%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140725214303+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140725214303+01'00') /Title (The Rise and Fall of the Scottish Cotton Industry 1778-1914: ?the Secret Spring?) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3804 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Rise and Fall of the Scottish Cotton Industry 1778-1914: ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Secret Spring?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tony Cooke has made a notable contribution to our understanding of early industrialisation and its impact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including some important studies of textile history and the heritage of the industry. Some of his early work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on the great inventive genius and sharp business operator, Richard Arkwright, and it is no surprise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that we meet the inventor and his devices early on in Cooke?s wide ranging and comprehensive history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Scottish cotton industry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is both a work of synthesis and extensive new research. Cooke has trawled every major archive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many smaller collections in Scotland and elsewhere to construct a detailed picture of the industry. He has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also looked at many sources, such as legal records in the National Archives of Scotland, which have rarely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been tackled by historians who either did not know of their existence or found them too dusty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troublesome. But Cooke?s work on sequestration or bankruptcy cases, inventories of land, machinery and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other property, linked to estates and wills, reveals a vast quantity of new information about the industry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its masters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most industrial or business histories tend to be essentially chronological and developmental, but here the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry is examined both chronologically and through specific treatment of major themes such as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(959)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 31 August, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Cooke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719080821)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Donnachie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7060 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of the industry?s precursors, its technology, its capital and employers, its markets, labour and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work, all placed in broader economic and social contexts. Throughout important comparisons and contrasts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are drawn with the experience of the industry in England, on the continent, and above all, the United States, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where cotton textiles were established almost as rapidly as in Scotland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like other textile manufacturing cotton had a long pre-history, an extended and so-called ?proto-industrial? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phase common to those regions where cloth making of one kind or another was established and to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions where cotton ultimately took off in Lancashire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish Lowlands. In Scotland, as in Lancashire, there was an important link to linen, in skills, technology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and capital formation. Another significant source of investment in the new industry was the Atlantic trade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glasgow and the Clyde being to the west of Scotland \(and well beyond\) what Liverpool and the Mersey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were to Manchester it and its hinterland. The third source of capital, though as difficult to quantify as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, was the landed gentry, the great majority of whom embraced cotton manufacture as an extension of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their ?improving? agendas \(there were other explanations, to which we?ll come\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While it can be reasonably claimed, as Cooke does with some reservations, that the Scottish cotton industry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in its early stages owed much to technological transfers from England, the Scottish linen and silk industries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were already benefitting from mechanisation encouraged by the state \(through the Board of Trustees, set up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the union with England to encourage manufactures\), by the British Linen Company, and organisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by large-scale capitalists, like David Dale, who made his fortune in linen, becoming one of Glasgow?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchant princes. Dale was to prove untypical in the extent of his involvement with the new industry, but he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not alone.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the relative simplicity of the technology involved in mechanised spinning it might strike us as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising that the breakthrough to mass manufacture was so long delayed, but within a few years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arkwright?s various inventions, the industry began to take on dynamic of its own, separate from its hybrid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence with linen. It seems probable that piracy played a big part in Scotland, as it did in England \(and on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Continent and in New England\), but in any case the patent laws did not strictly apply north of the border. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arkwright thus made deals with merchants and landowners to install his machines in several of the massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mills which typified the earliest phase of factory spinning, and to provide initial training at his headquarters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Cromford.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Major attractions for entrepreneurs were the copious supplies of water power, cheap labour, and an extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network of skilled outworkers scattered throughout the Lowlands. The landed gentry were generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraging: cotton mills brought revenue and employment for labour displaced by agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvement, the Scottish equivalent of enclosure, and in the Highland variant, land clearances which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accelerated established patterns of seasonal then permanent migration to Lowland towns. So mills could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as extensions of the paternalism exercised by the elites and it is not without its interest that the best of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mill owners emulated this approach, especially in the country spinning mills in places like Catrine, New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lanark and Stanley. But of course, they also made money, in many cases a great deal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The industry expanded at a dramatic rate, quickly overtaking linen. This remarkable surge in activity, seen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several other sectors, suggests that the Scottish industrial revolution, after a later start, was concentrated in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much narrower time-frame than that of England, more closely resembling the experiences of continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emulators, notably Belgium and Silesia. Moreover, Gershenkron?s tendency to ?big-ness?, or much larger-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale enterprises in late starters, is also evident in the Scottish context generally, and in cotton even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(businesses that survived the later 19th-century decline were large by the standards of British industry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The thematic chapters also provide some remarkable revelations about the complexity and varying fortunes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this industry. In technology what Mokyr called the ?macro? inventions from England that set the industry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going were quickly followed by ?micro? ones inspired by Scots. Several were at the sharp end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production process, such as more efficient spinning and weaving machinery, but it was in the finishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trades and the industrial chemistry they inspired that Scottish innovators really scored. Cooke?s examination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the bleaching, dyeing and printing industries is thus a reminder of the more extensive and practical nature )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7154 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of education in Scotland compared to England, especially in the universities and colleges.