%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728200035+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728200035+01'00') /Title (Episcopus. Wissen ber Bischfe im Frankenreich des spten 8. bis frhen 10. Jahrhunderts) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4418 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Episcopus. Wissen ber Bischfe im Frankenreich des spten 8. bis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(frhen 10. Jahrhunderts)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Suggestive?, ?methodical? and ?witty? are words rarely applied to the same book, but Steffen Patzold?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of Carolingian ideas about bishops demonstrates all three qualities. Granted, Patzold?s tome cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hide its origins as a )] TJ ET BT 129.680 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Habilitationsschrift)] TJ ET BT 223.700 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: it is a 660-page brick of a book, of a size and weight that might see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it confiscated at airports alongside liquids and sharp objects. But for all its magnitude, the text itself is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly and elegantly written, spiked on occasion with the wry and ironic tone Patzold favours for discussing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments with which he does not agree. This is as close to a page-turner as a )] TJ ET BT 409.604 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Habilitationsschrift )] TJ ET BT 506.624 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to get; perhaps all historians should follow Patzold in having a touch of journalistic training early in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their careers. Moreover, Patzold?s receptiveness to international currents of research, already visible in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctoral publication, )] TJ ET BT 136.340 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Konflikte im Kloster)] TJ ET BT 233.684 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, makes this second book a testament to his ability to absorb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disparate influences and combine them with a truly sharp analytical gaze.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patzold takes as his subject the Carolingian episcopate as a group and, more especially, what contemporaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?knew? about the responsibilities and rights of that group and its constituent individuals. While much of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?knowledge about bishops? was drawn from older traditions, Patzold sees a systematisation take hold in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(820s that reached its apogee in the synods called by Louis the Pious in 829. The Paris synod in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed a coherent vision of what a bishop was supposed to be and do, and it is the legacy of this ?Paris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(961)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 September, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steffen Patzold)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9783799542760)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(66.88)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(659pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jan Thorbeke Verlag)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ostfildern)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theo Riches)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 9197 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model?, as Patzold calls it, that he then examines in a wide range of 9th- and early 10th-century texts. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patzold does not just want to sketch what the Carolingians thought about bishops; he also wants to claim that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this knowledge translated into power. For this claim he relies on a theoretical framework developed from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas of Barry Barnes, Mark Haugaard, Anthony Giddens and Achim Landwehr, whereby a ?shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution of knowledge?, in Barnes?s words, is what allows an actor to act in such a way as will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted and not resisted by others: a person has power to the extent and in the ways that others ?know? he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is powerful and therefore shape their actions in response \(which then, in turn, confirms his known power\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular it is the ?categorical? knowledge, i.e. knowledge which orders the perceived world, that Patzold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees as key. Patzold wants to replace the old German concept of )] TJ ET BT 344.276 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Herrschaft)] TJ ET BT 396.272 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with this idea of knowledge-as-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, as well as use it to reassess study of medieval rituals as not just ?staging? power but constituting it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After setting out the historiographical background, theoretical underpinning and plan of the book in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, Patzold spends the second chapter showing that his questions are worth posing. He demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that knowledge about bishops was fundamentally different c.900 than it had been c.800 by offering a series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?before? and ?after? snapshots drawn from a range of comparable sources, such as the )] TJ ET BT 463.868 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales regni )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Francorum)] TJ ET BT 88.676 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as opposed to Regino of Prm?s annalistic )] TJ ET BT 298.664 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronicon)] TJ ET BT 350.000 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or the synods of 813 as opposed to that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trosly in 909. Patzold argues that between these dates a new theory was developed of how bishops fitted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the arrangements of the kingdom. This theory granted them a responsibility and role separate from and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complementary to those of the king and the secular magnates; the bishops? greater autonomy and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship to the other powers were then expressed in a newly important vocabulary of )] TJ ET BT 461.264 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ministerium)] TJ ET BT 518.600 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(auctoritas)] TJ ET BT 82.688 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 106.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(adiutorium)] TJ ET BT 159.356 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The details and chronology of that change are what the rest of the book is then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To begin with, Patzold continues his ?before? and ?after? comparisons of sources sorted according to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genre \(here, historiography and capitularies\), but he narrows his focus to the 820s, which he sees as the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period before which the episcopate was not viewed as an autonomous historical factor. Before 820, bishops )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear in historiography individually and generally as carrying out some task assigned by the emperor \(like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embassies\). In the capitularies, there is a closer control of bishops in the second half of the 8th century than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the first, but here too they were seen mainly as holders of offices under the emperor, analogous to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counts. But this is Patzold?s summary of their position, not that of contemporaries: he notes that at this time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was, significantly, scarcely any attempt to relate systematically various episcopal norms to each other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the bishops to their wider context. Where Patzold does find guiding concepts, they refer to the bishops? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power to command \()] TJ ET BT 133.664 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(potestas)] TJ ET BT 173.000 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 176.000 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( iussio)] TJ ET BT 207.008 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) those under their subjection \()] TJ ET BT 353.984 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(subiectio)] TJ ET BT 397.316 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 400.316 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( subditio)] TJ ET BT 441.992 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The bishops were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposed to be tyrants and were to act with gentleness towards their subjects, but the latter nevertheless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owed them obedience \()] TJ ET BT 145.652 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(oboedientia)] TJ ET BT 202.316 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). While there were attempts at overarching reform or correction pre-820, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bishops occur as only one of a number of groups giving advice to the emperor on disparate issues in need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of attention. These attempts, however, paved the way for the later reform programmes of the 820s. After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sketching the atmosphere of crisis that dominated the 820s and encouraged political actors to believe that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God needed placating through the moral reform of the Empire, Patzold analyses the key texts of the 820s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform efforts: first the 823/25 )] TJ ET BT 183.656 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ordinatio)] TJ ET BT 230.996 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Louis the Pious, where the old vocabulary made way for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new keywords like )] TJ ET BT 127.664 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ministerium)] TJ ET BT 185.000 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 191.000 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(auctoritas)] TJ ET BT 239.672 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 245.672 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(adiutorium)] TJ ET BT 299.012 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 322.340 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(admonitio)] TJ ET BT 371.012 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and secondly the synods of the 820s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most especially the 829 synod in Paris \(the canons of the other 829 synods, in Toulouse, Lyon and Mainz, do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not survive\), whose conclusions were shortly afterward summarized in the )] TJ ET BT 394.280 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rescriptum consultationis sive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(exortationis episcoporum ad dominum Hludiwicorum imperatorem)] TJ ET BT 356.336 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, presented to Louis the Pious in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preparation for the final reform council of 829 in Worms. These reforms, culminating in 829, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualitatively different from earlier ones such as 813. Whereas the earlier reform efforts had simply listed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various points in need of reform and proposed alternatives, Patzold argues that 829 created an entire theory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of how Christendom was to be ordered. The individual elements of this model were generally old, often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Late Antiquity, but their systematisation was new and provided 9th-century actors with new categories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of knowledge with which to order their world. This systematisation was made possible by the maturation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a scholarly culture that had been initiated in the time of Charlemagne: the generation who were responsible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the 820s had been educated in a pre-existing scholarly milieu that had collected together the ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precedents and learning on which the thought of the 820s would be based. Patzold?s discussion does not )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8413 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however divorce the ideas from their material existence. On the contrary, he is careful to demonstrate how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ideas spread within texts and their distribution, such as via the work of Jonas of Orlans. Finally, in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of what makes this book so easy to read, Patzold is careful to relate the arguments back to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous chapter and reminds the reader of what had gone before. He is also careful not to overstress his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument, ending the chapter with some texts from the 820s and 830s that did not reflect the new ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming out of Paris.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subsequent chapter shows how power and assembly politics forced actors to clarify their ideas and at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time ensured those ideas were spread. Patzold looks first at the rituals associated with the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?crisis? of the 830s, namely Louis the Pious?s penance, his reconciliation and Ebo of Reims?s resignation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He then examines texts of various genres produced between then and the civil wars of the 840s, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works by Jonas of Orlans, Agobard and Florus of Lyon, and different examples from conciliar acts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography and hagiography. It is no coincidence that this genre-based division reflects earlier \(and later\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of the book: repeatedly returning to this structure makes Patzold?s argument both methodologically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sound and more clearly expressed. The chapter closes with a summary of the ?Paris model? of episcopal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights and responsibilities. The central concept here is that of )] TJ ET BT 329.636 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ministerium)] TJ ET BT 386.972 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the task given both to the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and bishops of caring for the salvation of the people committed to their care. The king and bishops were to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work as partners within their respectively delineated spheres and were responsible directly to God, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bishops? responsibility was somewhat larger since they were also responsible for the salvation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king. Bishops were required to preach and to practise a Christian life so as to win God?s favour, a task based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a series of older texts \(most notably Gregory the Great?s )] TJ ET BT 323.624 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pastoral Rule)] TJ ET BT 389.960 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and which the bishops had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carry out, if necessary, through the use of excommunication. Only God, however, could judge bishops. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is a criticism to be made at this point, it is that Patzold does not always tease out the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between power and ideas. It is certainly true that political crises force people to define what they stand for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and establish their terms, but it is unclear what this then means for Patzold?s conception of how knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translates into power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now that Patzold has outlined )] TJ ET BT 181.676 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(what)] TJ ET BT 205.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was ?known? about bishops, the rest of the book is devoted to )] TJ ET BT 508.316 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(how)] TJ ET BT 528.320 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge was spread. Each chapter concentrates on how the Paris ideas appear in a different kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source: normative texts \(including the distribution of texts related to Paris itself\), historiography and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episcopal )] TJ ET BT 82.340 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vitae)] TJ ET BT 105.668 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In this way each chapter acts as a control for the other \(Patzold is nothing if not methodical\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patzold?s study of how the Paris texts spread reveals a subtle understanding of the copying, excerpting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reception of medieval texts. The Paris canons themselves were not widely distributed, even though Patzold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows Wilfried Hartmann in his argument that the very presence of the bishops at the councils is enough to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate the ideas? wide audience. Instead the shorter, more programmatic )] TJ ET BT 413.924 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rescriptum)] TJ ET BT 468.584 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in particular as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spread in the work of Benedictus Levita, played the key role. Looking at the synodal capitularies of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, Patzold finds the categories of the Paris model \(especially that of episcopal )] TJ ET BT 433.952 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ministerium)] TJ ET BT 491.288 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but also e.g. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(auctoritas)] TJ ET BT 82.688 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) cropping again in various synods from the 840s through to the 870s. The notable figure here is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the unavoidable Hincmar of Reims, whose ?political testament? at Fismes in 881 is shot through with ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherited from Paris in 829. Hincmar, however, introduces his own variation on the Paris model, modifying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the previously equal, yet complementary roles of king and bishops to justify instead the superiority of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter. Other differences become apparent in this chapter: the capitularies of Charles the Bald incorporate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the counts under the keyword ?commoditas?; the Paris model was strong in Reims but less so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere and arrives in the East later than in the West. Patzold is also careful to argue that ?knowledge? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the Paris model was not restricted to the episcopacy, but in different ?levels? also reached kings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counts and even, via )] TJ ET BT 134.996 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(capitula episcoporum)] TJ ET BT 239.324 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the rural clergy \(here another variation becomes apparent, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hincmar emphasising the importance of Gregory the Great?s seventeenth Homily on the Gospels\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter closes with a case-study on the fall of Ebo of Reims, in which Patzold subjects his history of ideas to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis within the contingency of events. Such contingency both explains the usefulness of the Paris model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and delineates its limits. The model was not intentionally spread, but instead conflict required the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protagonists to find useful ways of framing their arguments, which they found in the Paris model. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time, Patzold argues that the results of the conflict around Ebo cannot be reduced to arguments about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas or the peaceful negotiation of consensus: personal networks, patronage and violence were also )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8181 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved. Ebo himself appears, meanwhile, to have been the perfect )] TJ ET BT 362.276 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reichsbischof avant la lettre)] TJ ET BT 499.268 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet normative texts demonstrate nothing but norms, so in order to get closer to the practice of being a bishop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patzold looks at the historiography, which at least has the advantage of seeking to describe those norms as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were lived. Again his comparative approach bears fruit as he is able to distinguish the different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priorities of different genres and their analytic potential as well as how individual genres changed over time. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus his examination of annals shows how their centre of production moved from the court to bishoprics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their interest in bishoprics and the locality increased commensurately. Their increasing attribution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various tasks to bishoprics and reporting of bishops? elections, death dates etc. reflects the Paris model in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that bishops were being regarded as a group, defined by their office and its responsibilities, rather than as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnates operating at court. This is not to say the annals reflect the Paris model in any simple way: we see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in these sources a more nuanced picture of episcopal activity than just the normative one and the East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frankish annals show little evidence of Parisian influence at all. This nuance is also a feature of Patzold?