%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 31 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722141604+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722141604+01'00') /Title (A Voice for Nurses: A History of the Royal College of Nursing, 1916-90) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3946 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Voice for Nurses: A History of the Royal College of Nursing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1916-90)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Modern British nursing, based on formal training and skilled work, emerged within a tradition of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sisterhoods \(both Protestant and Catholic\) and military reforms from the mid 18th century. It exerted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant influence over the development of nursing throughout the Anglo world following the tentacles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British Empire ? indeed often acting as an agent of empire, enabling the ?settlement of colonies? by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing health care for ?settlers? and eventually indigenous populations as well. Even in post-colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worlds, British nursing left organizational and ideological legacies that continued to shape nurses and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nursing work long after the achievement of national independence. Histories of British nursing, therefore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribute importantly to diverse national and international contexts as well as diverse fields of inquiry such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as gender history, labour history, histories of the professions, and health history broadly defined.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition, nurses comprise the largest group of health care workers and while there is a looming shortage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of nurses globally, they are also perceived as the most expensive component of modern health care systems. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American historian Susan Reverby portrays nurses as ?ordered to care? in a society that doesn?t value caring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work, suggesting on-going discrepancies between perceived need for nurses and actual willingness to pay for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(963)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 September, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan McGann)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Crowther)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rona Dougall)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719077968)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cynthia Toman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7867 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their services.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 100.664 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 100.664 795.075 m 114.656 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 114.656 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In their institutional history, )] TJ ET BT 255.332 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Voice for Nurses: A History of the Royal College of Nursing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1916?90, )] TJ ET BT 82.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(co-authors Susan McGann, Anne Crowther, and Rona Dougall offer a lens through which we can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine how similar tensions played out for the British nursing profession over a 74-year period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The title, )] TJ ET BT 80.348 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Voice for Nurses)] TJ ET BT 171.344 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, reflects struggles within the institutional life of the Royal College of Nursing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(RCN\). Initially the RCN set out to ?to establish nursing as a profession, with a distinct body of knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and skills, for which all nurses should be fully trained? \(p. 1\), with a pragmatic view to preventing ?a post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war influx of semi-trained women into the profession \(p. 36\) ? thereby embarking on a long involvement to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control and regulate nursing education. But the RCN also had to deal with a second dilemma that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely related, namely how ?to improve the condition of nurses in the workplace? \(p. 2\) as a key strategy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward professionalization. It was this focus that ultimately positioned the RCN as labour negotiator for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British nurses and by 1977 saw its registration as a trade union, as it attempted to balance its institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity between ?nursing? knowledge and being the ?voice of nurses? in labour relations. The title also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that a history of the RCN is also about competing voices: )] TJ ET BT 355.340 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(who)] TJ ET BT 375.344 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( spoke for the collective body of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British nurses over time, and )] TJ ET BT 175.340 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(whose voice)] TJ ET BT 233.660 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would predominate in the long-standing struggles with the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nurses Association, established by Ethel Bedford Fenwick in 1888, which continued to 1963 when the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizations amalgamated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In reviewing )] TJ ET BT 98.000 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Voice for Nurses)] TJ ET BT 188.996 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( one is struck by at least two challenges: the endurance of the organization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its broad reach that extended to include Scotland and Northern Ireland as well as England and Wales. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed the authors acknowledge these challenges as limitations, and call for historians to examine Scotland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Northern Ireland individually and in much more detail \(p. 3\). The authors identify their purposes as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describe the changing institutional framework of the RCN, and to offer explanations regarding how it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survived and adjusted to changing circumstances over time \(p. 