%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141119121701+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141119121701+00'00') /Title (A Brief History of Nakedness) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4290 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Brief History of Nakedness)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of nakedness deserves a serious history. For organised nudism or ?naturism? was a conscious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement initiated by Europeans at the end of the 19th century that has exerted a significant influence over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society and politics in the wider world. This book is not that serious academic history. In one respect its aim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is much more ambitious. For its author is a psychologist, psychotherapist and popular writer, guided by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong commitment to libertarian values. In the manner of a Jungian auteur, he undertakes a polymath )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survey of attitudes to the naked body across thousands of years. Carr-Gomm retains an abiding interest in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magical, mystical and religious values that absorb the first third of his book as he takes us on a colourful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caravan across the centuries of Asiatic and European history. These bright threads of experience show how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hippie culture of the 1960s followed well-established pathways of European spiritualism and ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meditation in which various forms of nakedness featured as initiations into deeper truths. For Judaeo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian as well as Hindu mystics have used the naked body to bear witness to the virtues of poverty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chastity in their journey to virtue, whether Francis of Assisi barefoot in the snow or naked Quakers ranting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in London streets during the English Revolution and Russian )] TJ ET BT 329.684 116.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(doukhobours)] TJ ET BT 392.348 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( marching across Canada in nude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family groups to defend their faith.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the best passages in )] TJ ET BT 174.668 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brief History)] TJ ET BT 237.668 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are critical commentaries on cultural productions in theatre, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opera, dance and sculpture during the past 50 years and Carr-Gomm reminds us that the body is rarely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(948)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 September, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Carr-Gomm)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781861896476)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(286pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reaktion Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Melling)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7498 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed to be publicly naked and it is this public display of pubic genitalia and other unfamiliar organs that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carry the potent capacity to shock and disturb the moral order of societies and to provoke a strong reaction to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those protesting by means of public exposure. The most basic uncovering of our common bodily form has a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capacity to corrode layers of cultural varnish in which bodies are invariably and inevitably clothed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities, sorting its members by their dress as much as their demeanour. The author spends much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text illustrating in copious photographs the situations in which the private parts of different persons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affronted, shocked and amused the public audience at which such performances were directed. The heavy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning of simple nakedness as much as the carnival of hilarity released by those ?coming out?, is suitably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated in a glut of different examples. The political mobilisation of sexual organs in play and replay is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vitally involved in the stark and subtle ways in which cultural norms are challenged as men leap over cricket )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stumps and women strip in the face of a medical building. About nudism and naturism as an organised way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of life less is said, though there is a succinct account of British activists during the 20th century and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links to the mystical circles around druidism and pagan revivals. Such activists often exhibited and retain a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(streak of puritanical sobriety that would hearten their Victorian forbears as well as the healthy-life advocates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1930s who George Orwell famously denounced as vegetarian cranks and ?back-stairs crawlers?. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amused contempt in which nudism is held changed surprisingly little in the later 20th century, even as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(healthy practices, diet faddism and environmental awareness that the naturists pioneered have become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal habits of body and mind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are many opportunities to provide a more rigorous and vigorous history of the historic meanings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nakedness in European societies during the past two centuries, as this book offers occasional glimpses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilisation?s long battle with the body. The rich profusion of photographs included in this text suggest that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the concern of artists and portraiture composers has been not so much with nakedness as with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allure of feminine and masculine beauty, bodies being contorted into idealised and eroticised postures and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the banality of the literal body-shell excluded from the interested gaze of the voyeur. As Bernard Shaw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarks in one of the telling quotes that litter the text, it is the restraint of provocative and repressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clothing rather than the arresting honesty of commonplace flesh that drives much of the intrigue around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nudity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The many facets of undressing the body are suggested in the discussion of Greek philosophy and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(menagerie of mythical and legendary figures that have inhabited literary discourses for many centuries. