%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728074013+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728074013+01'00') /Title (Changes in Educational Policies in Britain, 1800?1920. How Gender Inequalities Reshaped the Teaching Profession) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4154 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Changes in Educational Policies in Britain, 1800?1920. How Gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Inequalities Reshaped the Teaching Profession)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This study is the fruit of more than a quarter of a century?s work dedicated to overcoming the neglect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in traditional histories of Scottish education. Throughout that time, the author?s argument has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkably consistent: as expressed here \(p.6\), ?the Scottish structure of education was more patriarchal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rigid in its treatment of women teachers as an occupational group relative to their English counterparts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of economic status? while schoolmasters in Scotland fared better than those in England in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(salary, social status and intellectual prestige.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen Corr has identified key elements in Scotland?s tradition, or myth, of the democratic intellect: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of Presbyterianism and the integral role played by the dominie, or parish schoolmaster, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forging a distinctive sense of masculinity through its educational system, one which was bound up with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of national identity established before the Union with England and Wales. Historians of Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education see that tradition as embedded in the education act of 1696, and revived by an act of 1803 which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improved the position of the dominie, shown to be under threat in the )] TJ ET BT 369.992 97.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(First Statistical Account of Scotland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1790?99\). While there is a debate over whether the 1872 Education \(Scotland\) Act dealt a deathblow to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic tradition by introducing inferior English practices, the dominie remained a revered figure into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th century, reflected in memoir, novel and poetry. From the Reformation, by law there was to be a school )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(949)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 September, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen Corr)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780773449138)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(74.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(283pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwin Mellen Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lampeter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane McDermid)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7455 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a schoolmaster in every parish, paid for from the local rates. Fees were charged, but the school was to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided, the master to be paid a minimum wage, and the children of the poor were to be supported by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local community of ratepayers. The dominie had to subscribe to the Established Church, and was expected to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have had a university education \(if not a completed degree\). He was also expected to combine teaching with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service as the local minister?s assistant \(for which additional duties the teacher was paid\). The dominie was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often a frustrated minister, unable to find his own parish; but nevertheless as a teacher he saw himself, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was seen as, playing a key role in preserving and maintaining the tradition of the ?democratic intellect?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the dominie was the embodiment of that tradition, serving as the link between parish school and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university which was distinctive to Scotland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A great deal of national sentiment was invested in the figure of the ?lad of parts? from remote villages and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humble social origins being empowered by parish schooling to climb into the professions, and the dominie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was often a former lad of parts. As Corr contends, this was a masculine ideal, yet even by the 1790s the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish school was only part of a network of schools. The dominie alone could not serve the needs of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing population, while many teachers outside the parish system \(in voluntary, private, and charitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schools\) were female. Here we might see the beginning of a gendered division of labour in the teaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profession, particularly in the Lowlands where the private schools often catered for younger children and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(girls, with the schoolmistress teaching basic literacy \(especially reading\) as well as sewing and knitting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the girls. She thereby took some of the pressure off the parish school, allowing the dominie to concentrate on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching the older children, especially but not only the boys, more advanced subjects. Whereas such schools )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and schoolmistresses reflected an already existing gendered division of labour, at least until the 1830s they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not seen as undermining or challenging the dominie. Rather they were supplementary to the parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school, and it was believed that the dominie encouraged the habit of education and served as a model for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corr?s focus is on the Lowlands, but parallel with the emerging gendered division of labour there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical division. In the Highlands and Islands, generalised poverty meant that few lads of parts took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the low road to the universities. Indeed, Highland boys as much as girls were likely to be taught outside of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parish system before the 1872 Act, and by a schoolmistress. Yet even in the Highlands and Islands that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(link between the parish school and the university was seen as important, though not so much for poor boys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as for the sons of small farmers, tradesmen and ministers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, the educational tradition placed great importance on the appointment of the teacher. The parish school )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over which he presided was believed to develop a common culture for the whole nation, in contrast to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and sexual segregation of English education. Corr?s study is stronger on the period after 1870 ? really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the 1872 Education \(Scotland\) Act ? than on the rest of the 19th century; and whereas generally she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextualises developments in working-class girls? education \(her main focus\) within the process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industralisation, relating those