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Voice for Nurses )] TJ ET BT 128.012 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is organized chronologically. Chapter one identifies key players in the debates over )] TJ ET BT 530.936 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(who)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would control both nursing and nurses, and the larger social and political contexts of the late 19th and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th centuries. The origins of class distinctions with nursing are clearly laid out and acknowledged as ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persistent divisive factor? \(p. 32\) that continued to shape the life of the organization. The RCN capitalized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on class distinctions as well as generosity from a ?grateful nation? during the First World War for early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funding support, to establish itself firmly in the midst of two battles ? for state registration of nurses and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvement of nurses? working conditions \(p. 37\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters two and three characterize the period from the 1920s to the end of the Second World War as being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of consolidation, expansion, and struggle for influence. The authors position the organization as one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among other non-feminist associations that engaged politically in specific areas ?identified as within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural areas of women?s expertise? \(p. 41\) and ?often working behind the scenes and enlisting male MPs to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make their case politically? \(p. 42\). As the RCN expanded in the form of local branches throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country, it also expanded membership to include public health and private duty nurses. Local branches were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only communication links but also windows into nurses? working conditions ? overlapping interests with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade unions seeking to move into this area. War again heightened anxieties about the supply of nurses for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both civilian and military purposes, and put pressure on the organization regarding the educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preparation of nurses to meet these demands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the creation of the National Health Services in 1948, nurses became public employees; chapters four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and five examine both their optimism for this transformation and their disappointments in the ability of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(RCN to influence substantial changes. As nursing shortages grew and working conditions remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contentious, however, RCN membership fell and the organization faced challenges to its claim as the voice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for nurses. Educational reforms remained a key strategy to address nursing shortages during the 1950s, now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(targeting both married women and men for recruitment. But apprenticeship training wherein student nurses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to deliver the majority of hospital nursing care, still pitted their needs as learners with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hospitals? needs for staffing ? leading readers to chapter six, appropriately sub-titled a decade of discontent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nursing is always situated within the larger society and during the 1970s the British profession experienced )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 100.6637 795.3895 114.6557 807.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8456 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a new type of nurse and a new level of militancy among nurses. The RCN responded with reorganization, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new leadership, and renewed political activism that ultimately resulted in increased membership and support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for rank-and-file nurses. According to the authors, these shifts pushed the organization into becoming a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional union as well. These developments are the focus of chapter seven where the authors argue that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?If the RCN had rejected unionism, and remained as a professional body, it would have lost its authority to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speak for nurses in the workplace \(p. 277\)?. Other issues during this period concerned race and immigration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a strategy to meet the demand for nurses. The final chapter centers on the 1980s, suggesting that strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership and a decision to take nursing issues into the public forum resulted in substantial successes for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(RCN as the voice for nurses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The organization developed along two distinct lines of education and unionism, and continues to function in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both today. It offered very practical courses for nurses at a time when they could find few other ways to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase their knowledge or advance their education.)] TJ ET BT 289.940 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I was struck by the pervasive and persistent influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of class in shaping the organization, underlying deep divisions within the profession: different levels of care )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providers, how much education would be provided, to which levels, and where it would be provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(hospitals or educational facilities\); and recurring debates on unionism among leaders and grassroots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Voice for Nurses)] TJ ET BT 125.012 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( focuses entirely on one British nursing organization but the analysis carries importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for larger audiences beyond national boundaries, especially in demonstrating the significance of how health )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(care is organized within larger sociopolitical systems. For example, from a Canadian perspective, our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national nursing organizations function differently partially due to our federated national structure that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mandates health care as the responsibility of the provinces. The Canadian Nurses? Association \(CNA\) never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became as involved in unionization movements as the RCN did although it did pay attention to labour and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic issues for nurses; and while the CNA offered an administration course for nurses for many years, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it never became as involved in other forms of education as did the RCN.