%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141026004515+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141026004515+01'00') /Title (The Surplus Woman: Unmarried in Imperial Germany: 1871?1918) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2657 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Surplus Woman: Unmarried in Imperial Germany: 1871?1918)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Surplus Woman)] TJ ET BT 131.348 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an important contribution to a growing international literature on the history of single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women. Its chief strength is its affirmation of marital status as a central category of analysis for historians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Dollard focuses on female singleness, not simply in a descriptive sense, but rather as a lens though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which to analyse contemporary anxieties about the supposed demographic surplus of women in late 19th- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and early 20th-century Germany and to chart the ways in which this idea inspired feminist thought and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(947)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 August, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Dollard)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781845454807)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(58.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berghahn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katherine Holden)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7368 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These anxieties were by no means confined to Germany and the book speaks to a wider agenda in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spinsters were ?singled out?, perceived as a particular problem and often labelled ?surplus? or ?superfluous? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during this period in Europe and elsewhere in the western world. Dollard sets her study in the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other scholarly work in this area, particularly in France and Britain but more might have been done in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect. No mention was made of analyses of surplus women in Britain in the mid 19th century by Kathrin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Levitan and Judith Worsnop which cover some of the same territory including, in the latter case, the links to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminist activities. This literature is particularly pertinent since Dollard?s view that the surplus woman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate was uniquely German challenges Levitan?s statement that 19th century concerns about surplus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population were unique to Britain as the first industrialising nation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.672 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.672 669.027 m 370.664 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 370.664 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It appears that neither of these claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is in fact correct.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of Dollard?s main aims in the book is to show that these demographic concerns were not related directly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to any real statistical increase either in numbers of women over men in the German population or to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline in marriage rates in this period. Rather she sees the concept of the ?surplus woman? as an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural marker for Imperial Germany which helped its citizens make sense of profound changes in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world. The )] TJ ET BT 89.672 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frauenberschuss)] TJ ET BT 178.328 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was a leitmotif which demonstrates the strength of the idealisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage and motherhood for women and helps us understand the origins and particular directions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early reform programme of the German women?s movement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather than examining the lived experience of unmarried women, as most other studies in this field have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done, Dollard?s concern is to unpick cultural constructions of the surplus woman by a number of different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors in some depth and detail. She gives a nuanced account of how these constructions were drawn upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reconfigured by the German feminists with different agendas and political viewpoints to stimulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform programmes aimed at ameliorating single women?s plight. However Dollard?s claim that the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a glimpse of ?what it felt like to live in German society as a single middle-class woman? is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported by much material or biographical evidence about anyone other than the leaders of the women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement. I wanted to know more about the unexceptional unmarried women whose position in German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society had inspired so much concern and to assess how far the new career opportunities and lifestyles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered to them changed lives in this period. This is not a criticism of this volume as it stands since it could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be argued that this absence is inevitable in a book which concentrates primarily on didactic texts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature about single women?s campaigns and that another book would be needed to do justice to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmarried women?s material conditions and lifestyles. However the albeit brief biographical information on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the unmarried leaders of the women?s movement does offer a taste of what such an approach could offer the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An introductory chapter stakes out the territory covered in the book and outlines the main thesis and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument. The body of the book is divided into two parts. Part one focusses on different ways in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconography of the surplus woman was constructed, including chapters on imagery of the old maid, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of sexology, imagined demography and social and spiritual maternalism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter one imagery of the )] TJ ET BT 178.640 223.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(alte Jungfer)] TJ ET BT 236.300 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(old maid\) is explored against a familiar backdrop of a society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bound by feminine ideals which had dominated centuries of western thought. Marriage was the central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution which all German women were expected to embrace, positioning them within the family, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlling and constraining them physically and economically, and subjugating them to a husband?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority. Women who did not conform had no obvious place in German society and as such were perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a threat to this order. It is hardly surprising therefore to find that the dominant literary construction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single woman was that of pariah. Dollard argues that because industrialisation removed production away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the bourgeois home, the middle-class single women became an economic encumbrance and images of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idle old maids depicted variously as, shrews, simpletons and desperate co-dependants became the norm.