%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818121737+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818121737+01'00') /Title (Unequal Partners: The United States and Mexico) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4113 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Unequal Partners: The United States and Mexico)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This comprehensive and clearly-written short book surveys key issues in the relationship between the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States and Mexico. It gives special attention to the 1990s and the 2000s, but on various topics, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mexico?s political economy framework for nearly the entire second half of the 20th century, the book also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides informative background to enable author and reader to assess the changes over time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The heart of the book is the description and analysis of six issue areas: trade, foreign investment, energy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narcotics, migration, and the border. In each of these, Weintraub provides the necessary historical backdrop, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterizes the policies prevalent in the United States and Mexico as well as the interaction between them, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesizes the analytical scholarly literature, and develops his own insights with special attention to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pertinence to current times. The book reaches into the first year of President Barack Obama?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration, which is also the third year of President Felipe Caldern?s. Each of the issue area chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ends with a long detailed chronology that should help all those that may be learning about Mexico for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weintraub also develops a general argument, principally early and late in the book, regarding a widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic that, he claims, has encompassed US-Mexican relations. He argues that relations between the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries go well beyond circumstances of asymmetry between a wealthy and powerful United States and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much less wealthy or powerful Mexico. Instead, Weintraub explores a hypothesis about dependency and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(954)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 September, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sidney Weintraub)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780822960584)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(172pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pittsburgh University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pittsburgh, PA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jorge I. Domnguez)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7418 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domination. By dependency, Weintraub means that Mexico has approached the United States defensively in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many policy realms and often with diffidence. For its part, the United States responds as an assertive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant power, or takes initiatives consistent with that description. Sometimes, however, Weintraub also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to imply a more psychologically-tinged dependency-domination relationship. Thus he refers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mexico?s historic sense of grievance and humiliation in the face of the United States, with special reference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the loss of half of Mexico?s territory to the United States in 1848 and a subsequent record of repeated US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention in domestic Mexican affairs. Weintraub also refers to US behavior toward Mexico as arrogant. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both countries are at times presented as voluble.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With regard to US-Mexican trade, Weintraub has long been not just a perceptive analyst but also a visionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the best sense of that word. In 1984, the Brookings Institution published his book, )] TJ ET BT 442.676 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Free Trade between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mexico and the United States?)] TJ ET BT 181.328 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in which Weintraub analyzed the pathologies that existed then in the highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restricted bilateral trade between the two countries, examined the foregone opportunities that a trade opening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would likely provide and, as the book?s title implied, recommended a bilateral trade agreement between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them. At the time when he wrote that book, Weintraub?s well constructed work seemed like political lunacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because Mexico was strongly wedded to a highly protectionist set of policies in trade, investment, energy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other sectoral policies, and adamant in resisting a closer association with the United States. Weintraub )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was, therefore, a scholarly pioneer who articulated the case for North American free trade and thus increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the likelihood that the idea would become a reality, as it would be through the ratification of the North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Free trade Agreement \(NAFTA\) in late 1993.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the book under review, Weintraub summarizes his analysis of the historical period, describing Mexico?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once highly-protectionist import substitution industrialization policy framework, which was wedded to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly-statist energy policy whereby the Mexican government owned and operated the entire petroleum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry through the giant state enterprise, )] TJ ET BT 239.660 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Petrleos Mexicanos)] TJ ET BT 340.640 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, PEMEX. That framework cracked by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid 1980s when the price of petroleum dropped at the same time that Mexico was unable to service its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international debts. Mexico?s policy framework had rendered it incapable of exporting much other than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petroleum or attracting significant foreign investment for development.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The new Mexican policy architecture led to significant innovations in Mexican economic policies across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(board and, with regard to the United States, those on trade and investment. NAFTA was a joint invention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the governments of North America, but the President of Mexico, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, was the one who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took the lead to push for this historic change. North American within-region trade boomed in the years that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed ratification, to shared gains. But NAFTA?s effect went beyond trade to provide also for a stable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reassuring intergovernmental framework to foster substantial foreign investment flows. NAFTA taught )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mexican officials to behave toward the United States as they never had before, namely, as technically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competent, cutting-edge policy wonks, who were the equal of their other North American partners in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intricate negotiations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weintraub?s chapter on investment and finance documents Mexico?s long-standing protectionist policies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this realm but it goes on to describe in some detail the multiple transformations of Mexican banks in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980s and 1990s, first from mainly private and national ownership, then to mainly government ownership, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again back to mainly private and national ownership, and, since the second half of the 1990s, to principally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being owned by international banks. He discusses as well Mexico?s 1994?5 financial crisis and the bailout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Mexico by the United States, the International Monetary Fund \(IMF\), and others, as well as the bailout of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the private Mexican bankers by the Mexican government. In so doing, Weintraub summarizes the work that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed another valuable book of his, )] TJ ET BT 223.652 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Financial Decision Making in Mexico)] TJ ET BT 406.292 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which Pittsburgh University )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press also published in 2000.