously remarked \(actually in relation to Palmerston?s shortcomings\) that a political leader needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be able to ?run on for a couple of hours without, on the one hand, committing the government or, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other, lowering by commonplaces the station of a cabinet minister?. The latter was important; this was, after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all, still the King?s government. So Canning?s social status was a potential problem, undoubtedly adding to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the perception that his political virtue was unreliable. But his oratory more than made up for these defects: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peel remarked on his ability to pick up the range of sentiments voiced or felt by lesser men, so that in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own speeches ?he seemed to a large part of the audience to be merely giving a striking form to their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughts?. His command of language, range of literary quotation and noble sentiments allowed him a kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentlemanly status. Speech-making of this sort displayed education, intelligence and refinement, and had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually been honed at university. Presumably that was why ambitious young Tories so frequently aspired to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7260 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the university seats: Peel, Palmerston and Goulburn sat for them during this period, and Canning once took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peel aside and expressed his regret that his pro-Catholic sentiments had ruined his chance of representing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In order to get a snapshot of parliamentarians as a whole, it is necessary to turn to the introductory survey, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which covers age, social standing, wealth, education, occupation and religion. The average age of MPs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained between 43 and 45, as it had at every election since 1790. 22 per cent of MPs were heirs or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(younger sons of peers, about the same as in the previous 30 years. 12 per cent of MPs succeeded to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baronetcies \(which as Thorne remarked were ?a status symbol for country gentlemen and social climbers?\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against 11 per cent in the post-1790 period. The pattern identified by Thorne that shows more of the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1790 MPs attending public schools continued after 1820, with the percentage at Eton rising from about 19 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per cent to 23 per cent. As in previous volumes, there are very thorough lists of those who were lawyers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military officers, and some discussion of the self-made wealthy. However none of this coverage changes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established picture of the social composition of the pre-Reform House. The section on religious affiliation is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thin and leaves the reader unclear as to whether any religious group, other than the 16 Irish Catholics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returned after 1829, operated effectively as a collective entity in the House. More interest is shown in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insane, suicidal and sexually incontinent, even though these traits do not seem to have been demonstrated on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the floor of the House.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In sum, the introductory survey often descends to a card-index job, better at specifying details about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual MPs than at painting an interesting picture. Some paragraphs occupy a whole double page and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more; in fact the one on pp. 346?50 attempting to assess MPs? partisanship after the 1830 election must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nearly 2,000 words long, with a muddy conclusion to boot. It is understandable that these surveys should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take a very factual form, rather than following the latest historical fashions which might quickly show their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age. Even so, an opportunity has been missed, because the editor and his staff are almost the only people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who will ever read through all the entries and who might be able to make well-grounded generalisations on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the basis of them. There is almost no analysis of MPs? roles as legislators or promoters of local interests. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though there is a chapter on the procedure and business of the House, by Margaret Escott, it does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engage with suggestive arguments such as Boyd Hilton?s that for many years Liverpool used select )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committees as policy-making bodies in order to keep policy disputes as far as possible out of cabinet. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three pages on ?speeches and speaking? do not embark on any linguistic analysis, beyond a frustratingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfunctory suggestion that MPs ?became accustomed to regional accents?. For the editorial staff to confine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves very largely to a sociological survey of MPs, which many historians now regard as of limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value in understanding the Commons, in fact shows the age of the project. And it is not as if slick value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgments are ruled out; indeed they pop up when least expected, such as in references to the ?aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nepotistic coalition? of November 1830, or the ?shabby select corporation of tradesmen and small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shopkeepers? in East Retford.