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of the )] TJ ET BT 132.332 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gesta episcoporum)] TJ ET BT 222.656 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: chronicles of bishoprics based around a series of episcopal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographies. It is hardly surprising that the )] TJ ET BT 240.668 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gesta)] TJ ET BT 266.000 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offer us more information than the annals, since the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essence of the genre is to measure an office?s incumbents against a set of ideals and Patzold uses them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(add extra shade to his ?episcopal knowledge? beyond that outlined in Paris. Thus Patzold finds the )] TJ ET BT 510.296 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gesta)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing the usefulness and danger of bishops? noble blood: this theme is new insofar as is not explicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present in the Paris model, but it is also a natural development in that it grows from Paris-based concerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the episcopacy as an office with a set of duties. Patzold spends little time discussing keywords like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ministerium)] TJ ET BT 91.352 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in respect of the )] TJ ET BT 174.332 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gesta)] TJ ET BT 199.664 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and it would have been interesting to see him talk more about how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principles of Paris might have ?migrated? from their original set of concepts to related questions like that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic descent. In general, Patzold examines such additions and developments as evidence of the ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ministry and office in the underlying Paris model, but here they are not given their own history. Because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patzold concentrates on demonstrating the existence of the Paris model rather than the history of how it later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed, it is odd when his discussion of Notker the Stammerer concedes that there is little evidence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the precise use of the Paris texts, but argues that by this point the model was so well-known there was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need for such precision. Some more explanation is needed if the absence of Paris vocabulary is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered evidence of that vocabulary?s success. Occasionally it is difficult to tell what evidence Patzold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would allow to falsify his thesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After looking at annals and )] TJ ET BT 167.660 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gesta)] TJ ET BT 192.992 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Patzold devotes a chapter to the genre of episcopal )] TJ ET BT 445.268 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vitae)] TJ ET BT 468.596 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or ?Lives?. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a potentially fruitful area, since 9th-century episcopal Lives have been, in contrast to later incarnations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little researched. Patzold sketches how the Lives oriented themselves towards the past, how they placed their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects in a historical context, how they noted those subjects? collegiate relationship with contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishops, and how they were careful to set down an episcopal genealogy. The holiness of previous bishops )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was then supposed to transfer to the bishopric itself, so that present bishops, however unworthy they might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be in practice, would be seen as honourable. Patzold finds various aspects of the Paris model in these Lives: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the apostolicity of the episcopal office; the idea of it as an office of ministry over people committed to them, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and whose care weighed on the office holder; their responsibility for caring for and protecting those people, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in part by preaching to them and being a role model; the balancing of the expectation that bishops be of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noble blood by the argument that nobility of character was more important and the lack of any sense that an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic family would own a bishopric. Again, Patzold?s argument is at his strongest where he compares. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the Paris model is scarcely present in the eastern Lives shores up his contention that the language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters where it does appear. Particularly convincing, however, is his discussion of how later authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reworked earlier Lives to include the new knowledge. Throughout the book, indeed, it is the comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach that bears the most fruit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the concluding chapter, Patzold summarises the aims of his book as firstly to date, describe and explain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the origins of the status of imperial and princely bishops, secondly to sketch the Carolingian view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episcopacy, and thirdly to measure the value of rituals and symbolic actions for this view. He begins by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recapitulating the argument of the book, summarising the elements of the Paris model, the conditions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(820s that gave rise to it, the contingency of the events of the 830s that allowed it to take root, its practical )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7875 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use in the Ebo dispute, its appearance in historiography and the various ?levels? of knowledge in different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societal groups, and the concerns of ninth-century episcopal hagiography. The rest of the conclusion is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted to the book?s ramifications for our understanding of various topics: the role of the Carolingian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishop; the Ottonian-Salian )] TJ ET BT 169.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reichskirche)] TJ ET BT 230.996 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; the function of ritual; the so-called ?New Constitutional History? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Brunner et al.; and finally the )] TJ ET BT 191.324 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Staatlichkeit)] TJ ET BT 251.324 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the 9th- and 10th-century Frankish realm. Thus he points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out, for example, that the imperial centre?s reliance on bishops, which German historians have traditionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributed to the )] TJ ET BT 113.012 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reichskirchensystem)] TJ ET BT 212.984 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is already in the Paris model, but that the latter does not support the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea of the bishops as the king?s instruments, or, for that matter, as representatives of aristocratic families: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead they were a separate group, who held office directly from God and had their own rules of behaviour. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As regards ritual, contra traditional interpretations of why it became important to the Ottonians ? namely a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of written governmental apparatus ? Patzold sees ritual as a mechanism of constituting knowledge and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus power. As he points out, part of the Paris model saw an increasing emphasis on episcopal anointing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and the concomitant downgrading of chorbishops\) and the ability of bishops to anoint kings was a key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(component in Hincmar?s argument that the latter were beneath the former in God?s order. Carrying out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain rituals expressed but also exercised individual bishops? power. Confession, penance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excommunication became key elements of the political order.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.960 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.960 581.235 m 343.952 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inevitably, there remain unanswered questions. In his introduction, Patzold wants to connect knowledge to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, but it is unclear how this worked in practice. If power is the ability to order your surroundings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to your will, then Patzold?s key example of the Paris model in action, Ebo of Reims?s deposition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does little to bolster his argument. After all, the case was the 9th century?s )] TJ ET BT 394.628 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jarndyce and Jarndyce)] TJ ET BT 506.588 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, dragging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on for decades, well after most of the principles were dead; the Paris model apparently contained enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal contradictions to create as much chaos and uncertainty as it did order. Ebo?s case can thus be read as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating the model?s ability to justify retroactively whatever power relations had determined anyway, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than its ability to shape those power relations. Similarly, Hincmar of Reims, for all his intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sophistication and his promotion of the Paris model, had only an intermittent grip on power. To a certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent Patzold seems to deal with this problem by classifying power relations as ?contingency?. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patzold highlights the importance of contingent events in spreading the ideals of the Paris model, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular the penance of Louis the Pious and the rituals and debates surrounding it, but is not always clear to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what extent these events obeyed an already accepted model or to what extent it was the events that led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model?s acceptance. Perhaps this is in the nature of the process: ideas that informed action would have then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been confirmed by their successful implementation in that action. But if the bishops? reactions to contingent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events are being shaped by their knowledge about what a bishop was, as derived from Paris, the question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains open as to how reactions made under the rubric of ?ministerium? differed from those under that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?potestas?, other than that they were talked about in different ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would however be completely wrong to close this review on a critical note. Patzold?s work addresses, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limpid German prose, an under-researched subject that should be of interest to anyone working on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Early Middle Ages. What we think about the Carolingian episcopacy affects our approach to much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ecclesiastical and political history up to and including the Investiture Contest of the late 11th and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12th centuries. Not just Carolingianists, but also scholars of Ottonian-Salian politics, the ?feudal revolution?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peace of God and Gregorian Reform should read this book and grapple with its ideas. Patzold?s comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach establishes how ?knowledge? of bishops changed over the 9th century and his painstaking work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracking the ideas through the textual and manuscript evidence provides a plausible explanation of how this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge spread, as well as how various ?levels? of knowledge were established in different groups. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is plenty for one book, and it only remains for this reviewer to look forward to where Patzold takes his ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(next.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 110.307 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 79.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See now also: Mayke de Jong, )] TJ ET BT 212.996 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Penitential State. Authority and Atonement in the Age of Louis the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pious, 814?840)] TJ ET BT 139.352 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.672 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.672 64.035 m 290.660 64.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 39.173 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 329.9597 581.5495 343.9517 593.4295 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 236.6717 64.3495 290.6597 76.2295 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 968 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Soz-u-Kult)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/rezensionen/2009-3-077)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 780.819 m 338.312 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 341.312 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 777.487 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 759.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 759.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/961)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 758.313 m 322.316 758.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.336 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4982)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/rezensionen/2009-3-077)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 781.1335 338.3117 793.0135 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/rezensionen/2009-3-077) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 758.6275 322.3157 770.5075 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/961) >> endobj xref 0 33 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000606 00000 n 0000000688 00000 n 0000005158 00000 n 0000005267 00000 n 0000005377 00000 n 0000005486 00000 n 0000009047 00000 n 0000009175 00000 n 0000009259 00000 n 0000009324 00000 n 0000018574 00000 n 0000018639 00000 n 0000027105 00000 n 0000027170 00000 n 0000035404 00000 n 0000035495 00000 n 0000043423 00000 n 0000043453 00000 n 0000043581 00000 n 0000043617 00000 n 0000043743 00000 n 0000043798 00000 n 0000043889 00000 n 0000044909 00000 n 0000045036 00000 n 0000045150 00000 n 0000045278 00000 n trailer << /Size 33 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45373 %%EOF