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weintraub is persuasive in his discussion of several ancillary questions. In particular, he argues well that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mexico?s comparatively low economic growth rate is not NAFTA?s fault. Rather, Mexico has failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invest sufficiently in education and in infrastructure, adopt more flexible labor market rules, protect personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and property rights through the courts, open its energy sector to other investors, and so forth. Similarly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weintraub makes a credible case that the internationalization of Mexico?s banks has led to easier access to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6996 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credit in economic downturns and more reliable banking relations in urban areas, though it has probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done little to improve access to credit in rural Mexico.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weintraub?s chapter on energy is relatively short and rightly so. The Mexican state continues to own and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operate PEMEX and the electric power company and it prohibits private firms from entering the energy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sector. A greater sense of urgency has appeared, however, because Mexico?s insufficient investment in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(energy sector has put it at risk of declining petroleum production, with the realistic possibility that Mexico )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would become a net energy importer by the end of the second decade of the 21st century unless current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trends are reversed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weintraub?s analysis of Mexico?s energy policy is a good segue to his analysis of drug-traffic relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the two countries. Just as for political reasons Mexico finds it impossible to change its energy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, so too for political reasons the United States finds it impossible to adopt the legalization of drug )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption even though, analytically, there is a good argument in favor of both such policy changes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Decriminalization of cocaine consumption would remove the very high financial incentives to criminals that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current U.S. policies generate ? illegal drugs attract prices well above what market supply and demand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would dictate precisely because they are illegal ? and it would most likely thereby greatly reduce levels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence. In the current context, it is not surprising that traffickers corrupt Mexican officials, violence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escalates, and the consumption of drugs increases in Mexico as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his discussion of the narcotics issue in bilateral relations, Weintraub possibly inadvertently provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pithy summary of the deplorable character of US?Mexican bilateral relations in this issue area. He discusses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the various US legislative and regulatory steps to monitor how the Mexican government and its security )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces would use U.S. aid to combat narcotics. ?It all smacks of President Ronald Reagan?s comment about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working with the Soviet Union?, Weintraub tells us: ?trust but verify? \(pp. 74?5\). Alas, comparing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government of democratic market-oriented Mexican President Felipe Caldern to that of the Soviet Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Cold War is a sad reminder of the miserable state of bilateral relations on this topic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Between 2002 and 2008, Weintraub tells us, more Mexicans found jobs in the United States than they did in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formal employment in Mexico. No wonder there is a high level of migration to the United States, therefore. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Between the mid 1960s and the mid 1980s, Mexico?s government did little to shape US policy on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigration. Since that time, Mexico has sought to persuade the United States to accept the movement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peoples as a normal process in North American labor markets ? indeed, the freer movement of peoples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would match the free movement of goods under NAFTA. The United States has never accepted that premise. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Just as Mexico refused to discuss energy policy during the NAFTA negotiations, the United States refused to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discuss the movement of peoples. In the current century, the US Congress has considered various possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes to immigration law. None has succeeded. The U.S. Congress does not accept the premise that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States needs and benefits from migration from Mexico \(except for the lowest quintile of the U.S. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(income scale, for whom Mexicans provide serious job and wage level competition\) yet the U.S. government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been unable to stop the flow of illegal migration, among other reasons because it refuses to punish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employers who hire such labor because, alas, the employers need this labor.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, Weintraub limited this chapter just to undocumented migration, which is admittedly the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contentious aspect of US-Mexican migration relations. But this means that a reader of the book would not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learn that approximately 4.5 million Mexicans entered the United States lawfully between 1990 and 2010, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is, they entered as immigrants with all their documents in order, thus able to work, study, and eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to become US citizens. US-Mexican migration relations are more complex, therefore, than an exclusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on those who cross without documents may imply.