%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 24 0 R 38 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 70 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728113537+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728113537+01'00') /Title (Slavery Counted, Slavery Defined and Slavery Online) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4407 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Slavery Counted, Slavery Defined and Slavery Online)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The proliferation of computer databases and the digitization of sources online are transforming the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profession. Scholars can now do substantial original research without needing to travel to distant archives. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Massive collections of documents are at our fingertips. Online databases are encouraging the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratization of historical research. Sources once available to only a few are now readily available to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone with internet access and there is no threat of digitized manuscripts or rare books being damaged by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excessive or improper use. Slavery studies, in particular, have been radically altered by the availability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several new electronic databases. Two of the most important are )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 345.608 102.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 345.608 101.031 m 547.928 101.031 l S BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Database)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 86.775 m 80.012 86.775 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 83.012 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 97.004 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.332 87.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery, Abolition and Social Justice, 1490-2007)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.332 86.775 m 355.316 86.775 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 358.316 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 372.308 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Although these two databases have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slightly different chronological focuses and general objectives, they are complementary. One is, primarily, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich statistical analysis of the slave trade, and the other is a collection of digitized sources for the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(964)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 September, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Eltis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Halbert)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emory University)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlanta, GA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Mansfield)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Matthew Digital)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.amdigital.co.uk/collections/Slavery-Abolition-and-Social-Justice-1490-2007/Default.aspx)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marlborough)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Justin Roberts)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 345.6077 113.6563 345.6077 113.6563 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces) >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 345.6077 101.1715 547.9277 113.0515 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 86.9155 80.0117 98.7955 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 120.3317 99.4003 120.3317 99.4003 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.amdigital.co.uk/collections/Slavery-Abolition-and-Social-Justice-1490-2007/Default.aspx) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 120.3317 86.9155 355.3157 98.7955 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.amdigital.co.uk/collections/Slavery-Abolition-and-Social-Justice-1490-2007/Default.aspx) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 9063 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages)] TJ ET BT 74.672 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a unique database. Many databases focus on collecting and housing sources online, digitizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts, rare books, newspapers or images for a larger audience and occasionally transcribing them. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast, )] TJ ET BT 78.008 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages)] TJ ET BT 118.664 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is, primarily, an ongoing, collaborative, research project into one particular aspect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery. As such, it is one of the most significant contributions in the last half century to the study of slavery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Atlantic World. For decades, scholars working on the transatlantic slave trade had only vague )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimates about the size and the structure of the slave trade. In the 1990s, Stephen Behrendt and David Eltis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after a chance meeting in the archives, began to conceptualize a project that would draw together widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispersed data sets on the slave trade for a more systematic and methodical quantitative study of the size and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the transatlantic slave trade. They standardized their data inquiries and gathered evidence on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual voyages into a massive database. The results, first published on CD-ROM in 1999, were an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinary testament to the ways in which computers were transforming research. Although that first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dataset was more detailed than anything in the literature, it had huge gaps in evidence for the Latin American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade. )] TJ ET BT 64.004 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages)] TJ ET BT 104.660 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a revised edition of that dataset. In the decade since the publication of that CD-Rom, David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eltis headed a team of researchers who have significantly expanded the data on the Latin American trade and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on voyages that were not fully documented. )] TJ ET BT 247.316 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages)] TJ ET BT 287.972 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( now includes more than 35,000 individual slaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voyages \(including more than 8,000 new voyages\) and approximately 60 per cent of the voyages which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared on the original CD-ROM have been revised to include more data. Whereas scholars once struggled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to determine the exact size and nature of the trade, the )] TJ ET BT 296.612 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages)] TJ ET BT 337.268 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( data set is now large enough \(approximately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80 per cent of all voyages\) to be able to make careful estimates to fill the evidentiary gaps. )] TJ ET BT 471.596 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages )] TJ ET BT 515.252 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimates that 12.5 million slaves embarked in Africa and approximately 10.7 million disembarked in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americas, offering, seemingly, the final word in a long, surprisingly combative and often gruesome debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the total volume of the trade?a debate in which the estimates seemed to be fraught with moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications and a debate which, at times, seemed to be trying to weigh the quantity of suffering.