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fisher?s brief analysis of government patronage reinforces the now largely-accepted view that the ?influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Crown? was already much feebler by 1820. He computes that the number of sinecurists, which had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been 26 in the 1807 Parliament, had fallen to seven in 1826. As Thorne showed, there were over 130 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placemen in total in the 1790 parliament, but only 79 in 1818; by 1830 there were around 60. Of course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borough owners still had considerable power: about half of English boroughs still returned MPs sponsored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a patron, though 35 of the 202 were entirely open, as against 19 in the 1790?1820 period. Aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence was not significant in 13 counties, and it is asserted that as much as half the electorate was urban in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cheshire, though on the whole the constituency articles do not try to estimate the percentages of urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voters, and we are still reliant on John Cannon?s 1972 research for the fact that the highest percentages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban voters in a contested county election in this period were in Surrey and Durham \(34 per cent each\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors have found very few examples of landlord intimidation or reprisals for independent voting in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either counties or boroughs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, party affiliation is shown to be generally strong by the early 1820s, on an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of a larger number of division lists than previous historians of this topic have quarried. 56 per cent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of MPs were firmly attached to either government or opposition, while 37 per cent more were ?more )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7362 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenuously attached, though in the majority of cases the extent of their deviation was comparatively slight?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 1820?6 parliament the government was only defeated nine times, because most of the opposition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fringe, let alone the real waverers, did not want a Whig government. The analysis also confirms the view that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the intensity of party feeling waned from the mid-1820s, though residual identification remained strong. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tory crisis and popular excitement between 1828 and 1830 weakened Wellington?s command of parliament, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it is still striking that early in 1830 the opposition Whigs, Radicals, Ultras and Huskissonites only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbered 210, with 55 more unlikely to vote for government, against 293 government men plus 86 fringe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interesting changes of political culture were afoot in these years, and it would have been useful to consider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how widespread alternative ways of thinking about political affiliation were by the late 1820s. In particular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the biographical entries show, the word ?liberal? was increasingly used by those who wished to signal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their openness to public opinion ? for example by Goulburn in discussing Cambridge University politics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1826, by Jeffrey to describe Canning?s government in 1827, and by Palmerston to define those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(withdrew from Wellington?s government in 1828. The great increase in petitioning in the late 1820s is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instructive: whereas the average number of petitions presented to the Commons was 900 per year in 1811?5, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for 1827?31 the figure was 4898. The upsurge began in 1826?7, when there were 4104, many for the repeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Test and Corporation Acts. By the late 1820s many more MPs were becoming aware of the need to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsive to demands from their constituents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the constituencies themselves, there is some evidence that at the beginning of the period voting was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly on party lines in many of the most open contested seats, particularly the counties. The analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borough contests is more equivocal about the relative importance of party and money. \(There is also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking throwaway line that ?no significant new information on party organization has come to light? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researching these volumes.\) Again it is regrettable that the introductory survey did not do more to pull )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together the findings of the 383 constituency articles about the strength of particular parties and issues at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific elections. Even so, it seems that there was less evidence of traditional party conflict in the open seats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the time of the 1830 election, and that the most dramatic and significant contests were on other lines. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Incumbents were defeated in a host of county seats, almost across the Home Counties ? Cambridgeshire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Essex, Norfolk, Suffolk, Surrey and Sussex ? and the constituency articles on each are well worth attention. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was largely a revolt of tax-burdened freeholders and country gentlemen against the political order, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made easier because aristocratic influence in those more commercialised counties was less strong than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere. It was seen, quite rightly, as a sign of discontent with the country?s social and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership, and a demand for a different relationship between politicians and public opinion. The 1830 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election was no less important in Ireland, where it destroyed the Wellingtonian majority, despite the savage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduction in the county electorate that had accompanied Catholic Emancipation: the number of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters among Irish county MPs fell from 38 to 25, as Farrell?s excellent introductory article on Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1831 election was simply a referendum on Reform. Only six of 34 English county MPs who had voted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the new government?s Reform Bill survived the election, while the Whigs gained a further six Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(county seats from the Tories. Even in )] TJ ET BT 216.656 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 284.972 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Scotland, which had voted disproportionately against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Reform Bill, a slender Reform majority was now returned, mainly because of the burghs. As Fisher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarks, the 1831 parliament showed ?overwhelming evidence of partisan