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption that nakedness is equivalent to a primitive or natural state is writ large in encounters such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robinson Crusoe with Man Friday, though the ambivalent attitudes of the cultured to the rudely nude could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been usefully framed by some reference to Rousseau and the Romantic movements of the 18th and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th centuries. The politics of undressing demands a more careful account of legal regulation and the ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which state servants \(naked or otherwise\) enforced legislation at key moments. It may be unfair in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general text to expect more than a selective commentary on some features of the nude self in Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature since the Enlightenment, though the ambitious claims of this book goes beyond reflections on mere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries or single continents. Should we not reasonably expect that Europe?s contemplation of the exotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body in the lush colours of the Orient should be subjected to more critical scrutiny? It becomes irritating that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there should be so little apparent effort to explain the movements and moments of history described so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fleetingly in these colourful pages. There is a danger that the whole becomes less than the sum of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical and cultural parts which are depicted vividly but disjointedly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Approaching the historically naked is not an easy task. For people are not undressed by chance and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures portrayed here are not those who are accidentally nude. Nothing may appear more obviously similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the naked body but the unclothed can betray their social origins and national cultures almost as quickly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the dressed. Cues can be detected in postures of the period as much as the grooming and embellishment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the skin. Generational differences are found in conflicts between the authorities of older nudist colonies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which prohibit all forms of flesh piercing and ornamentation, and younger members who bring the fashions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of body modification common among Westernised youth from the late 20th century. The intentions of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who present themselves )] TJ ET BT 151.664 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in flagrante)] TJ ET BT 208.004 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are usually mixed and rarely obvious. Writing the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different movements which have contributed to the naked presence in modern society is clearly a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8525 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenging task.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the most impressive historical accounts of conscious nakedness have been written by political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, concerned to locate the celebration of the body within the social history and the ?bio-politics? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Europe.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 111.332 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 111.332 740.307 m 125.324 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 125.324 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Important studies of German ?naked culture? have examined the youth revolt of the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th and early 20th centuries, as well as the spread of body-consciousness in the Weimar Republic.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.932 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.932 726.051 m 524.924 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 524.924 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the National Socialists? recognition that naked association was a feature of socialist and Communist politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which led to the suppression of nudist societies in the early Nazi era, before the fascists permitted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlled resurgence of communal nakedness aligned with the reactionary body culture of the 1930s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nudity was not the province only of right-wing mass parties in the interwar era but also figured in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anarchist and socialist political practice.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.316 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.316 654.771 m 240.308 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 240.308 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Communist regimes seeking to build their citizens? loyalty to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new, often implausible, states in the post-War years also turned to regulated nakedness as a channel of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(healthy expression permitted by one-party regimes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 280.640 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 280.640 626.259 m 294.632 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 294.632 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The body politics of workers? republics were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graphically advertised in the healthy, frequently drug-fuelled, athletic figures who demonstrated in Olympic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(games and paraded alongside socialist missile carriers on the occasion of revolutionary celebrations in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(streets of the Warsaw Pact countries and the capitals of other members of the world socialist family.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The relative paucity of historical research on British nudism is not simply a register of the comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakness of political engagement by the naked during the 20th century. There is a history of organised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposure to be uncovered by social, cultural and health historians. We can learn much about the nature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinions of British nudists by examining the early efforts of nudist-practitioners to provide a historic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative of their own origins and the philosophical tenets which guided these pioneers. Rex Wellbye?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outline notes on British nudism emphasises the impact of Heinrich Pudor?s )] TJ ET BT 398.336 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Naked Man)] TJ ET BT 453.992 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1893\) and Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ungewitter?s )] TJ ET BT 101.000 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nakedness )] TJ ET BT 155.324 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1905\), though it was Marguerite Le Fur?s French account of her visit to Germany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which inspired Harold Clare Booth?s writings on the ?Nude Culture Movement? in 1914?5 and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent founding of the intellectual New Gymnosophy Society, whose bulletins of 1925?7 provided a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basic foundation for a distinctive English middle-class egalitarian philosophy of nudism, though the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society?s praxis remained self-selecting and highly elitist.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.652 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.652 414.675 m 327.644 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other key figures in English nudist campaigns whose views were formed during the First World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included H. Dyon Bingham, whose nom de plume ?Elan Vital? and ?Dionysius? suggests the strong Graeco-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman as well as Germanic influences such as Hans Suren on the outdoor movement which include folk-life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campers who wished to provide an alternative to regimented scouting in mobilizing youth enthusiasts.