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the most revealing chapters are those on workers and employers. Cotton in all its branches was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(huge employer of labour, mostly women and children, and a vast army of outworkers suggestive of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallel paths along which industrialisation proceeded well into the 19th century. This also helps explains the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success of the Scottish trade which, like many other industries north of the border, was essentially sustained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by cheap labour compared to England. Workers of this period rarely speak except when mediated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary commissioners, but Cooke has trawled the evidence very thoroughly to pick up the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences and impressions of ordinary folk. Conditions were tough, even in the best of country spinning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mills where paternalism at least resulted in better housing and social provision than prevailed in places like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glasgow and Paisley. The critique of the factory system probably reflected the reality of harsh conditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and long hours, though some of the evidence has to be treated with caution as some of those testifying were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly in the pockets of reactionary mill masters intent on resisting the national implementation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforms proposed by Owen, Ashley and others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his chapter on employers Cooke has built on a recently published study he made of the Scottish cotton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masters, who until then had been strangely neglected given the importance of the industry. While Crouzet?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(path breaking work on the early industrialists suggested lower-middle-class dominance, Cooke?s research, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line with more recent work in England, sees the majority of businessmen in cotton coming from much better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established merchant and manufacturing \(and occasionally inventive\) backgrounds. There were some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable success stories, for example David Dale and Kirkman Finlay from the early stages, and the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paisley thread makers like Peter and Thomas Coats, the chemists like Charles Macintosh and Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tennant, and others too numerous to mention. The failures do not go un-noticed, their demise invariably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traced in voluminous and acrimonious bankruptcy proceedings, rather than hagiographic obituaries accorded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the successful, whose philanthropic endeavour endowed places like Paisley with churches, schools, libraries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(art galleries and museums.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Setting aside sugar production, also built on slavery, cotton was the first global industry and the first to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed by mass production based on new technology. It is thus interesting that at both ends of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production process it remained enormously labour-intensive and that neither the abandonment of slavery at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one end or further innovation at the other did much to alter those positions. The connection to slavery, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though subject to investigation by several scholars including Cooke, remains something of a black hole in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish history, but incongruously something that has recently come to light is that fact that Dale, one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founding fathers of the Scottish cotton industry, was a prominent supporter of abolition. In the longer term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there can be little doubt that the freeing of the slaves, combined with the impact of the Cotton Famine during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Civil War, linked to the overwhelming competition from Lancashire and elsewhere contributed to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline of the Scottish industry. However, the big question remains which takes us back to the old debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about entrepreneurial failure, Payne?s thinking being that second-third generation businessmen did not fail ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only acted rationally in the context of the time. Much of Scottish industry, like that of Britain generally by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914, simply could not compete.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While it is undoubtedly the case that the Scottish cotton industry had shrunk dramatically by 1914, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was, in fact, quite a lot left, highly specialised though it was. Notable among surviving firms were the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paisley thread manufacturing firms, which as Cooke points out, had become multi-national, much as had the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major jute enterprises in Dundee which also managed to survive in an increasingly globalised sector. New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lanark was extensively modernised as late as the 1950s, remaining a significant employer locally, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managed to keep going until 1968. The Stanley complex, built around the original mill, survived even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer, outliving many of the major Lancashire firms. It is thus incongruous that the enterprises that survived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longest were the very ones that had pioneered the factory system while later enterprises succumbed long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beforehand.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a significant study of a key sector in early British industrialisation, but it is also a valuable case-study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of longer-term trends in the economy that continue to perplex historians and resonate to this day. Historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analogies are always dangerous, but there are many lessons here about enterprise, innovation, the creation of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 1919 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a skilled labour force, success in increasingly challenging markets, plus the downsides of entrepreneurial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure, loss of technological advantage, changing consumer behaviour, foreign competition, the ultimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demise of the industry and many of the communities it sustained.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But concluding on a more optimistic note, the history of the Scottish cotton industry is at least celebrated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several outstanding monuments. Two, if not more, are directly associated with the great Arkwright, Stanley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the river Tay, restored by Historic Scotland and the Phoenix Trust, which incorporates the best preserved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arkwright-type mill in the world, and New Lanark, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, where history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social regeneration jointly underpin the restoration and interpretation of one of the most significant relics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Industrial Revolution internationally.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 601.183 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 583.403 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 583.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/959)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 582.009 m 322.316 582.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 557.032 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.632 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4974)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 582.3235 322.3157 594.2035 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/959) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000004521 00000 n 0000004630 00000 n 0000004740 00000 n 0000004849 00000 n 0000008410 00000 n 0000008538 00000 n 0000008622 00000 n 0000008687 00000 n 0000015800 00000 n 0000015865 00000 n 0000023072 00000 n 0000023156 00000 n 0000025128 00000 n 0000025256 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 25351 %%EOF