%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140919205643+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140919205643+01'00') /Title (The Problem of Pleasure: Sport, Recreation and the Crisis of Victorian Religion) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4334 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Problem of Pleasure: Sport, Recreation and the Crisis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Victorian Religion)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The competition between religion and recreation in the Victorian period was pointed out by Brian Harrison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as long ago as 1967, and at one level this book by Dominic Erdozain, Lecturer in the History of Christianity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at King?s College, London, is an exploration of how the churches came to terms with their powerful rival. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it is far more: it is a major contribution to the ongoing debate about secularisation in Britain. The author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engages explicitly with, on the one hand, the advocates of the secularisation thesis such as Bryan Wilson and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steve Bruce who believe that there has been a steady move from the religious to the secular over the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300 years and, on the other, its critics such as Grace Davie and the authors of a 2007 symposium on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Redefining Christian Britain )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 174.368 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 174.368 165.009 m 188.360 165.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 188.360 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( who hold that religion has been remarkably persistent over that period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erdozain contends that, although the classic secularisation thesis does not stand up to scrutiny, those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attack it are usually guilty of conflating the thesis with the reality of the process of secularisation, a ?real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departure from historical reasoning? \(p. 199\). While not endorsing the thesis, Erdozain insists on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authenticity of secularisation, a process he proceeds to dissect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction sets out the debate, covering far more authors than have been mentioned here, and states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the case to be argued. ?The thesis is that a practical, this-worldly theology of salvation-by-recreation quietly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occluded the classical and explicit soteriology of the ?parent? institutions? \(p. 38\). That is to say, the idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(960)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 September, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dominic Erdozain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843835288)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Bebbington)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 174.3677 165.3235 188.3597 177.2035 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7634 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that physical exercise brought spiritual benefits obscured the central Christian convictions about salvation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was a turn from proclaiming the need for a supernatural relationship with God to providing facilities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the natural fufilment of humanity ? and that was secularising. The author contends in chapter one that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelicals of the 18th century originally taught that sin was part of the human condition, but that in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first half of the 19th century they came to identify sin with particular activities such as excessive drinking or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sabbath-breaking. Pleasure became a problem, so that, for example, William Wilberforce led a campaign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against misspent leisure time. Reacting against the evangelical ethos, according to chapter two, the advocates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of muscular Christianity such as Charles Kingsley urged that sport could be a means of character building. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The evangelical communities did not at first follow Kingsley, chapter three explains, but created agencies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the Young Men?s Christian Association \(YMCA\) that concentrated on the spiritual and the mental, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the physical. Gradually, however, a sense grew up that the physical was a legitimate field of Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest, and so leisure turned into an opportunity rather than a problem. Chapter four shows how, during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1880s and 1890s, evangelical organisations entered the field of recreation, some seeing it as an evangelistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tool but others beginning to discern definite spiritual and moral values in exercise. The YMCA built its first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gymnasium in 1876; by 1910 it had 133 of them, and most young men joined the Association in order to use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the facilities for physical activities. The churches followed suit, chapter five demonstrates, as they shifted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus of their attention from the perils of infidelity to the challenges of urban mission. ?For every doubt that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assails the mind?, ran a comment of 1888, ?a hundred snares allure the flesh? \(p. 205\). Chapter six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents resistance from people such as Archibald Brown, a London Baptist minister, whose book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Devil?s Mission of Amusement )] TJ ET BT 206.336 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created a stir in the following year. The opponents of recreation on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church premises claimed, and Erdozain is inclined to agree with them, that religion was being redefined on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethical lines. The conclusion follows: there was such a drastic reformulation of mission that it amounted to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secularisation of Christianity from within.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has to be said that the book is not flawless. A good deal of the earlier part of the material, for example, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derived from secondary sources. Notwithstanding the remarkably independent line taken by the author, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters one and two are heavily reliant on the work of previous historians. The extent to which they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quoted is unusual for a work of history \(it would be commoner among sociologists\) and not all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quotations are very telling. Quotations from primary works, which are much more welcome, are on several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasions repeated later in the book without justification. Among primary sources, while the author has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn on the panorama of church life in Charles Booth?s )] TJ ET BT 311.960 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life and Labour of the People in London )] TJ ET BT 511.304 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1903\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he has not taken advantage of the notebooks accumulated for this project that are preserved at the London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(School of Economics. A few points are mistaken. Teetotalism was not rare after the Victorians \(p. 23\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Law