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.976 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.976 345.651 m 537.968 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most intriguing and provocative figure in the British nudist movement was undoubtedly H. H. Vincent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who was briefly an ?Acting Captain? in the Army and thereafter maintained his army title as he proposed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical agenda of direct action during the early 1920s, including frequent addresses at Hyde Park for which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was periodically arrested. Vincent?s own brand of ?Sun Ray Club? organization achieved public notoriety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for their defence of semi-nude bathing at Hendon reservoir in 1928, for which he was again pursued by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Metropolitan Police ? there was strong popular resistance to the public bathers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In view of the relentless attacks on Vincent and his followers, it seems strange that the advocates of sun )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bathing should have achieved what can only be described as a revolution in popular attitudes to bodily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposure to sunlight during the inter-war years, so that by 1939 advertisements for train and charabanc trips )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could feature the bronzed faces of carefree trekkers. Carr-Gomm?s text gives us a few interesting clues as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why this transformation of popular culture occurred in a period marked by economic depression, mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unemployment, growing poverty and the resurgence of diseases due to vitamin deficiency such as rickets. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The support of highly visible members of the medical profession such as Sir Arbuthnot Lane was important, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though the brilliant maverick Dr. Caleb Williams Elijah Hans Saleeby had only uneven success in promoting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the virtues of clean air and heliotherapy and advertising the achievements of the tuberculosis sanatoriums )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Dr Auguste Rollier's at Leysin. The National Sun and Air Association did little more than attract the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest a group of courageous intellectuals and lower-middle class professionals, while titillating the readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of popular newspapers which spied upon and mocked the private gatherings of such enthusiasts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was the more cautious advocacy of the healthy lifestyle and practical exercises for young and old by N. J. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 111.3317 740.6215 125.3237 752.5015 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.9317 726.3655 524.9237 738.2455 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.3157 655.0855 240.3077 666.9655 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 280.6397 626.5735 294.6317 638.4535 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 313.6517 414.9895 327.6437 426.8695 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.9757 345.9655 537.9677 357.8455 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 7634 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barford and his associates in the Sun Bathing Society of the early 1930s, along with endorsement by public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures such as George Bernard Shaw, which avoided the eccentricities and factionalism of the early nudist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activists. Appealing to an undoubted drive towards ?outdoor? activities, a sympathetic press for lighter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clothing and steady sunlight ?treatment?, all helped to change clothing styles and to erode some of the class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barriers which had been historically embroidered into British dress customs during the 19th century. Heavier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cloths and tight tunics gave way to lighter and more revealing fashions for mass market items as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privileged )] TJ ET BT 85.676 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(chic)] TJ ET BT 105.668 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Sunlight was one of the active agents of a more egalitarian consumer society, at least for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those with the resources for some recreation in a period of intense deprivation for significant minorities. Nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should we separate too readily the dedication of political commitment and the diverse movements to claim a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public space for enjoyment. As the famous battles around the Kinder Scout trespass campaign indicates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggles for rights of way and the public enjoyment of land too readily engrossed by private landlords could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquire a sharp political edge in the 1930s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the nudist campaigners of these decades may have been undeservedly neglected, there remains the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental truism that organized nakedness never became a mass movement in Britain or the United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the way that it did in some parts of Europe during the first half of the 20th century. Once again )] TJ ET BT 503.948 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Nakedness)] TJ ET BT 136.676 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does little to articulate this problem though it does provide some tantalising clues as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how we might begin to explain the puzzle of a national reluctance to go starkers at key moments in history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when large numbers of continentals went for public disclosure. One explanation must lie in the subject of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening chapters of this book: namely, the influence of religious beliefs and attitudes to the untrammelled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body. Not only the larger churches but Nonconformist sects such as the Methodists were slow to approve of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodily indulgences, though it can be argued that the allotment movement \(another important feature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 20th century\) offered the dignity of outdoor labour to such conscientious Christians. In other settings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the communities founded by the Tolstoyian faithful of the Cotswolds, religious faith and mysticism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be coupled with radical nudism. Perhaps too much has been made of the hold which Wicca, druidry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black magic and paganism held over the nudist movement in the middle decades of the century. Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethics also permitted nakedness as well as vegetarianism and water temperance for some true believers at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Organised communities and holiday camps of nudists in England were concentrated in the ?Hertfordshire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nuderies? near St Albans. Their numbers declined during the Second World War as younger males and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many females were called up for active service. One of the most celebrated commercial nudist ventures, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directed by the Mackaskie family, survived by taking in refugees from Blitz-threatened London. Provincial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies in the cooler climes of Yorkshire and Lancashire similarly survived the early 1940s with some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties but benefited from some resurgence of interest in the post-War years when family nudism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a significant element in the growing movement south of London. During the 1950s British nudism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably reached its peak in membership and its relative decline in the years of sexual liberation during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s and 1970s suggests once again its distinctive historical roots and formation, apparently out of touch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with popular secular tastes and impressions and yet offering a progressive lead on many issues of sexual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal equality. By the time the beat and hippie cultures depicted so vividly by Carr-Gomm arrived, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sandal-wearing nudists hardly appeared as prophets of the cool generation. Far from walking on the wild )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side, they seem to have spent their lives on a different road.