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.628 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.628 455.187 m 513.620 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 513.620 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from simply resolving debates about total quantity, )] TJ ET BT 282.008 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages)] TJ ET BT 322.664 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has helped specialists understand patterns in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slave trade with more precision than ever before. The new evidence, for example, now underscores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree to which the slave trade continued in the 19th century after the 1807 Anglo-American abolition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade. The database shows that by the late 1820s the annual volume of slaves crossing the Atlantic had nearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matched the highest annual pre-abolition volumes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.656 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.656 383.907 m 290.648 383.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The construction of quantitative data in )] TJ ET BT 225.992 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages)] TJ ET BT 266.648 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is refreshingly transparent. All of the data is downloadable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into Excel or SPSS. Visitors to the website can explore exactly which variables have been imputed. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making their methodology so clear and explicit, the creators of )] TJ ET BT 338.300 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages)] TJ ET BT 378.956 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have sidestepped the kinds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticisms which were levied against earlier generations of cliometricians.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.608 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.608 314.883 m 401.600 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 401.600 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There are downloadable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(codebooks for every variable in the database and clear instructions are given on how to perform searches. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The database will allow users to construct maps and timelines drawing on the data and perform endless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varieties in searches. Users can rely on either the known data or the combination of known data and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimates of the researchers in their data queries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To compliment the quantitative data, there are a series of interpretive essays, including an overview of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slave trade from David Eltis that draws predominantly from his book, )] TJ ET BT 371.312 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of African Slavery in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Americas)] TJ ET BT 79.340 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 82.340 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 82.340 203.091 m 96.332 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 96.332 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Few would dispute Eltis? claims. Stephen Behrendt offers a fascinating new interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Seasonality in the transatlantic slave trade?, which will lead researchers to more carefully consider the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of agricultural cycles and seasonal and weather patterns in migration and trade patterns in the Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World. This emphasis on the determinative forces of weather and seasons is an under-explored aspect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic history. As part of an outreach project, the database also includes teaching modules that will allow it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be used not only by researchers but as a pedagogical tool in grade schools or high schools. To assist in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pedagogical project, the database includes a range of contemporary maps.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A promising new addition to the )] TJ ET BT 192.680 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages)] TJ ET BT 233.336 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( project is the African names dataset. The names, gender and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heights and shipping origins of over 67,000 Africans liberated from intercepted slavers in the 19th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the abolition of the slave trade are now included with the voyages statistics. One of the limitations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using the database to explore the cultural origins of slaves is that the port of embarkation is the only )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.6277 455.5015 513.6197 467.3815 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 276.6557 384.2215 290.6477 396.1015 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 387.6077 315.1975 401.5997 327.0775 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 82.3397 203.4055 96.3317 215.2855 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 5703 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indication of the slaves? cultural origins and these slaves were often brought from far inland, especially as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the volume of the slave trade increased in the 18th and 19th centuries. By exploring the ethnic origins of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these African names, the researchers hope to discover more about the cultures from which slaves in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle passage came. Although that effort to track names is ongoing, )] TJ ET BT 370.304 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages)] TJ ET BT 410.960 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is clear that it has been, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most part, unsuccessful. These names were transcribed by Europeans who were not always necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attentive to pronunciation or consistent in their spelling. Even if the ethnic origins of these names could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ascertained ? and that will take an enormous amount of research ? it is difficult to predict how this names )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dataset might restructure our interpretation of the ethnic origins of the enslaved Africans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The names dataset does address one of the common criticisms of the slave trade database and of cliometric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of slavery since the 1970s. Scholars have argued that an excessive reliance on statistics makes it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to appreciate the human face of the trade or the institution more broadly. Statistics efface the lived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of the Africans who were stolen from their homes and forced to endure the horrors of middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage. Voyages does try to address the particularities of human experience and put a face to the numbers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by offering one longer and two shorter vignettes about individual survivors of the trade. Unfortunately, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three stories come across as tokenism. Likewise, the images section contains only nine images of the slaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who experienced the middle passage. )] TJ ET BT 215.972 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages)] TJ ET BT 256.628 