voting? on the issue of ?reform or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no reform?, with almost no waverers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most interesting comments on the impact of the Reform Act itself come from Philip Salmon, in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable article at the end of the introductory survey which pulls together the evidence from the constituency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles about the electorate before 1832. The editors estimate that electorates rose dramatically in the 1820s: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the English counties by 39 per cent between 1820 and 1831 and in the English boroughs by 37 per cent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1818, with particularly significant increases in large boroughs such as Leicester, Liverpool, Newcastle, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bristol, Norwich and Nottingham. For example there were 2211 freeman enrolments in Liverpool and 1776 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Newcastle in the period, in anticipation of contests, despite the fact that the effort that each party put into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(securing its position often meant, as at Newcastle after 1820, that it was wiser simply to share the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5574 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation without one. However in general there were more contests in this period, at least partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflecting the increased public interest in politics that I flagged above. In the 92 English freemen boroughs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(41 per cent of elections were contested against 34 per cent in previous period. In Irish seats the rate of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contests rose from 22 per cent in the previous period to 31 per cent in this one. There were 40 contests in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English counties and 47 in Irish counties in the four elections 1820?31 as against 33 and 31 in the four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous elections.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salmon uses the substantial increase in the electorate, and the increased taste for contests, to argue that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of the franchise the effects of the 1832 Act were not great, and merely continued the existing trend of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change. Overall the electorate increased by an estimated 41 per cent in England in 1832, but in many places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the expansion was no greater than had occurred over the previous decade, and it was at least partly due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extension of borough boundaries. In fact, 42 of 146 English boroughs had a smaller electorate after 1832 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than before; in 31 of 86 boroughs contested both and before and in 1832 there was a fall in the number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voting under the new electoral dispensation. This was owing partly to the disfranchisement of non-resident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freemen and partly to the expense and bureaucracy of the registration process. As the Liverpool constituency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article points out, the extent of corruption in big towns in 1830 was widely used to discredit the case for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major urban franchise increase. Salmon agrees with those of us who have long suggested that the framers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1832 settlement were not mainly concerned with the franchise and that, insofar as they were, a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need was to make the political class more accountable. The number of electors per county MP had risen by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third between 1820 and 1831; the Reform Act merely reduced it to its earlier level.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The underlying themes of these volumes, then, are the suggestive changes that took place across the 1820s in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship between parliament and voters. But overwhelmingly they are a colossal and enduring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monument to scholarship, rather than to synthetic analysis. Once the decision had been taken not to alter the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional format, the editors have worked within it as well as they could. They can only be admired for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stamina of which Castlereagh himself would have been proud, though one hopes that it does not lead to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar end. It makes sense that the History of Parliament project should maintain a uniform approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the period up to 1832, even though the amount of information available for these last years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates the increasing strain of doing so. It would be impossible to do the same for any subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, and in many respects unnecessary. It is fortunate that the Parliament team now turn to that period at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the precise point when so many digital online resources are becoming available to supplement our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of MPs and constituencies. These resources can, indeed have to, be harnessed in different ways. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If done well, the result might be an even more useful searchable and interactive database of globally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available material, but this will set major new challenges to the editorial team. For that reason, the volumes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under review are, in more than one sense, the end of a long and arduous road.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 271.039 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 253.259 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 253.259 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/945)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 251.865 m 322.316 251.865 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 226.888 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 212.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4900)] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 252.1795 322.3157 264.0595 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/945) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000567 00000 n 0000000649 00000 n 0000002498 00000 n 0000002607 00000 n 0000002717 00000 n 0000002826 00000 n 0000006387 00000 n 0000006515 00000 n 0000006599 00000 n 0000006664 00000 n 0000014341 00000 n 0000014406 00000 n 0000021719 00000 n 0000021784 00000 n 0000029199 00000 n 0000029283 00000 n 0000034910 00000 n 0000035038 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35133 %%EOF