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book comes with claims to being a beautiful text about beautiful people. One defence for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable support offered by some notable writers on the dust jacket of this book is that the author conveys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his subject in an accessible and fluent style that takes the reader into the extraordinary diversity of the nude. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The frame that holds up the body of the text remains too weak and the folds of description are too flabby. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author may be himself a victim of the digital age for this is the first book I have reviewed which seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have been written by a Googler. The references are held together by a racy eye for the good story and we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are carried along by the entertaining anecdotes. At the end of the ride we are left with little more than vapour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trails from the different search engines and little idea how to interpret the spectacle that has flown past us. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Carr-Gomm has helped to take the history out from under the counter of serious scholarship but only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken it as far as the stylish coffee table. This book will catch the interest of the general reader but we need )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 8015 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more substance to engage the roving eye of the serious historian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 761.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Ross Dickinson, ?Biopolitics, fascism, democracy: some reflections on our discourse about )] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Modernity?? )] TJ ET BT 133.664 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Central European History)] TJ ET BT 259.664 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 37, 1 \(2004\), 1?48, 4-6 and passim cites the work of Sander )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilman as well as Foucault.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.672 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.672 701.043 m 251.660 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chad Ross, )] TJ ET BT 121.688 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Naked Germany: Health, Race and the Nation)] TJ ET BT 343.988 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2005\), especially pp. 67?100, for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicinal aspects of naked culture and sun-worship.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 315.632 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 315.632 672.531 m 369.620 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evert Peeters, ?Authenticity and asceticism: discourse and performance in nude culture and health )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform in Belgium, 1920?1940? )] TJ ET BT 221.000 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of the History of Sexuality)] TJ ET BT 386.660 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 15, 2 \(2006\), 422?61, and also )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Sonn, ? ?Your body is yours?: anarchism, birth control, and eugenics in interwar France? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of the History of Sexuality)] TJ ET BT 229.676 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 14, 4 \(2005\), 415?32 for European Catholic campaigning on these )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues as well as anarchist ideas also explored in Richard Cleminson, ?Making sense of the body: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anarchism, nudism and subjective experience? )] TJ ET BT 289.964 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bulletin of Spanish Studies)] TJ ET BT 418.976 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 81, 6 \(2004\), 697?716.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 531.296 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 531.296 586.995 m 558.956 586.995 l S BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 572.739 m 90.344 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For post-fascist body exposure politics Josie McLellan, ?State socialist bodies: East German nudism )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from ban to boom?, )] TJ ET BT 161.672 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Modern History)] TJ ET BT 291.332 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 79 \(2007\), 48?79, 58?62 for politicisation of naked )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bathing after the defeat of Nazism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.636 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.636 529.971 m 284.624 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rex Wellbye \(Ancton Toqvor\), ?The Story of Nudism? articles, ?The birth of English nudism? and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Nudism put on the map?, pp. 14?7, British Naturism Archives.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.328 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.328 501.459 m 424.316 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George L. Moss, ?Nationalism and respectability: normal and abnormal sexuality in the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century?, )] TJ ET BT 111.332 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Contemporary History )] TJ ET BT 275.996 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17, 2 \(1982\), 221?46, 233?9 for youth movement and also )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of sexology. Adam Clapham and Robin Constable, )] TJ ET BT 369.644 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(As Nature Intended. A Pictorial )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Nudists)] TJ ET BT 169.028 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1982\), pp. 28?30 for Hans Suren. Michael Hau, )] TJ ET BT 453.644 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Culture of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Health and Beauty in Germany: a Social History 1890?1930)] TJ ET BT 358.988 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 361.988 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chicago, IL, 2003\) also discusses )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suren.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 415.923 m 149.000 415.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 391.061 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2010/may/30/brief-history-nakedness-carr-gomm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 361.155 m 435.632 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 438.632 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Telegraph)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/7771639/A-Brief-History-of-Nakedness-by-Philip-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 332.643 m 547.616 332.643 l S BT 34.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carr-Gomm-review.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 318.387 m 154.328 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.328 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/a-brief-history-of-nakedness-by-philip-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 289.875 m 534.932 289.875 l S BT 34.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carrgomm-2009628.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 275.619 m 154.340 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.340 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Financial Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/10e7f50e-a0eb-11df-badd-00144feabdc0.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 247.107 m 387.632 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 390.632 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 243.775 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 225.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 225.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/948)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 224.601 m 322.316 224.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 199.624 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4911)] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.824 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2010/may/30/brief-history-nakedness-carr-gomm)] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.539 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/7771639/A-Brief-History-of-Nakedness-by-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf 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