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two charts the significance of sexology in widening the parameters of the stereotype. In Germany, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as in Britain, the increase in professional opportunities for single women in the early twentieth century did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not herald the disappearance of the old maid. Rather she re-emerged in a new guise informed by the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 356.6717 669.3415 370.6637 681.2215 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7461 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging field of sexology whose proponents highlighted the importance of the female sex drive. The view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first established by Krafft Ebbing that regular sexual intercourse was important for women?s mental health )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and well-being meant that?s single women?s celibacy became a problem. The female surplus was cast as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious threat to women?s health and the dried up, sour old maid contrasted with the fertile blooming wife. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freud took this further by arguing that sexual repression was the cause of female hysteria and recovery was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only possible though marriage. These views had serious consequences for single women?s organisations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which were labelled deviant and likely to encourage perverse sexual inclinations including homosexuality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter three, Dollard surveys a number of contemporary statistical accounts of the German population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which highlighted the problem of the surplus women, pointing out the flaws in their calculations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting her analysis with nearly 50 tables and graphs. I found their placement at the back of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsatisfactory and would have found them much more useful as evidence if they had been fewer in number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and integrated within the text. The analysis shows that for the German population as a whole there was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant surplus of women. In Berlin however, the rise in marriage rates was not sufficient to counter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major population growth which resulted in a visible surplus of women. Dollard points out that the urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class woman of marriageable age ?would likely would be amply aware of her status? and became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?rhetorical victim?. While she offers no direct evidence of this awareness, my own study of concerns about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?superfluous women? in Britain after the First World War does show that unmarried women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of demography \(whether imagined or real\) could have an impact on their career decisions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent life course.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 143.660 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 143.660 526.467 m 157.652 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final chapter of part one, Dollard begins her account of the views and writings of the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woman?s movement with the reaction of the BDF \(Federation of German Women?s Association\) to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female surplus. This organisation, led by moderate activists, linked the concept to a vision of spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maternalism which became a central tenet of all their reforms. No longer would unmarried women be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consigned to the ranks of miserable old maids. Work, whether paid or voluntary, would be their salvation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and since they could not themselves experience the benefits of having their own children, they could become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual mothers to the German nation, a possibility denied to men. Women?s capacity for motherhood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have a transformative power which would alter the nature of school, state, the workplace, social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations and the home. These campaigns were opposed by satirists and anti-feminist groups who derided the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman who stood alone as depressed and embittered, and their organisations as desperate attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replace home and family. Faced with this attack, moderates did not fight back directly by rejecting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotype, but rather argued the importance of opening up new career paths and opportunities for women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order that they could avoid the old maid?s fate. In this way the image of the surplus woman sparked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement into activism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second part of the book analyses the views and work of unmarried leaders of the German women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement. Here Dollard explores a range of different arguments and campaigns relating to the problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the surplus women starting with the moderate activists Helen Lange and Alice Salmon who pioneered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities for women in education and social work. Both women shared the view of the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work in establishing worthwhile pursuits for surplus women but also saw the family as their main sphere of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity. Yet there were also key differences in their approaches. Lange?s campaigns were ideologically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven. Her vision of spiritual maternalism was rooted in a belief in the importance of different but equal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roles for women and men and this led her to promote single sex education for girls taught exclusively by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmarried, childless, female teachers who would transmit maternal characteristics to the next generation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salmon?s work was inspired primarily by more practical and less ideological, social maternalist goals. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Social work she believed would offer an outlet for middle-class women?s maternal feelings, provide useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities for idle girls and be of benefit to the poor. As in her own life it was also a substitute for single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s lack of romantic love and children of her own.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the next two chapters more radical solutions for the problem of surplus women are explored through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings of women activists who used it as a springboard for challenging the patriarchal traditions of German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. Chapter six focuses on three radical feminists? solutions to the female surfeit beginning with Helen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stcker who became leader of the BfM \(Federation for the Protection of Mothers\) in 1905. Influenced by )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 143.6597 526.7815 157.6517 538.6615 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6968 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexology but also moving beyond conservative definitions of men?s and women?s ?natural? social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biological roles, Stcker argued that women should have the same sexual freedom as men and drew on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repressed, frustrated old maid stereotype as a warning of consequences of abstinence. Stcker, like her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessor Ruth Br who founded the BfM, rooted her campaign in the rights of all women to become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mothers but did not reject marriage or dismiss the role of the father. Br went further. In her critique of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeois marriage she championed the rights women not to marry yet still to become mothers seeing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual maternalism as an inadequate substitute. Only by bearing children could women fulfil their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maternal calling. Finally Braun used the plight of the old maid as a clarion call for the reform of marriage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeing the ?new woman? as no longer willing to accept subordination in marriage, and arguing that women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?standing alone? no longer need to marry now that they recognised their worth outside it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Braun?s vision was rooted in socialist politics and she linked her analysis to a critique of capitalism. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter seven Dollard shows how another socialist feminist, Clara Zetkin, drew on economic determinist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments and the writings of the socialist leader August Bebel to link the existence of a female surplus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more directly to the capitalist mode of production. Arguing that the surplus had become an increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem as capitalism developed, she saw the decline in marriage rates as a symptom of the impending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demise of the bourgeoisie. The bourgeois women?s movement had emerged out of the economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displacement of women but had a limited view and was of little relevance to proletarian women. Yet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dollard argues, neither Zetkin nor Bebel considered how a proletarian revolution might affect the tie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between female identity and marital status.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally Dollard examines the links between religion and the female surplus through writings of Ellisabeth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gnauck-Khne, founder of both the Protestant and Catholic national German women?s movement. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following a disastrous marriage which ended in divorce and her conversion to Catholicism, Gnauck-Khne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned her attention to the economic plight of divorced and never-married women. Like the moderate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformists, she argued that the problem of the surplus would be solved if single women found work in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maternal occupations. But they could also find spiritual solace by entering convents or other religiously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspired institutions. These acted as models for non-religious women?s communities and would offer a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substitute to single women for family life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study concludes by linking the imagined surplus in imperial Germany with the ?brutally real? surplus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that emerged as a result of the First World War and shows how the conditions of war ?changed single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women from a cohort that German society had to do something about to a category that Germany would not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survive the war without? \(p. 206\). Still the cult of maternalism survived the war and celebration of maternal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capacity became a powerful component of fascist ideology. As Heinemann has shown single marital status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became an aberrant category in Nazi Germany. However Dollard is reluctant to ?connect the dots on the path )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Hitler, pointing out the radical and socialist visions which the female surplus inspired in Braun, Br and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zetkin which ?neither anticipated nor shared the fascist familial order that would later triumph in Germany? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 212\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is of particularly importance in this book is the evidence offered that the idea female surplus was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply linked to marriage but rather to wider concerns about the exclusion of women from the home, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motherhood and family. Its significance as a leitmotif can thus be shown to be much larger, calling into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question the traditional roles of men and women within the bourgeois family and pointing the way to social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and economic change. Dollard also shows persuasively how the iconic status of the female surplus for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformers of widely differing political persuasion and the debates that it inspired enables historians to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections between groups that are usually the object of separate studies. This is a considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement. )] TJ ET BT 100.664 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Surplus Woman)] TJ ET BT 197.996 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is essential reading not only for feminist historians but also for anyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with an interest in gender politics and culture and deserves a wide audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 86.307 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 55.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathrin Levitan)] TJ ET BT 140.336 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, ?)] TJ ET BT 152.336 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Redundancy, the ?Surplus Woman? problem, and the British Census, 1851?1861?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 41.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women?s History Review)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 2495 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 17, 3 \(2008\), 372; Judith Worsnop, ?A re-evaluation of ?the problem of )] TJ ET BT 416.960 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surplus women? in 19th-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century England: the case of the 1851 census,)] TJ ET BT 286.304 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women?s Studies International Forum, )] TJ ET BT 478.628 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13 \(1990\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 525.620 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1?2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 525.620 780.819 m 548.948 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 78.008 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 21?31.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.336 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.336 766.563 m 170.324 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katherine Holden, ?Imaginary widows: spinsters, marriage, and the "Lost Generation" in Britain after )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Great War?, )] TJ ET BT 143.312 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Family History)] TJ ET BT 268.976 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 30 \(2005\), 388?409.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.296 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.296 738.051 m 426.284 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 694.207 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 676.427 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 676.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/947)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 675.033 m 322.316 675.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 650.056 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4908)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=PublicationURL&_tockey=%23TOC%235924%231990%23999869998%23325874%23FLP%23&_cdi=5924&_pubType=J&view=c&_auth=y&_acct=C000010139&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=122883&md5=3ee5e0eaf443da10cc50d374a38c67e8)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 525.6197 781.1335 548.9477 793.0135 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=PublicationURL&_tockey=#TOC#5924#1990#999869998#325874#FLP#&_cdi=5924&_pubType=J&view=c&_auth=y&_acct=C000010139&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=122883&md5=3ee5e0eaf443da10cc50d374a38c67e8) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 116.3357 766.8775 170.3237 778.7575 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 372.2957 738.3655 426.2837 750.2455 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 675.3475 322.3157 687.2275 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/947) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000003360 00000 n 0000003469 00000 n 0000003579 00000 n 0000003688 00000 n 0000007249 00000 n 0000007377 00000 n 0000007461 00000 n 0000007545 00000 n 0000014966 00000 n 0000014996 00000 n 0000015124 00000 n 0000015160 00000 n 0000015244 00000 n 0000022758 00000 n 0000022788 00000 n 0000022916 00000 n 0000022952 00000 n 0000023017 00000 n 0000030038 00000 n 0000030143 00000 n 0000032691 00000 n 0000032819 00000 n 0000033101 00000 n 0000033229 00000 n 0000033284 00000 n 0000033412 00000 n 0000033467 00000 n 0000033595 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33690 %%EOF