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( should make an effort to include more stories or images of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the strength of Voyages is its exhaustive research into one particular subject ? the middle passage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the transatlantic slave trade ? this focus could have some negative consequences. The experience of forced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration and dislocation was common in slavery. There were massive internal slave trades within Africa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, from the upper to the lower South in the antebellum US and from the coast of Brazil to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interior after the discovery of gold and silver in Minas Gerais. There was also an overland trade from Africa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Islamic world that both predated and outlasted the transatlantic slave trade. The scholarship has tended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to highlight the middle passage, almost fetishizing its brutality, and overlooking other kinds of forced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration in slavery. More recent work, such as Walter Johnson?s edited collection, )] TJ ET BT 440.276 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chattel Principle)] TJ ET BT 544.280 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has begun to explore these forced migrations but the database could offer some comparative perspective on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other forced migrations.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 149.660 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 149.660 400.419 m 163.652 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 163.652 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Moreover, scholars must be aware that )] TJ ET BT 355.604 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages)] TJ ET BT 396.260 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a snapshot only of part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transatlantic trade. It cannot trace the regions slaves were drawn from within Africa or their overland routes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in any detail. It cannot reveal how many slaves were captured or died in this march to the coast or how long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they remained slaves before they arrived on the coast. It also fails to explore the final passage of slaves. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Groundbreaking research by Gregory E. O?Malley reveals that for a significant number of slaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disembarking in the Americas, the voyage was not over. Slave purchasers in ports in the Americas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes acted as middlemen, taking those recently arrived slaves to resell them in other areas of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americas.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 83.000 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 83.000 300.627 m 96.992 300.627 l S endstream endobj 40 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 149.6597 400.7335 163.6517 412.6135 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 82.9997 300.9415 96.9917 312.8215 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 47 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Length 8142 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery, Abolition and Social Justice)] TJ ET BT 211.004 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( compliments )] TJ ET BT 279.008 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages)] TJ ET BT 319.664 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( well. It is broader in scope and concept but more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited in its contribution to original research. Whereas the assembling of the )] TJ ET BT 408.308 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages)] TJ ET BT 448.964 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( dataset was a massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research undertaking in its own right and enables to scholars to conduct new data inquiries on their own, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery, Abolition and Social Justice)] TJ ET BT 211.004 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contributes to slave studies by supplying sources. It employs a loose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition of slavery, including forms of extra-legal or illegal bondage. It is a massive and growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection of digitized rare books, manuscripts, maps, images and governmental records relating to slavery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the end of the 15th century through the 21st century. The sources, which are not restricted to the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language, are drawn from archives throughout the Atlantic World \(including such rich collections as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Institute of Commonwealth Studies, Duke Library or the National Archives of the United Kingdom\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the vast majority of sources relate to African slavery in the Americas, the site includes records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relating to debt bondage and other kinds of coerced labour in 21st century Southeast Asia and the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Middle East. The sources can be downloaded in their entirety in PDF files \(a very useful feature\) or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they can be read online. The scanned pages are high quality reproductions, and are easily read. The digitized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources are a stimulating pedagogical tool, allowing undergraduates and graduate students the ability to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study original documents without the aid of transcription ? archival skills that are often underdeveloped in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even advanced graduate students.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The coverage of )] TJ ET BT 114.980 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery, Abolition and Social Justice)] TJ ET BT 291.968 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is expansive and there are gems in the collection \(such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the Castle Wemyss Estate Papers for Jamaica\), that will attract specialists but the collection privileges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breadth over depth. There is not enough material on any particular subject to allow for deep specialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research. The justification for what is included is problematic and not clearly explained. If the point is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include all examples of slavery, documents relating to ancient slavery \(even if they had to be transcribed\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would make the collection richer. There are a few in the collection but the authors could have included more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on, for example, the Hammurabi Code. If the database intends to focus on slavery, broadly defined, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1490?2007, there is little coverage of other forms of bondage and forced labour in the early modern era such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Native American slavery, convict labour, indentured servitude or the )] TJ ET BT 379.940 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(encomienda)] TJ ET BT 437.924 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( system. Although it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important to recognize the diversity of slave experience, there is enough diversity in African slavery in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americas \(which makes up the core of the collection\) to make that point. It is unclear what scholarly goals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be attained by extending the coverage to debt bondage and human trafficking in the 21st century. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repositories from which these documents are drawn are, the contributors admit, from around the Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World and the chronological bounds of the database ?beginning in the 1490s as Europe was expanding to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americas ? suggest an Atlantic focus)] TJ ET BT 212.312 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. Slavery, Abolition and Social Justice)] TJ ET BT 395.300 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would be more effective if it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on providing digitized sources and accompanying interpretive essays on African slavery in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americas. It could have the potential, given the archives on which it draws, to be the most important online )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archive for that subject. Yet, the database professes global and more wide reaching ambitions. If the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developers intend to make the website into a portal for global slave studies, the collections will have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expand to include repositories from beyond the Atlantic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The collection of digitized sources is rich but there is little on the site to compliment these sources. Thus far, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the site includes a scanty 13 interpretive essays. Four of these are guides to sources, explaining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provenance and significance of a certain digitized collection. The other nine interpretive essays are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insufficient for a global study of slavery from 1490 to 2007. They fail to offer a thorough overview of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonalities and varieties of slave experience. Give that the creators of the site are ambitiously using such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a loose definition of slavery, an essay specifically addressing the changing definitions of slavery or the ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which it might be defined should be included. Definitions of slavery are still contested and this site has the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential to highlight those contested definitions and allow both researchers and students to explore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue. Ultimately, a definition of slavery that is too expansive threatens to make the study of slavery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaningless, indistinguishable from other forms of social oppression. The final version of )] TJ ET BT 469.304 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery, Abolition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Social Justice)] TJ ET BT 121.340 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not scheduled to be released until December 2010 and it remains to be seen how fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the gaps in coverage can be addressed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These two websites are being produced not simply to further specialist research but also as pedagogical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outreach programs and as part of a project of creating useable histories of slavery that will serve to correct )] TJ ET endstream endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R ] /Contents 49 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Length 9632 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social injustice. )] TJ ET BT 111.680 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages )] TJ ET BT 155.336 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that its data might be useful in reparations cases for the ancestors of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enslaved survivors of the middle passage because it can help identify which early modern financial actors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were heavily involved in the trade)] TJ ET BT 197.648 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. Slavery, Abolition and Social Justice)] TJ ET BT 380.636 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( makes it clear with the title and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the inclusion of materials relating to debt bondage in the 21st century that it seeks to raise awareness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ongoing slavery. Kevin Bales, the world?s premier expert on modern slavery, offers an interpretive essay on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this topic, and the timeline included with the site concludes by pointing out that, in 2007, ?Slavery still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persists in placesall over the world such as the Sudan and Mauritania, despite being legally abolished?.In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this sense the )] TJ ET BT 101.012 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery, Abolition and Social Justice)] TJ ET BT 278.000 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( database clearly, and even more explicitly than )] TJ ET BT 509.612 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages)] TJ ET BT 550.268 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(melds social activism with a portal for slavery specialists. Although the social activism is admirable, it is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(melding of these twin goals that produces an unclear focus in the database.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Online databases such as these are continually evolving projects. To evaluate them, one must think not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what they currently offer scholars but also of what they have the potential to offer as they are developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the aims of the project are essential to gauging this potential. )] TJ ET BT 348.980 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voyages )] TJ ET BT 392.636 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the culmination of almost two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades of sustained and collaborative research. The creators intended to assemble as much data as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could on every slave voyage from Africa to the Americas. They have achieved that goal more fully than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone could have expected and the result is a database that will become a compulsory part of almost any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research on slavery in the Americas and for many topics related to the Atlantic World. Not only can the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(database be used to explore slavery, it can be used to examine aspects of maritime life, African culture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic history from the 16th through the 19th centuries. Although it is limited in scope to the middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage, Voyages is a stunningly complete resource, a testament to the ways in which computers have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed historical analysis. )] TJ ET BT 187.328 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery, Abolition and Social Justice )] TJ ET BT 367.316 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers researchers and educators access )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a wide variety of sources from archives across the Atlantic World which they might otherwise be unable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to consult. Printed material in English from the 16th through 19th centuries pertaining to slavery is available )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a variety of databases such as )] TJ ET BT 190.976 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth-Century Collections Online)] TJ ET BT 378.968 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or )] TJ ET BT 394.964 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Early English Books Online.