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a substantial body of scholarship on British nursing history although relatively few institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories on nursing organizations. Key examples and thematic areas include: Anne-Marie Rafferty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan McGann on nursing history and politics, Monica Baly on nursing and social change, Celia Davies on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nursing and gender, Brian Abel-Smith and Christopher Maggs? synthesis histories of the profession, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous histories of British military nursing.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.688 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.688 359.907 m 270.680 359.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 270.680 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( With the exception of histories based on individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hospitals and training schools, institutional histories of nursing are sparse, partially due to increased interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among historians in social history, labour history, gender history, cultural and material history. Nonetheless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional histories constitute important resources, especially in establishing chronology, key leadership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personnel, and dominant issues an organization encounters over its lifetime. Like human biographies, the life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an organization is especially challenging to write during its lifetime ? for which the authors are to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commended. )] TJ ET BT 98.672 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Voice for Nurses)] TJ ET BT 189.668 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( builds upon and complements earlier histories such as those of the General )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nursing Council for England and Wales, the RCN \(Rcn\) in 1967, and the United Kingdom Central Council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 246.992 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 246.992 245.859 m 260.984 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 212.355 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Reverby, )] TJ ET BT 142.340 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ordered to Care: The Dilemma of American Nursing, 1850?1945)] TJ ET BT 457.988 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 166.083 m 118.004 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Marie Rafferty, )] TJ ET BT 170.648 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Nursing Knowledge)] TJ ET BT 339.332 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1996\); )] TJ ET BT 423.992 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nursing History and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics of Welfare)] TJ ET BT 154.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Anne Marie Rafferty, Jane Robinson, and Ruth Elkan \(London and New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997\); Susan McGann, )] TJ ET BT 178.004 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Battle of the Nurses: A Study of Eight Women Who Influenced the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Development of Professional Nursing, 1880?1930)] TJ ET BT 305.012 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1992\); Monica Baly, )] TJ ET BT 458.000 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nursing and Social )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Change)] TJ ET BT 101.348 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(3rd ed., London, 1995\); Celia Davies, )] TJ ET BT 292.988 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender and the Professional Predicament in Nursing)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Buckingham, 1995\); Brian Abel-Smith, )] TJ ET BT 261.344 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of the Nursing Profession)] TJ ET BT 433.688 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1960\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher J. Maggs, )] TJ ET BT 173.012 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of General Nursing )] TJ ET BT 330.020 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London and Dover, 1983\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.660 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.660 66.291 m 515.648 66.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eve Bendall and Elizabeth Raybould, )] TJ ET BT 247.328 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the General Nursing Council for England and Wales, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 39.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1919?69)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 256.6877 360.2215 270.6797 372.1015 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 246.9917 246.1735 260.9837 258.0535 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 166.3975 118.0037 178.2775 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 461.6597 66.6055 515.6477 78.4855 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 1561 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1969\); Gerald Bowman, )] TJ ET BT 230.660 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lamp and the Book: The Story of the Rcn, 1916?1966)] TJ ET BT 510.308 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1967\); and Celia Davies and Abigail Beach, )] TJ ET BT 278.648 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Interpreting Professional Self-regulation: a History of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting )] TJ ET BT 438.380 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London and New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 752.307 m 149.000 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 708.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 690.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 690.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/963)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 689.289 m 322.316 689.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 664.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4994)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 752.6215 148.9997 764.5015 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 689.6035 322.3157 701.4835 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/963) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000573 00000 n 0000000655 00000 n 0000004653 00000 n 0000004762 00000 n 0000004872 00000 n 0000004981 00000 n 0000008542 00000 n 0000008670 00000 n 0000008754 00000 n 0000008838 00000 n 0000016758 00000 n 0000016788 00000 n 0000016916 00000 n 0000016952 00000 n 0000017057 00000 n 0000025566 00000 n 0000025596 00000 n 0000025724 00000 n 0000025760 00000 n 0000025790 00000 n 0000025918 00000 n 0000025954 00000 n 0000026081 00000 n 0000026136 00000 n 0000026262 00000 n 0000026317 00000 n 0000026408 00000 n 0000028022 00000 n 0000028149 00000 n 0000028204 00000 n 0000028332 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28427 %%EOF