%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 35 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141128124214+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141128124214+00'00') /Title (Land and Revolution in Modern Greece, 1800-81) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4195 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Land and Revolution in Modern Greece, 1800-81)] TJ ET BT 64.016 275.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Otho of Bavaria, the young king-designate of newly independent Greece, first stepped on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek soil at Nauplion in early February 1833, he met a heartwarming spectacle. Against the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background of the Argolid hills stretching toward ancient Mycenae and Epidaurus, beneath the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stout ramparts of Palamidhi fortress, the leaders of the heroic Greek war of independence were )] TJ ET BT 64.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gathered to greet the prince and his regents.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 273.296 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 273.296 217.161 m 287.288 217.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 180.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William McGrew chooses Nauplion, the first Greek capital, as the first location of his book. The opening of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book captures all the excitement, complexity and challenging nature of his topic. Expectation, colour, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the morphology of the Greek landscape in those few lines become one. In the mind of the reader they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compose a strong visual image, a symbol for the book itself. It is a great privilege to be offering this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retrospective essay on McGrew?s )] TJ ET BT 198.632 123.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land and Revolution in Modern Greece, 1800-81. The Transition in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tenure and Exploitation of Land from Ottoman Rule to Independence)] TJ ET BT 368.996 109.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, arguably the most important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph on the early modern history of the Peloponnesus, Euboea, and Roumeli, and the most ardent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of scholarship regarding modern Greece. This book presents obliquely the entire history of the birth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the modern Greek nation by examining thoroughly one important aspect of it, that of land reform. Through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this, a fine portrait of the newly-emerged Greek nation is offered, which includes ideology and nationhood, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(953)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 September, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William W. McGrew)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780873383165)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1985)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(339pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kent State University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kent, OH)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eugenia Russell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 273.2957 217.4755 287.2877 229.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8082 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class tensions, the role of minorities, including transhumance, Western perceptions of Greece, the role of war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veterans \(and the dependents of the fallen\) in the new Greek state, and the problem of Greeks from without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the boarders, including refugees. The book falls in two parts, the first dealing with the land issue before 1833 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the second presenting the evolution of land reforms between 1833, the year the young prince Otho )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 529.256 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 529.256 752.307 m 543.248 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 543.248 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bavaria arrived to Greece with his regents as the new king, and 1881, when Thessaly and the district of Arta )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were added to the Greek state. Of course the addition of those lands caused a discrepancy, as the older parts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of liberated Greece had already undergone the difficult processes of land reform studied in this monograph.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The importance of agriculture for the economy of the young Greek nation was vital and therefore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult problem of land ownership with its complex legacy was a matter of high priority for the country. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author sets up the scene by listing and explaining the Ottoman terms of land holdings with their subtle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanings and legacies. These terms are relevant for the entirety of the study and therefore important for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader to become familiar with at the start. The frequent references to the Ottoman system show how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embedded both early Ottoman and the more benevolent later custom law had become in the conscience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Greek population. The Greek government had to work with the expectations and attitudes that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing situation had borne. Requests for abrupt change where more often than not ignored. Due to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixture of conflicting interests, social ideals and adverse circumstances, the system that eventually evolved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favoured small free-holds and discouraged large investment and absentee landlords. This was a mixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blessing for the development of Greek farming, which was in subsequent generations abandoned by those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who could make a better living in the city or go abroad. The pursuit of social equality was costly and earning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a living from the land remained frowned upon. This study reveals this slow progression.