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Weintraub describes travails at the border, which about five million cargo trucks per year and nearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one million people per day cross lawfully. Border bottlenecks abound both because the insufficiencies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infrastructure and because of enhanced security measures since terrorist attacks in New York and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington on September 11, 2001. No terrorist assault has ever been launched on the United States from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mexico, however. Weintraub also discusses attempts to expedite the lawful border crossings of cargo trucks )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6354 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pre-clearing and sealing of cargo containers, special crossing lanes for pre-cleared goods and persons, etc.\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as the construction of fences to stop illegal migration. The fence, Weintraub suspects, may not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieve its purpose.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on the border is less satisfying than its predecessors for two reasons. The first is that research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding fence construction already shows effects contrary to the intention of the policies, a point that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weintraub does not mention. Because border crossing does become marginally more difficult, those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross into the United States are more likely to stay as permanent unlawful immigrants. The more porous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(border had permitted seasonal workers to enter the United States, return to Mexico, re-enter the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States, and again go back to Mexico, and so on. Similarly, the prior greater ease of crossing had also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permitted a related pattern, that is, those who come to the United States for a few years to acquire income )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and skills and then return to Mexico. The construction of fences, begun in the early 1990s, has contributed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increase of a permanent undocumented Mexican population in the United States. The second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointment is that ?the border? is not just a line but also a region, and it would have been welcome for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weintraub to comment more on the coexistence between some of Mexico?s highest-income regions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the lowest-income regions in the United States.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a bit puzzling that Weintraub did not re-focus the discussion of his dependency-domination argument as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he considered the present. It is surely no longer true that Mexico is diffident, silent, submissive, inept, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paralyzed when it address the United States regarding trade, investment, migration, narcotics, or the border. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, Mexico took the lead with regard to the negotiations that led to NAFTA. Mexican NAFTA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiators were as technically skilled and politically adept as anyone on the US side of the bargaining table. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The two sides agreed on the same analytical premises to build the treaty without a hint of a Mexican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?dependency syndrome?, notwithstanding, of course, the enduring economic asymmetries. Over the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade Mexico has been vigorous in pressing the United States to change its migration and border policies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(President Caldern has staked his government, and his life, on fighting drug criminals in Mexico as a close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ally of the United States ? no Soviet leader he! Only with regard to energy policies does the syndrome of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?dependency? to which Weintraub points still apply.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alas, just as the book nears its conclusion and Weintraub reintroduces the theme of Mexico?s dependency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(syndrome, he also gives an illustration of how much the Mexican government has changed. The United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States has been in violation of NAFTA rules with regard to border crossings because it has refused ? with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only a brief and limited exception ? to allow Mexican cargo trucks to enter the United States and continue to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their destination. Mexico used all the lawful means to induce the United States to comply with its legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obligations, and it then refrained from retaliation against the United States for eight years after it was entitled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to do so, given U.S. treaty violations. When Mexico did in the end enact the trade retaliation to which it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entitled under NAFTA and international trade law, it did so with exquisite technical skill, applying sanctions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only on those U.S. products that could be readily purchased from other countries and spreading the effect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such sanctions across forty of the fifty states of the United States to remind members of the U.S. Congress of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the consequences of their unlawful protectionism. That is far, far from the old dependency syndrome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weintraub?s book would have been better if its framing had been slightly different. He has provided the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empirical evidence and the analysis that shows that Mexico did once behave as he says it did, and that ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(energy sector excepted ? Mexico has changed impressively. In contrast, Weintraub also provides the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence and the analysis to demonstrate that the U.S. response to Mexico remains consistent with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypothesis of ?dominance? and ?arrogance?? from blocking cargo trucks contrary to treaties that the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States has espoused to treating its best-ever ally in the Mexican presidency as if he were a Soviet ruler.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1588 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weintraub should declare victory. He spent much of his career working with his many Mexican friends and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleagues to think more effectively, act with greater attention to evidence, formulate policies based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis and not on ideology, and behave decisively albeit also with prudence. Weintraub succeeded as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leader, a scholar, and a teacher. May praise ring forever in his ears for this success, and for having written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet again an interesting, subtle, and valuable book. True, victory would have been sweeter if the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States had changed much more, but batting 500 is a good score nevertheless.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 667.951 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 650.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 650.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/954)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 648.777 m 322.316 648.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 623.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 609.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4936)] TJ ET BT 34.016 595.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 649.0915 322.3157 660.9715 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/954) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000556 00000 n 0000000638 00000 n 0000004803 00000 n 0000004912 00000 n 0000005022 00000 n 0000005131 00000 n 0000008692 00000 n 0000008820 00000 n 0000008904 00000 n 0000008969 00000 n 0000016440 00000 n 0000016505 00000 n 0000023554 00000 n 0000023619 00000 n 0000030026 00000 n 0000030110 00000 n 0000031751 00000 n 0000031879 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31974 %%EOF