of their middle-class counterparts to the rise of feminism, she also examines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the latter?s championing of a domestic education for the daughters of the poor, which intensified in the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century. A closer look at the range of middle-class girls? education, however, would have brought out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarities with England, particularly in the trend towards single-sex schooling. As Corr notes, early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Scotland felt the strains of industrialisation, urbanisation, and growing divisions within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterianism and English influences. She pays less attention to immigration and migration, and while she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges \(p. 60\) the growth of Catholic schooling in Scotland from the middle of the 19th century, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not integrate that into her analysis. This is a pity, since Catholic schools in Scotland relied heavily on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lay schoolmistresses in contrast to the centrality of the religious orders in other countries. Nor does Corr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine the relationship between Catholic education and the Presbyterian tradition; instead, she concentrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the relationship between capitalism, gender and patriarchy, suggesting that education was shaped by this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and overlooking what it might have contributed. The pressures she identifies threatened the traditionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high status of the dominie. In particular, Anglicisation was presumed by the Scottish teaching profession to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include lower standards in terms of curriculum and teaching, which were both associated with the numerical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domination of elementary schooling in England by women. Hence, the sharp increase in Scotland of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teachers after the 1872 Education Act was seen as undermining not only the dominie but also national )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7467 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harmony by narrowing the education of the poor to the elementary branches. Even certificated mistresses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were seen as being of inferior status to the university educated schoolmaster: the former was trained, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter intellectually educated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corr reveals how the development in Scotland of teacher training from the 1820s, and the introduction from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England of the pupil-teacher system in 1846 provided Scottish women with points of entry into publicly-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funded education and what had been an exclusively male profession. The pupil-teacher system was greatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resented by dominies as undermining the traditional link between universities and schools and narrowing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope of education in the latter, and in 1847 the Educational Institute of Scotland \(EIS\) was set up in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to protect and enhance their professional status. Four years earlier, the split, or Disruption, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church of Scotland had a great impact on teacher training, as the new Free Church of Scotland sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rival the established church. Both aimed to preserve church control of education, and indeed the 1872 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Education Act did not change the system of teacher training, which continued to be dominated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches into the next century. While Corr acknowledges this, she neglects the influence of religious beliefs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and practices on teachers? attitudes towards gender roles. The training colleges strove to maintain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly traditions of the parish schools by keeping Latin in the curriculum for men. Corr contrasts this with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the female curriculum of teacher training colleges where the emphasis was on the narrow range of subjects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they were expected to impart to working-class girls.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As this study shows, Scottish teachers, male and female, tended to be better qualified and educated than their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English counterparts. Corr acknowledges that while teaching had a higher status in Scotland than in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, there were fewer professional opportunities for women in Scotland. In the second half of the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, the Scottish economy grew dramatically, but that growth was narrowly based on the predominantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male sector of heavy industry. The 1872 Education Act, however, resulted in a huge demand for teachers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening up a respectable means of becoming self-supporting in a key male profession for the daughters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skilled workers and the lower middle-class. In 1851, 65 per cent of Scottish teachers were male, 35 per cent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female; but by 1911, the positions were reversed, with 30 per cent male and 70 per cent female. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated here, this feminisation of the teaching profession did not bring equality, reflected in persistent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(salary differentials. In the 1870s the average female salary was scarcely more than half that of the male. 20 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years later, the gap had widened, and women were earning on average just under half the male salary. It may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be that the higher salaries paid to Scottish schoolmasters was a way of defending their higher professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status and the cultural aspects of the proud Scottish tradition, which as Corr argues was at the expense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women teachers. Further, that there was no strong equal pay movement among Scottish women teachers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might also be seen as confirmation of the strength of patriarchy in the Scottish education system. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corr contrasts the feminism of the first woman president of the National Union of Teachers \(NUT, 1911\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isabel Cleghorn, who championed equal pay, to the pragmatic position of Elizabeth Fish, the first woman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elected president of the EIS \(1913\). Fish counselled that the circumstances militated against equal pay. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noted the schoolmistress was seen as simply a class teacher, and an over-abundant one at that, whereas male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recruits to the profession possessed a scarcity value, and were still seen as dominies. While Fish?s position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevailed, Corr presents a case study of rank and file EIS schoolmistresses in Glasgow who were in favour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of equal pay. Generally, she sees the NUT as both more political and having a stronger feminist strand than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the EIS, but she acknowledges \(p.135\) that the majority of female teachers remained outside both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations and only a minority of female members rose to positions in the leadership.