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The young Greek state found itself in an interesting situation, having inherited the Ottoman system of land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ownership and tenure with which it had to work, yet desiring to erase the memory of Ottoman government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the creation of a new, Western system of land ownership and taxation. This latter import of Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(models was partly due to the influence of the three Western powers as well as leading European-educated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greeks of the time but the new regime also had certain sympathies with the poor. At the same time there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a shift in the patterns of land occupancy itself, with a tentative and gradual movement of much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population from the harsh but secure highlands to the more promising lowlands, which despite their potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were still plagued with disease from marshlands and from the oppression of local archons and tax-farmers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The continued local corruption and oppression made land tenants distrust the state and its new measures and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally resist reform. During Ottoman rule the fertile plains were uncultivated, while intensive labour had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been put by the Greek \(and Turkish\) peasantry into making small patches of resistant highland profitable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of land reform in modern Greece is partly one of the gradual reversal of this paradox. As already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned, the complex Ottoman system with its various categories of single and shared ownership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(including religious institutions\) is explained in detail in )] TJ ET BT 306.692 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land and Revolution)] TJ ET BT 407.360 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; so are the added complexities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the re-introduction in 1835 of Byzantine law as typified in the )] TJ ET BT 347.312 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hexabiblos)] TJ ET BT 401.972 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Constantine Armenopoulos )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 272.115 m 48.008 272.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, supplemented by custom law. The Kapodistrian legacy regarding the land is also given its due attention. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prior to his assassination, President Ioannes Kapodistrias had made land reform one of his major priorities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having drawn up an extensive land distribution plan that he was not able to put into practice. His Bavarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successors, the regents of Othon, largely failed to grasp the realities of Greek life as it was and rather hoped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to superimpose theoretical models of land exploitation and revenue that they brought from their homeland. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is more, they insisted in wanting immediate financial returns from a land that needed significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investment to produce good returns and therefore alienated local residents who continued to feel insecure in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their land and homes. The terms were often so unfavourable, that the tentative conditions of tenancy or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(squatting were often preferrable for land labourers to the heavy debt attached to a land mortgage. Another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistake of the Bavarian regency in several cases was to reverse custom law for the letter of Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation that had long fallen out of use. This measure was particularly unwelcome by the people. Further, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical or enlightened reform in the young Greek state was for long held back by a desire of dissassociation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with other contemporary revolutionary movements in Europe. Greek representatives were eager to show that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Greek Uprising was national and not social / radical, and therefore were careful not to pursue a land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy that could have revolutionary connotations.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 529.2557 752.6215 543.2477 764.5015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 272.4295 48.0077 284.3095 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7994 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A forgotten chapter in the history of modern Greece in respect of the land issue is the abolition of three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarters of the monasteries, and the confiscation of their properties. The author explains the different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categories of monastic establishments, i.e. )] TJ ET BT 239.324 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(stauropegiaka)] TJ ET BT 307.988 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 313.988 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(enoriaka)] TJ ET BT 356.648 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 362.648 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ktetorika)] TJ ET BT 405.308 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 431.636 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(metochia)] TJ ET BT 475.628 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The abolition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was connected to the declaration of the Autocephalus \(Independent\) Greek Church in 1833: many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monasteries were directly linked to the Patriarchate of Constantinople, which was thought to compromise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their position within the Greek state. Allegations of corruption and malpractice in monasteries were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to bring their downfall. Nunneries, though only very few at the time, were heavily affected too. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of benefit to the economy, McGrew regards the appropriation of monastic property by the state largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsuccessful, and it seems that mostly powerful and dubious individuals profited from such lands rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Greek state. The original recommendation of the Holy Synod, which was implemented, that the monastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assets be used for the maintenance of the clergy and churches and the advancement of education proved far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from practicable. An interesting sideline to the confiscation of the monastic properties is that through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention of the French government the Roman Catholic monasteries on the islands of Syros, Naxos and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thera \(Santorini\) were exempt from this measure. What is more, a protocol was signed \(1830\) protecting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious liberty and property rights