%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140902052609+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140902052609+01'00') /Title (Family, Commerce and Religion in London and Cologne: Anglo-German Immigrants, c.1000?c.1300) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1566 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Family, Commerce and Religion in London and Cologne: Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(German Immigrants, c.1000?c.1300)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Huffman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bjorn Weiler)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7322 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph P. Huffmans Family, Commerce and Religion in London and Cologne: Anglo-German Immigrants, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(c.1000-c.1300: \(Cambridge 1998\) is the most recent contribution to a burgeoning field of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship, i.e. the study of Anglo-German relations in the Middle Ages. Over the last fifteen years a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of studies have appeared on the subject. Amongst the most important are Natalie Fryde, Ein )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mittelalterlicher deutscher Grossunternehmer: Terricus Teutonicus de Colonia in England, 1217-1257 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Stuttgart, 1997\), Theo Holzapfel, Papst Innozenz III., Philipp II. August, Knig von Frankreich, und die )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(englisch-welfische Verbindung 1198-1216 \(Frankfurt/Main, 1991\), T.H. Lloyd, England and the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanse, 1157-1611 \(Cambridge, 1991\), and Dieter Berg, England und der Kontinent: Studien zur auswrtigen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Politik der anglonormannischen Knige\(Bochum, 1987\). Nonetheless, Professor Huffmans is the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt in English to provide a detailed investigation of the subject centred on the economic and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction between Cologne and London. Particular emphasis is given to emigrants and families who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguished by their role in arranging, or in profiting from, relations between Cologne and the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realm. In many ways, the Rhenish metropolis lends itself to this approach. Its economic significance remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undisputed, and the political clout of its archbishops made the city a frequent agent and go-between in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-German relations. In 1066, for instance, the archbishop had been instrumental in securing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic "Back-up" for William of Normandys conquest of England. In 1198, they secured the necessary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support, when Richard the Lionhearted decided to promote the candidacy of his nephew, Otto of Poitou, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the German throne, and in 1256 Archbishop Conrad of Hochstaden had enlisted the votes needed to facilitate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Earl Richard of Cornwalls election as King of the Romans. Although this has long been recognised, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Huffmans chosen focus on the foot-soldiers of Anglo-German exchange, the merchants, clerics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and adventurers, promises to shed new light on the technicalities and the personnel of economic and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchanges in medieval Europe. For these reasons it merits close attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided into three sections. A number of shorter chapters deal with the material framework of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic exchange, the history of trade between London and Cologne, the latters declining influence in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of the thirteenth century, and a history of currency exchange. Special emphasis is paid to the legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status of Germans in London from the eleventh century onwards, as well as the location and history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London Guildhall, the "trading post" initially for Cologne, but increasingly for German merchants in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general. This introduction to the economic background is rounded off by an investigation of currency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchanges between England and Germany, and in particular the role of the sterling as a Leitwhrung in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval trade, as well as the standard for designing coins and currencies, including, it would seem, a rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profitable forging-industry which sprung up in the Rhineland during this period. In the second part, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Huffman presents two case-studies, one of a number of Cologne families who seem to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originated in England, and their economic fortunes during the thirteenth century, and the second that of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zudendorps, a Cologne family which was not only active in economic exchanges between Cologne and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, but who also acted as envoys and diplomats during much of the thirteenth century. Particular use is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made of the Schreinsbcher, a set of legal documents outlining property transactions in thirteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cologne, so far a largely untapped source. This picture is complemented in part three by a survey of clerics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose careers spanned both the English and the German realm, as well as the relics and saints who can serve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to illustrate the close cultural and religious connections between the two regions. It may be worth pointing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out, for instance, that St Ursula was initially said to have been a British princess before being martyred with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her 10,000 companions near Cologne, where she became one of the major attractions for medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pilgrimages, including a visit by no lesser a person than Margery Kempe. All in all, some of the major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements of Anglo-German relations in the Middle Ages are dealt with. Much of this centres on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirteenth century. This is, however, the result of the quantity and quality of material surviving from this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, and is nonetheless useful in assessing developments which occurred since the early eleventh century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As such, this book promises to fill an important gap in the study of the medieval economy, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bringing together German and English scholarship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, Professor Huffmans study does not always live up to these expectations. This is due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons which are not always entirely within the authors control. Much of the chapter on the English in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7344 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cologne, for instance, is little more than a list of property transactions. To a large extent, this approach is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditioned by the sources available to Professor Huffman - the Schreinsbcher -, but it also highlights some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the perennial problems in having to rely primarily on legal and administrative materials for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation of social developments. We learn very little about the families involved, beyond what is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed in these lists of property transactions. More importantly, the fundamental methodological problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the heart of Professor Huffmans investigation - to what extent does the name de Anglia or Anglicus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denote English origins, or simply close contacts with England - seems to have defied a wholly satisfactory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solution. What Professor Huffman does show, however, is that sufficient evidence survives to suggest that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English emigrants did settle in Cologne, and, as far as their property transactions imply, sometimes with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable success. It is only in the final part of study, that the evidence allows the author to paint a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide-ranging picture, when dealing with men such as Gerard Pucelle, a member of Thomas Becketts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entourage and close friend of John of Salisbury, who later became one of the leading teachers of Canon Law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Cologne, or Bishop Savaric of Bath, who utilised his relations with the Emperor and his close access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard the Lionhearted to secure himself an Episcopal see in England. These are important elements in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture, which may not be familiar to many anglophone historians. However, it certainly is not the major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new contribution, which would encourage historians to reconsider their basic assumptions as to what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted medieval Europe. That, however, is what Professor Huffman all too frequently proclaims his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book to be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This leads to two major criticisms, the first one of posture, the second one of approach and methodology. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Huffman promises more than he delivers, and more than he can deliver. He is certainly right in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chastising the anglo-centric parochialism of much current medieval scholarship not just in Britain, but in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English-speaking world as a whole, and he is also correct in pointing out that medieval Germany was not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shadowy and semi-barbarous entity somewhere east of Dover, but a major factor in the economic, cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social development of medieval Europe. Moreover, the present study possesses considerable merit, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inasmuch as it makes available substantial amounts of German scholarship to those who do not take a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional interest in the history of either Germany or Anglo-German relations. It also provides us with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed facets of what the so commonly acknowledged social and economic interchange in medieval Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant in practice. For once, we do not see kings and emperors negotiating, but merchants and artisans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organising their exchanges and careers. Unfortunately, Professor Huffman does not seem to be content with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this, and all too often he protests a degree of novelty for his contribution which is not always justified. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present book does not put forth a revolutionary new thesis or methodology, but applies existing approaches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in greater detail than has previously been the case, while rarely departing from the well-trodden paths of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical scholarship. Professor Huffman moves within parameters which have been established for several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations, and they are rarely, if ever, questioned. By and large, he is deepening rather than expanding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field of Anglo-German relations. Neither the choice of his topic economic exchange and social mobility nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the geographical framework which he is considering Cologne and London go beyond what historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been doing for the last 120 years. This is not necessarily a bad thing, but it contrasts unfavourably with some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the rather grandiloquent claims put forth in this book. Pointing out that the London-Cologne nexus was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important one qualifies neither as a surprising nor as a new insight.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second objection to be made follows from this. As Professor Huffman rarely goes beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established framework, the focus of his investigation often seems unduly limited. This refers not only to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general lack of interpretation and analysis, but also to the methodological, geographical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosopographical focus chosen. There is very little in terms of interpretation in this book, which for its most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part is a list of property transactions and excerpts from financial records. To some extent, as has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned earlier, this is the result of the sources at hand. However, even so not very much is done with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these materials. There is little reference as to their application beyond listing and citing them. We are thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well informed, for instance, of the Zudendorps economic and diplomatic role, but we do not know where to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place them. How were they different from other families ? How typical was their career as merchant-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomats in the thirteenth century ? How do they compare to other important families, either from Cologne )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7254 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or from elsewhere, as, for instance, the family of the advocates and mayors of Aachen \(who attained a no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less important role in facilitating diplomatic and economic exchanges\)? How do the actions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertakings of Arnold fitz Thedmar in London compare to those of the various English families registered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as being active in the Rhineland ? There certainly are limits as to what can be gleaned from the surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records, but these are questions which could and should have been addressed. As this has rarely been done in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any detail, much of the material unearthed by Professor Huffman remains in an interpretative void and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaves the reader at a loss as to what to do with it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similar problem is posed by the thematic, geographical and prosopographical restrictions which Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Huffman has imposed upon himself. There are valid reasons, for instance, for concentrating on economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social exchanges, while leaving aside the political history of Anglo-German relations. At the same time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an awareness of the political context within which the protagonists of Professor Huffmans study acted would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been helpful, and could have provided some of the analysis which the book as a whole is often lacking. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It may have been worth considering, for instance, to what extent Colognes declining significance in Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German economic exchanges from c. 1230 onwards was mirrored in the shifting emphasis of Anglo-German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic contacts. Is there a connection between Henry IIIs diplomatic efforts concentrating on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emperor himself, rather than the German princes, and a decrease in trading privileges for and other contacts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Rhenish cities ? To what extent were the problems of the English families and merchants in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cologne during the 1260s related to the increasingly hostile relations between the Archbishop and Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Cornwall ? These are matters, which would not have forced the author to veer from his chosen field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enquiry, as they form part of the necessary background to the activities and undertakings which he is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploring. After all, the families considered by Professor Huffman merited their inclusion in this book by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their outstanding role in diplomatic as well as economic exchanges. Certainly, even just highlighting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political parameters within which they acted and the impact these had or may have had on their careers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been worth further consideration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, English contacts with the medieval German empire outside Cologne are mostly left untouched. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is certainly justifiable in the context of a study on economic and social exchange between London and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cologne, but, once more, at least some awareness of what else was going on would have strengthened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Huffmans argument. In its present form, the study does not go beyond the established assumption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that prior to the foundation of the Hanseatic League - Cologne, and Cologne more or less alone, mattered in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchanges between England and Germany. As a result, some rather important pieces of information have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been overlooked, even within the chosen parameters of Professor Huffmans book. For instance, although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts of Henry III to marry a Bohemian princess in 1227 are mentioned, as is the Bohemian envoy, Count )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arnold of Hckeswagen, Arnolds identity remains unresolved. This is regrettable, as looking at this in more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail would certainly have underlined Professor Huffmans point of the pre-eminence of Cologne, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wide range of men and people involved in economic and social exchanges. The Counts family originated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Westphalia, where they held fiefs of the archbishop. Arnolds father had frequently witnessed charters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Archbishop Adolf, while Arnolds son and heir joined the chapter of St Pantaleon in Cologne. Certainly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this would not have forced Professor Huffman to reduce his coverage of Cologne in any degree, which could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be deemed irresponsible, but it would have broadened the range and scope of the material available for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally, Professor Huffmans prosopographical focus is sometimes unfairly restricted. Obviously, the nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the sources will force any author to concentrate on merchants and those whose actions and undertakings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were reported in financial or legal records. Nonetheless, a lot more could have been accomplished even with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the material at hand. In addition, a number of sources survive which could have facilitated a broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coverage of people and social groups. In the final part of his book, Professor Huffman does cover some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the clerics and scholars who were involved in exchanges between Cologne and London, and he also gives a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brief survey of religious relations, while parts of section two deal with artisans from Cologne active in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England. By and large, though, we are presented with a list of contacts, little comparison, and no analysis. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, even some of the materials, which could have been used to present a broader picture, remain )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5803 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unexplored. Nicholas of Cologne, for instance, a goldsmith involved in the production of St Edward the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Confessor's shrine at Westminster, is mentioned, but little effort is made to illuminate the range of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities, and what effort there is has been banished to the footnotes. This is the more regrettable, as his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been an ideal example to illustrate the pitfalls and difficulties faced by artisans in general, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably - emigrants in particular. After all, we mostly know of Nicholas, because King Henry III failed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to pay up. As a result, his requests for money, and the kings promises and evasions run like a red thread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through several issues of the Liberate Rolls. Similarly, the circumstantial evidence which could justify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculations as to mercenaries from Cologne being employed by Simon de Montfort at the battles of Lewes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Evesham is not even mentioned, and although Professor Huffman does refer to the clerics whose careers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spanned both the English and the German realm, rather surprising lacunae remain. Who, for instance, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the "Magister Andelmus, natione Coloniensis" whose consecration as archbishop of Armagh in Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned by Matthew Paris ? Certainly, he was potentially one of the most important "German" emigrants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the dominions of the English king during this period, and as such worth considering.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None of these omissions on their own would pose a serious criticism of Professor Huffmans approach and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coverage. However, taken together, they underline the most serious weakness of Professor Huffmans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation. This study remains a worthwhile contribution, not the least so, because it presents the results )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and approaches of earlier generations of German scholarship in English, and thus opens up this field to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider audience. In addition, some new materials have been found and presented, and a number of additional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources have been mustered and examples found to illustrate the degree of interaction between Cologne and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England. As a whole, this study deepens our knowledge of economic, diplomatic and social ties between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rhineland and England, and confirms what most historians have held be the case already. At the same time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is considerably less than what Professor Huffman originally intended. This is the result both of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggeratedly ambitious rhetoric, and of a failure to look beyond the established confines of the subject. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nobody would have expected a complete coverage of all contacts of any kind between Germany and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England from the eleventh to the early fourteenth century. Nonetheless, even with regard to Cologne some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important fields have not been given the attention they deserve, and even within the context of social, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious and economic exchanges between Cologne and London, this study could have profited from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awareness of the broader framework of the events, institutions and topics it describes. Germany not to speak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the empire itself - does extend beyond Cologne. Many opportunities for using the materials unearthed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been left unexplored. On a more technical level, it would have been feasible, for instance, to reduce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coverage of the Zudendorps and the English in Cologne, as both have been the subject of substantial articles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Professor Huffman, and instead to present more of a comparative analysis. Thus, Professor Huffman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have expanded and broadened our understanding of the cross-connections and intersections between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and Germany in particular, and within medieval Europe as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 242.527 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 224.747 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 224.747 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/95)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 223.353 m 316.316 223.353 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 198.376 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.976 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/653)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 223.6675 316.3157 235.5475 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/95) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000601 00000 n 0000000683 00000 n 0000002301 00000 n 0000002410 00000 n 0000002520 00000 n 0000002629 00000 n 0000006190 00000 n 0000006318 00000 n 0000006402 00000 n 0000006467 00000 n 0000013842 00000 n 0000013907 00000 n 0000021304 00000 n 0000021369 00000 n 0000028676 00000 n 0000028760 00000 n 0000034616 00000 n 0000034744 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34838 %%EOF