%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818080559+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818080559+01'00') /Title (The Land Question in Britain, 1750-1950) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4214 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Land Question in Britain, 1750-1950)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Land Question in Britain, 1750?1950)] TJ ET BT 235.364 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is that rare collection of essays which is more than the sum of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts; 14 essays by different authors, all of which connect with each other to reveal a hidden picture of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic that has inexplicably dropped from view. An excellent introduction by Matthew Cragoe and Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readman explains the nature of the ?land question? as explored in the volume: the multifaceted issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompasses everything from allotments of land to the poor, to access to smallholdings for peasant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proprietors, to reform of land laws like primogeniture, to land-value taxation on urban land. In addition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the land question energized people in England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland, the volume integrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of land reform in all parts of the British Isles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Read side by side, chapters on Scotland, Wales and Ireland reveal that even within particular regions, calls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for land reform were not monolithic. In Matthew Cragoe?s Victorian Wales, the call for land reform was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divided in two. Tenant farmers, some of whose families had been living on the same farms for hundreds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, desired social and economic reform, but political leaders sought to stoke Welsh nationalism by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forging a mystical ideological connection between the soil and the Welsh )] TJ ET BT 388.964 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gwerin)] TJ ET BT 422.300 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(folk\). Similarly, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland, land reform encompassed not just the familiar quest of the Highlanders to remain on the land that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they farmed at fair rents, but also an urban discourse of)] TJ ET BT 301.952 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access to the land, animated by visits from Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(946)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 August, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Cragoe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Readman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230203402)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jamie Bronstein)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7249 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activists like Michael Davitt, and the American social reformer Henry George.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Juxtaposing chapters also helps to illuminate the extent to which groups that were nominally opposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each other were united in their approval of the land question, even if they could never get past their mutual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animosity in order to cooperate. As Malcolm Chase?s and Anthony Howe?s chapters illustrate, both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chartists, not only in their Land Plan but throughout the tenure of Chartism, and the Anti-Corn Law League )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with whom they sparred, were united in a common ideology. Both believed that land should not be worked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in common, but rather by small proprietors who would be responsible citizens as a result of their property )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ownership. From that base, democracy would bloom. In contrast, the Irish land reform movement seemed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more radical because Irish tenant farmers threatened private property. They sought ?tenant right? ? tenants? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to sell their interest in their rented property \(irrespective of improvements\) to incoming tenants. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief ? eventually enshrined in Gladstone?s 1870 Land Act ? conflicted with the English notion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property rights could only be vested in the freehold owner of the property.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These strategic battles with underlying ideological agreement were not limited to outdoor pressure groups. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian Unionists and Liberals differed on land-reform strategies. As Paul Readman shows, Unionists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feared that Liberals would capitalize on interest in landownership by supporting nationalization by the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or local governments, and would deprive landowners of their assets through land value taxation. Animated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by these beliefs, the Unionists were pushed from their traditional support of an extremely hierarchical rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land distribution system with allotments for the poor, to support of smallholdings. It is ironic that during this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process, Unionists parroted the Chartist belief that widespread landownership was fundamental to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy: in the era following the third Reform Act, democracy had come, but the land necessary to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political responsibilities seriously had not.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Packer?s essay shows what the land-reforming Unionists were reacting to. In addition to supporting land-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value taxation, Liberal and Socialist politicians championed the purchase of parcels of land by boards of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poor Law guardians. They hoped to convert these into penal land colonies for vagrants and the unemployed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such men, it was hoped, would both support themselves and gain training to become farm laborers. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision clashed radically with the notion of the respectable smallholder with a stake in the hedge, and irked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farmers who disliked the idea of competing on the open market with state-subsidized farms. Liberals also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favored land-value taxation ? taxing the potential value of the land as development land, rather than its use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value as unused land. Particularly for David Lloyd George, land-value taxation afforded both proposal for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financing the 1909 ?People?s Budget?, and a platform from which to attack landlords on a class basis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While these strategies divided Unionists and Liberals, as Paul Readman shows, both groups believed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landownership was crucial to the preservation and military preparedness of the English ?race?. Boer War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recruiting had brought this issue to the fore. Thus, under the pressures of defending an Empire, both parties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw land as a factor that could physically as well as spiritually nurture British men.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because it covers 200 years, )] TJ ET BT 173.312 251.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Land Question in Britain)] TJ ET BT 314.660 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for the first time reveals the continuous stream of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought and personnel within which the currents of land-reform agitation flowed. Antony Taylor, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, has produced an excellent chapter on the career of the radical Oxford don J .E. Thorold Rodgers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through his valedictories of his kinsman Richard Cobden, Rodgers shifted Cobden?s posthumous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance from free-trader to land reformer, giving land-reform a high-political ancestry. In his 1884 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Work and Wages, )] TJ ET BT 122.000 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rogers also helped to legitimize the American single-taxer Henry George, by providing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical rationale for George?s beliefs. Claire Griffiths picks up this thread, showing that Henry George?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas underpinned the land-based interests of MP Josiah Wedgewood, who switched his party affiliation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Liberal to Labour and then attempted to make the Single Tax official Labour policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, this volume brings some light to the often-ignored urban land issue. Roland Quinault?s essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrates ways in which the nature of urban landownership departed radically from that of rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landownership. The largest landowners in London, for example, were public bodies and corporate entities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like schools, helping to draw criticism away from the wealthy dukes who owned vast properties in the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashionable neighborhoods. A brief campaign for Leasehold Enfranchisement ? which would have allowed )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7325 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small leaseholders to purchase their lands from large freeholders ? had no success. Disconnected from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(energy inherent in the rural land question, the urban land question faded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cragoe and Readman end their volume with 1950, identifying this as the)] TJ ET BT 385.652 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the land question. How did a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question which had garnered so much attention since the early 19th century simply disappear? In part, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faded away because some of the major grievances of the land reformers had been resolved. As John Beckett )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Michael Turner show, on the eve of the First World War, David Lloyd George was poised for political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triumph with his ?Land Campaign,? which proposed a Ministry of Land and intensive rural development. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the war was a complete disruption, and in the four years after it ended, the market did what Lloyd )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George had not been able to do. With wartime price constraints gone, much land changed hands, flowing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from old aristocratic families whose sons had died in the war, to the families of tenant farmers. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beckett and Turner argue that the importance of this turnover has been exaggerated, to people at the time it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared to mark the end of the long aristocratic and gentry dominance in society and politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A redefinition of party priorities provided a second reason for the land question?s disappearance. Claire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Griffith documents a major Labour Party shift on the issue. Rural land nationalization had been a central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenet of the Socialist party, and along with land-value taxation on urban land, had become part of the Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party?s program in the 1920s. Only nationalization could right the historic wrong, by which at some point in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the distant past, the people had been dispossessed of their birthright in the soil. Labour leaders also proposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that land nationalization would justify public investment in rural development, in a way that could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happen if the profits from development accrued to landlords. But although nationalization made for good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talking points, Labour leaders eventually realized it had too many drawbacks. These included the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astronomical cost of fair compensation to landowners, and the political cost in the face of rural owner-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupiers who had no desire to give up their family farms. Even in the face of the need to maximize soil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productivity during the Second World War, land nationalization never moved from policy plank to practice. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the 1950s the enthusiasm for nationalization had thoroughly receded, calling into question the extent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which it had ever been an authentic commitment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. M. L. Thompson, the modern dean of the land question, reunites the threads present in the volume by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquiring further into the question?s ?strange death?. He identifies a number of factors, including: the decline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Liberal party; more pressing challenges in the 1920s including widespread unemployment; and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departure of the Irish land question as the ?pace-setter? with the formation of the Irish Free State. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately, for Thompson as for Beckett and Turner, the death of the land question marked a change in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British polity that was bigger than any one political party; land reformers had sought to erode the power of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the aristocracy, which had happened quietly, through the power of the market.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essays comprised in the volume are uniformly painstakingly researched, well-argued, and well-written, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so that one can only critique the book based on questions that these 14 essays intriguingly raised but lacked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space to answer. For example, although the authors do a wonderful job of touching on each region of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Isles, the reader is scarcely aware of the imperial context. Except for a brief mention in Ian Packer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay about ?Unemployment, Taxation and Housing?, insufficient attention is paid to emigration as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifestation of the land question. Did the myth of free land, and then the embodiment of that myth in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1862 Homestead Act, draw English emigrants to the United States? Or were people deterred from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigrating because they agreed with Chartist leader Feargus O?Connor that emigration was a form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government-directed exile? What variations on the theme of land possession drew the Irish to the prairies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canada, the Scottish to the Appalachians, and the English to Australia and New Zealand?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The cultural meaning of landownership might also have fruitfully been addressed in more detail. The reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learns much about the political rhetoric of leaders, proponents, and opponents of land reform, but little from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their putative constituencies. Were prospective smallholders drawn in by the prospect of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation, or by the prospect of escaping from urban existence? Did they share an orientation toward the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market, or were they seeking yeoman self-sufficiency? Paul Readman convincingly argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landownership was promoted as a bolster to nationalism in this period: that being the case, what was the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the farm family? Was life on the land intended to hark back to ?traditional? gender roles, in the face of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3847 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the challenge posed by the ?New Woman?? The Land-Company Chartists had described landed family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence as a bountiful utopia: in the midst of the agricultural depression of the 1870s and after, did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision of smallholder life among boundless harvests change?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, while the volume is very strong in its chronicle of attempts to theorize and politically shape land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform, it is not as strong in detailing the role that the land played in the expressive culture of the 19th and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th centuries. The one exception is Ian Waites?s study of the cultural commemoration of enclosure. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out that while few painters captured on canvas the unfenced, undeveloped field, the examples that do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exist demonstrate a certain nostalgia and an awareness of the social impact of changing agricultural methods. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although painters were encouraged to cultivate the picturesque, these landscape painters found beauty in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uninterrupted, pre-enclosure flatness of common arable or ?waste? land. Waites?s study ends in 1850 and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confined to painting: it would have been interesting to compare and contrast these paintings with art )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrating the rural from later in the 19th century or in the next, or with the products of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers like the poet John Clare.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Land Question in Britain, )] TJ ET BT 194.360 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cragoe, Readman and their contributors have succeeded not only in putting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together a polished and impressive volume, but also in defining a school of like-minded historians ? one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which prioritizes the land issue as a central concern of society and politics before the 1950s. Their excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection will have wide appeal to scholars of British social, economic, and cultural history in the 19th and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th centuries. Furthermore, although it does not touch on land issues in the British Empire or elsewhere, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides much helpful background about the nature of British beliefs about land reform and strategies to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieve it, making it necessary comparative reading for scholars of land issues outside the British Isles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors are happy to accept this review and do not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 430.111 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 412.331 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 412.331 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/946)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 410.937 m 322.316 410.937 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 385.960 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.560 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4905)] TJ ET BT 34.016 357.160 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 411.2515 322.3157 423.1315 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/946) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000542 00000 n 0000000624 00000 n 0000004890 00000 n 0000004999 00000 n 0000005109 00000 n 0000005218 00000 n 0000008779 00000 n 0000008907 00000 n 0000008991 00000 n 0000009056 00000 n 0000016358 00000 n 0000016423 00000 n 0000023801 00000 n 0000023885 00000 n 0000027785 00000 n 0000027913 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28008 %%EOF