was not a writer of the 17th century \(pp. 44?5\), one of the Caroline divines \(p. 72\); Primitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Methodists were formed to continue not itinerant revivalism but camp meetings \(p. 70\); and there were no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Exclusive? Baptists, only Exclusive Brethren \(p. 157\). But these slips are trivial, and are utterly eclipsed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the strengths of this volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first place, it treats ideas with great respect. It is sensitive to theory, quoting a succession of significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinkers ? Rousseau, Kant, Schiller, Marx and Mill ? and adding theologians such as Karl Barth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abraham Kuyper for good measure. Further, the theology of the period under consideration is carefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined in a manner more reminiscent of the traditions of American historiography than of its British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterpart. There are fascinating suggestions, for example, about the genealogy of Romantic ideas among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader-minded theologians of the mid-century. Twice Erdozain defends himself against the expected charge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he is unduly Hegelian. On the first occasion he points out that he is merely recognising that religion is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced by concepts \(p. 19\). On the second he claims that he is studying the provision of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilities rather than the demand for them, which might call for different methods \(p. 279\). The author is too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard on himself in saying that he relies on opinion and comments rather than on statistics, because in chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four and five he deploys some very telling figures. In reality the book welds together quotations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers, the intellectual and the social, in a highly persuasive manner.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much to appreciate, secondly, in other aspects of the approach taken here. The long sweep of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, from the 18th century down to the 20th, allows a bold thesis to be worked out in its totality. The )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7732 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominence of evangelicalism, a feature this volume shares with Callum Brown?s )] TJ ET BT 429.956 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Death of Christian Britain )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 780.819 m 48.008 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is also an analytical strength. Erdozain argues, with considerable cogency, that the evangelical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement was a novel force of the 18th century that gathered force in the 19th, imparting something of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic to other Protestant traditions before dissipating its energies from the late Victorian years onwards. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That account of its trajectory seems well justified by the evidence ? and more convincing than Brown?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contention that its hegemony survived until the 1960s. And this study treats religious figures as active in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determining the destiny of their churches and organisations. The gain of much late 20th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography in this field, from E. R. Wickham?s )] TJ ET BT 281.000 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Church and People in an Industrial City )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.004 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.004 695.283 m 491.996 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 491.996 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( onwards, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to point out the conditioning factors on religious practice. What some of it neglected was the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of strategic decisions by church people, but that is what Erdozain highlights. Like other 21st-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, he is keen to restore agency where it is deserved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A third welcome aspect of this book is its style. Erdozain has an ear for telling phrases, whether in the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the present. The contrast between the annual report of the Manchester YMCA for 1880, which spoke of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?personal union with the Lord Jesus?, and the winter programme of the same branch for 1920, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed ?to enlarge the possibilities of men?s lives?, manages to encapsulate the whole case of the book \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(222\). The author is extraordinarily creative in his own verbal coinings such as ?the bonfire of positivist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vanities? \(p. 30\) and ?Clintonesque ambiguity? \(p. 176\). Of evangelicals it is said that, ?like a venerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wall Street institution diversifying into hedge funds, they gambled cautiously? \(p. 115\). The injection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary reference into these passages is typical, making for a rich reading experience. The downside is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the web of allusions may not be wholly grasped by the reader, and especially the student reader, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main lines of argument are nevertheless clear. This is lively, even sparkling, prose.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fourthly, the findings are highly instructive. The ?transition from a God-centred vision to a more humanistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moralism? \(p. 10\) is a phenomenon that is undoubtedly present in the sources for the period but has never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously been expounded. We must be careful to state Erdozain?s case accurately. He is not claiming that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he has discovered the sole explanation for the secularisation of Britain. He readily admits that the demand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side, the desire of the population to identify with religion, was adversely affected by factors he does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discuss such as the growth of welfare facilities once provided by the churches but in the 20th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly supplied by the state. What he is claiming, however, is that the shift in pastoral theology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards catering for the body as well as the soul had damaging effects on the life of the churches. It is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectually bracing case that advocates of different interpretations of secularisation will find it hard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deny.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It may be suggested that the thesis could be extended in a couple of ways. One is into more dimensions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social history. ?Recreation?, Erdozain writes, ?was part of the wider inventory of ecclesiastical duties that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sapped the spirituality of the late-Victorian churches? \(p. 273\). This wider inventory could be explored. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would contain some of the items mentioned in this book but not pursued. One is music: the last years of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century gave birth to the choral tradition in Wales, Cornwall, Yorkshire and wherever Methodism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flourished. Another is fiction: this was the period when the religious novel, typified by those of the Hocking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brothers, took off. Both music and fiction were attempts to Christianise by art, but they exercised a similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect to recreation, secularising by adopting less distinctively religious methods. Further aspects are social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement and public affairs. The temperance movement, the core of so much social concern in the period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a phenomenon which again receives brief notice here, had a powerful effect in the same direction. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter-attractions to the public house channelled social energy away from religion in other directions. So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did political participation. Religious causes led Evangelicals, Anglican as well as Nonconformist, into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political partisanship that diverted them from more spiritual activities. Prayer meetings were cancelled in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favour of electioneering during the 1906 general election. So the case made out by Erdozain could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadened to encompass other fields. The result would surely be the one that has emerged from his study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recreation: that secularisation was promoted from within the churches.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other potential expansion of the thesis is more a matter of intellectual history. The shift towards a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favourable appreciation of the powers of the body is recognised here to have been part of the legacy of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 781.1335 48.0077 793.0135 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.0037 695.5975 491.9957 707.4775 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 4984 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romantic revolution to religion. Romanticism, however, also impinged on other attitudes. It had effects, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, on understandings of holiness. It generated new approaches, notably that of the Keswick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement that came to dominate Anglican evangelicalism by the end of the century. Holiness, according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keswick, was attained by faith alone. That teaching led to the belief that Christians must shun worldliness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and so gave rise to wariness of some of the trends towards amusements that Erdozain chronicles. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion of this strand of holiness teaching would reinforce the section of the current book on the critics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking recreation into the life of the church. Even more centrally, romantic influences transformed the idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of God during the 19th century. At its opening he was generally conceived as a judge; at its end, at least in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more progressive circles, he was understood as a father. The implications were enormous. Church, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, could be conceived in altogether more domestic terms; nurture rather than conversion was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avenue to faith for the growing child. Hence the human and the moral made advances at the expense of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supernatural and the spiritual. The effects, that is to say, were exactly what Erdozain portrays here. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was indeed a tendency for the churches of the late Victorian period to move, under specific intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences, in a more secular direction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 576.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Redefining Christian Britain: Post 1945 Perspectives)] TJ ET BT 320.348 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Jane Garnett )] TJ ET BT 406.988 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 427.988 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. \(Norwich, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 516.968 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 516.968 544.227 m 556.964 544.227 l S BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 529.971 m 78.008 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Callum Brown, )] TJ ET BT 141.020 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Death of Christian Britain)] TJ ET BT 268.040 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2nd ed., London, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.692 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.692 515.715 m 444.680 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. R. Wickham, )] TJ ET BT 144.008 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Church and People in an Industrial City)] TJ ET BT 338.012 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1957\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.336 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.336 501.459 m 473.324 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 476.597 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Books and Culture: A Christian Review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.booksandculture.com/articles/webexclusives/2010/april/larson040809.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 446.691 m 452.324 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 455.324 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.churchtimes.co.uk/content.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 418.179 m 237.332 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 240.332 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 414.847 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 397.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 397.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/960)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 395.673 m 322.316 395.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 370.696 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.296 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4978)] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.896 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.booksandculture.com/articles/webexclusives/2010/april/larson040809.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.496 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.churchtimes.co.uk/content.asp?id=95930)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 516.9677 544.5415 556.9637 556.4215 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 530.2855 78.0077 542.1655 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 390.6917 516.0295 444.6797 527.9095 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 419.3357 501.7735 473.3237 513.6535 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 447.0055 452.3237 458.8855 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.booksandculture.com/articles/webexclusives/2010/april/larson040809.html) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 418.4935 237.3317 430.3735 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.churchtimes.co.uk/content.asp?id=95930) >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 395.9875 322.3157 407.8675 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/960) >> endobj xref 0 43 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000582 00000 n 0000000671 00000 n 0000005057 00000 n 0000005166 00000 n 0000005276 00000 n 0000005385 00000 n 0000008946 00000 n 0000009074 00000 n 0000009158 00000 n 0000009187 00000 n 0000009315 00000 n 0000009351 00000 n 0000009416 00000 n 0000017103 00000 n 0000017194 00000 n 0000024979 00000 n 0000025009 00000 n 0000025135 00000 n 0000025171 00000 n 0000025201 00000 n 0000025329 00000 n 0000025365 00000 n 0000025491 00000 n 0000030528 00000 n 0000030656 00000 n 0000030711 00000 n 0000030837 00000 n 0000030892 00000 n 0000031020 00000 n 0000031075 00000 n 0000031203 00000 n 0000031258 00000 n 0000031385 00000 n 0000031519 00000 n 0000031646 00000 n 0000031747 00000 n 0000031875 00000 n trailer << /Size 43 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31970 %%EOF