of Catholic persons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many technical problems had to be overcome in the course of this study, such as the absence of uniform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures in the era under discussion. That means not only that for the modern researcher estimating units of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land is a considerable challenge but also that one has to be prepared to encounter significant regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences in contemporary measurements. The author deals with such issues with great skill and succeeds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in presenting his material in an uninterrupted and elegant manner. Where necessary, tables have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared to assist the reader with statistical or other detailed information. Another specific problem is this of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the identification of the )] TJ ET BT 149.336 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(chiftliks )] TJ ET BT 190.340 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or holdings of local tyrants such as Ali Pasha, who had reduced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional privileges of many )] TJ ET BT 179.336 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kefalochoria)] TJ ET BT 239.996 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by force. Should these \(after his violent death\) count as state-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owned or should their previous inhabitants be restored to their rights? And how does the Greek state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disentangle the true rights of ownership? These are only a couple of examples of the complex details the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author had to content with in the course of his research. The exact outcomes of some of these issues are still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unknown to us, partly due to insufficiently kept or destroyed records.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A word now on this work?s implications. Exemplary in its methodology, bibliography and authorship, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insightful in its discussion of identity, )] TJ ET BT 218.372 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land and Revolution)] TJ ET BT 319.040 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has served and stimulated future scholarship ? it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a model for the use of source materials relating to other regions of the Greek lands in the same period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further, the author?s prose is direct, robust, and flexible: rarely a passion for the historical record is matched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with such expressive power. The author?s narrative, gradually built through the presentation of extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentation and archival evidence, is underpinned by his personal acquaintance with the realities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Greek affairs, personal and collective motives and notions of loyalty. A long-term resident of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thessalonica, the author mainly worked in Greek Archives in Athens and other parts of Southern Greece for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the completion of his study. He also utilized his impressive command of historical geography and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural history. Without his intimate knowledge of Greek geography, morphology and terrain, this study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not have been written. The detailed examples of land reform in towns and villages in every corner of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what was then Greece both give a regional flavour to the study and show the complexity of the undertaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only for the land reformers but also for the historian. Regarding place names, contemporary names are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given but when necessary the author helpfully supplies their modern equivalents \(e.g. Salona ? Amphissa\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the book, evocative and well-selected references to contemporary authorities such as William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Leake add both depth and character to this literary masterpiece. Similarly, the author?s close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquaintance with the history of the Greek Revolution allows him to weave into his narrative the names and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities of the major war heroes that the student of Modern Greece would know and expect to read about. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This quality of the book of relating the specific to the general makes it a great pleasure to read.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The auxiliary materials that accompany this monograph are in themselves significant assets to the student of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greece?s history. There are two excellent modern maps showing Greece between 1832 and 1881 and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reproduction of a morphological map produced by the French expedition to the Morea in 1833. The )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 6800 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronology \(c. 1400?1881\) and glossary of Greek and Turkish terms are useful tools not only for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginner but also for the advanced and experienced researcher. As for the bibliography, which extends to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost 30 pages, it is an open invitation to future researchers to engage with the wealth of material available )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to us. Largely annotated, it guides the reader towards further intensive study. The author?s preface, too, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(richly suggestive of future research possibilities and of untapped historical treasures; it also declares the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s empirical methodological approach. The difficult issues of Greek name spelling, place names with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their multiple variants \(as in the example given above\), and Greek dating \(including an explanation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calendars\) are discussed in an assertive and engaging manner. The future researcher may also want to seek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out the original doctoral thesis from which this work stems, awarded by the University of Cincinnati \(1980\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There, an even fuller bibliography and more detailed and discursive footnotes will reward the reader who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might like to follow up particular strands of this study. At the same time, students of Mediterranean history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who come to this book with a more panoramic view will find in the bibliography and notes all that they need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to immerse themselves in the history of the Greek independence or to follow particular lines of enquiry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while building on its comparative methodology. Finally, it is regrettable that this beautifully produced and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellently written monograph is currently out of print and only available through second-hand outlets. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible fresh edition of )] TJ ET BT 152.672 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land and Revolution)] TJ ET BT 253.340 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would be of great service to scholarship, in areas of growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest such as economic history, agricultural history and husbandry are. More widely known as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educationalist, in )] TJ ET BT 119.012 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land and Revolution)] TJ ET BT 219.680 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( William McGrew has given not only to the historical profession but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also to Greece a lasting legacy: )] TJ ET BT 186.644 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ktema es aiei)] TJ ET BT 249.296 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 504.963 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William W. McGrew, )] TJ ET BT 172.328 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land and Revolution in Modern Greece, 1800?81. The Transition in the Tenure )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Exploitation of Land from Ottoman Rule to Independence)] TJ ET BT 362.000 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Kent OH, 1992; first edition 1985\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.016 444.435 m 127.004 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 431.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Or the Greek version of his name, Othon; he adopted this upon his arrival to Greece. The new king did )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learn the Greek language, which he continued to speak in exile with his Queen, Amalia. His love of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greece is generally asserted by historians.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 265.964 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 265.964 401.667 m 319.952 401.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 388.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantine Armenopoulos, )] TJ ET BT 201.680 388.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Procheiron Nomon i Exavivlos \(The Hexabiblos\))] TJ ET BT 436.652 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. K. G. Pitsakis )] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Athens, 1971\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.004 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.004 373.155 m 192.992 373.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 348.293 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Also see by the same author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Ward McGrew, ?Land and revolution in modern Greece, 1821 to 1871? [microform], PhD thesis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(University of Cincinnati, 1980\), Microfiche \(Ann Arbor, Mich, 1984\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(???? ?The Greek ?National Estates?: Disposition of Former Turkish Properties During the War of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independence?, Master?s Thesis, University of Cincinnati \(1971\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(???? ?Stewards of the Land: the American Farm School and Greece in the Twentieth Century \(review\)?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mediterranean Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 156.332 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 16, 3 \(2005\), 166?9.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 200.501 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Further in-depth studies recommended by the author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 174.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Christos Alexander, ?Toward a History of Post-Byzantine Greece: The Ottoman ?Kanunnames? for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek Lands, Circa 1500?Circa 1600?, PhD thesis \(Columbia University, 1974\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stanley E. Aschenbrenner, ?A Study of Ritual Sponsorship in a Greek Village?, PhD thesis \(University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 119.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minnesota, 1971\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 93.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nikiforos P. Diamandouros, ?Political Modernization, Social Conflict and Cultural Cleavage in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Formation of the Modern Greek State: 1821?1828?, PhD thesis \(Columbia University, 1972\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adamantios A. Pepelasis, ?Socio-cultural Barriers to the Economic Development of Greece?, PhD thesis )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.0157 444.7495 127.0037 456.6295 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 265.9637 401.9815 319.9517 413.8615 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.0037 373.4695 192.9917 385.3495 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 1027 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(University of California at Berkley, 1954\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muriel D. Schein, ?Change and Continuity in a Greek Mountain Village?, PhD thesis \(Columbia University, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 710.719 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 692.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 692.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/953)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 691.545 m 322.316 691.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 666.568 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 652.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4932)] TJ ET BT 34.016 637.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 691.8595 322.3157 703.7395 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/953) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000555 00000 n 0000000644 00000 n 0000004891 00000 n 0000005000 00000 n 0000005110 00000 n 0000005219 00000 n 0000008780 00000 n 0000008908 00000 n 0000008992 00000 n 0000009021 00000 n 0000009149 00000 n 0000009185 00000 n 0000009276 00000 n 0000017411 00000 n 0000017441 00000 n 0000017569 00000 n 0000017605 00000 n 0000017635 00000 n 0000017761 00000 n 0000017797 00000 n 0000017862 00000 n 0000025909 00000 n 0000026007 00000 n 0000032860 00000 n 0000032987 00000 n 0000033042 00000 n 0000033170 00000 n 0000033225 00000 n 0000033353 00000 n 0000033408 00000 n 0000033492 00000 n 0000034572 00000 n 0000034700 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34795 %%EOF