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like most daughters of Church of Scotland ministers, Elizabeth Fish had been expected to earn a living. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close connection believed to exist between education and Presbyterianism led some to argue that women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ought to be well educated because self-improvement was a religious and moral duty. Interestingly, no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence has been found of a Presbyterian campaign against women?s entry into higher education. True, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition of university educated masters teaching in the parish schools had led to the assumption that female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teachers were inferior to males; but the late Victorian period gradually gave rise to another assumption, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if women were to be employed in the Board schools then they too should have the opportunity of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university education, in keeping with the national tradition and local practice. Of course, women?s position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Scottish universities remained peripheral, and generally working and lower middle-class girls were )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6577 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discouraged from university education by a bursary system which favoured boys. Yet, however few in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number, that a minority of female teachers could now achieve a university education was seen as one way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensuring that teaching retained its professional status in keeping with the educational tradition. Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Corr highlights, schoolmasters continued to monopolise headships.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, the traditional co-educational system, which survived the 1872 Education Act, favoured male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority. On the one hand, the history of the Scottish teaching profession reflects the patriarchal nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish society in the 19th century. On the other, it reveals a much more complex situation than simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concluding that Scotland was peculiarly patriarchal, in thrall to Knox?s infamous remarks about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?monstrous regiment? of women. Knox did not aim his ?first blast of the trumpet? against women in general. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was Knox who insisted on the spiritual equality between women and men, and that education for all ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regardless of gender as well as social class ? was essential. Certainly, the male parish schoolteacher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to be seen as the epitome of the democratic intellect, but in practice, the dominie often depended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on his wife \(or sister\) to run the school, and increasingly on his daughter as pupil-teacher who would follow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him into the profession. Hence, as the Board school system expanded after 1872, women made career gains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and gradually, if grudgingly, were recognised as junior partners in preserving the educational tradition, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central to national identity. While Corr attempts \(p.3\) to place Scotland in ?a comparative context with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and Wales? for the period between 1800 and 1920, a broader European perspective would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown the Scottish experience to be less distinctive \(for example in the preference for mixed-sex schooling\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the English comparison suggests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A preoccupation of sociologists as well as historians of Scottish education continues to be this question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how Scottish education is distinctive: education is still linked with national identity, with its separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions and different traditions taken as a symbol of Scotland?s identity as a nation within the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingdom. This key aspect rather gets lost sight of in the final chapter. Although the period identified in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtitle of this book ends in 1920, there is a lengthy ?postscript? which surveys the situation after 1920 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly since the 1960s. The aim seems to be to underpin Corr?s argument for historical continuity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the persistence of gender inequalities in the structure of education and the tacit acceptance of this by women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teachers in Scotland. Her explanation, however, departs from the Scottish situation and rests heavily on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary literature, concluding \(p. 245\) that the ?fragmentation of feminism and the polarisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different political and ideological agendas between women activists? has meant that education remains a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bastion of male power. The study ends with a call \(p.2 46\) for education to foster ?a new generation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young men and women to engage in global action for a more egalitarian world?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, the book is marred by poor proof-reading, clumsy expression, imprecision, repetition, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some factual inaccuracy. The author seems particularly sensitive to criticism of her earlier work, not least by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this reviewer, that it was \(p. 160\) ?over simplistic and far too sharply drawn?. Anyone reading the journal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles and chapters in edited collections written by Corr and published in the 1980s and 1990s \(listed on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp.254?5\) will be struck by the repetition of key arguments about the relationship between the Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational tradition and gender inequality: indeed, some passages seem simply to be repeated here in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form in which they were originally published. Helen Corr?s own early work was a valuable part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge to the gender blindness of ?the celebrated myth of egalitarianism? \(p. 50\); this book remains stuck )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very much within that pioneering position.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 159.247 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 141.467 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 141.467 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/949)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 140.073 m 322.316 140.073 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 115.096 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.696 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4915)] TJ ET BT 34.016 86.296 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 140.3875 322.3157 152.2675 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/949) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000614 00000 n 0000000696 00000 n 0000004902 00000 n 0000005011 00000 n 0000005121 00000 n 0000005230 00000 n 0000008791 00000 n 0000008919 00000 n 0000009003 00000 n 0000009068 00000 n 0000016576 00000 n 0000016641 00000 n 0000024161 00000 n 0000024245 00000 n 0000030875 00000 n 0000031003 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31098 %%EOF