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery, Abolition and Social Justice)] TJ ET BT 211.004 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has the potential to become an essential access site for manuscript )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material relating to African slavery in the Americas but it has failed to fully achieve this goal yet because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is so ambitious in scope and because it seeks to define slavery as a form of oppression and control that exists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the absence of legal coercion. While such a definition is certainly tenable, it cannot be selectively applied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the creators of )] TJ ET BT 125.984 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery, Abolition and Social Justice)] TJ ET BT 302.972 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will need to address several thin areas in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coverage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 336.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Eltis, ?The volume and structure of the transatlantic slave trade: a reassessment?, )] TJ ET BT 488.264 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The William )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Mary Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 161.336 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,\( January 2001\) <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 249.416 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm/58.1/eltis.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 249.416 289.875 m 551.420 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 78.008 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 27 June 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 207.740 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 207.740 275.619 m 261.728 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Eltis, ?Was Abolition of the U.S. and British Slave Trade Significant in the Broader Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Context? ?, )] TJ ET BT 121.676 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The William and Mary Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 281.000 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(October 2009\) <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm/66.4/eltis.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 232.851 m 366.020 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 369.020 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 383.012 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 27 June 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.744 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.744 232.851 m 552.740 232.851 l S BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 218.595 m 78.008 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herbert C. Gutman, )] TJ ET BT 162.332 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery and the Numbers Game: A Critique of Time on the Cross)] TJ ET BT 475.316 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bloomington, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IL, 2003 [1975]\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 147.332 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 147.332 190.083 m 201.320 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 177.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Eltis, )] TJ ET BT 124.352 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas)] TJ ET BT 334.664 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 452.300 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 452.300 175.827 m 506.288 175.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 162.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chattel Principle: Internal Slave Trades in the Americas)] TJ ET BT 357.332 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Walter Johnson \(New Haven, CT, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 147.315 m 149.000 147.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 134.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory E. O'Malley, ?Beyond the middle passage: slave migration from the Caribbean to North )] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America, 1619?1807?, )] TJ ET BT 175.988 120.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The William and Mary Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 335.312 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(January 2009\) <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historycooperative.org/cgibin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=htt...)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 104.547 m 426.884 104.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 429.884 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 443.876 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [accessed 27 June )] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 90.291 m 149.000 90.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 65.429 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET endstream endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 249.4157 290.1895 551.4197 302.0695 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm/58.1/eltis.html) >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 207.7397 275.9335 261.7277 287.8135 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 233.1655 366.0197 245.0455 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm/66.4/eltis.html) >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 512.7437 233.1655 552.7397 245.0455 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 218.9095 78.0077 230.7895 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 147.3317 190.3975 201.3197 202.2775 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 452.2997 176.1415 506.2877 188.0215 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 147.6295 148.9997 159.5095 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 40 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 104.8615 426.8837 116.7415 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historycooperative.org/cgibin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm/66.1/omalley.html>) >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 90.6055 148.9997 102.4855 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 43 0 R >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 72 0 R ] /Contents 71 0 R >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Length 1411 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 805.999 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 788.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 788.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/964)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 786.825 m 322.316 786.825 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 761.848 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.448 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.048 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.648 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.amdigital.co.uk/collections/Slavery-Abolition-and-Social-Justice-1490-2007/Default.aspx)] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.848 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm/58.1/eltis.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 675.448 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm/66.4/eltis.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 661.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historycooperative.org/cgibin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/wm/66.1/omalley.html>)] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.392 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 787.1395 322.3157 799.0195 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/964) >> endobj xref 0 74 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000685 00000 n 0000005144 00000 n 0000005253 00000 n 0000005363 00000 n 0000005472 00000 n 0000009033 00000 n 0000009161 00000 n 0000009245 00000 n 0000009373 00000 n 0000009469 00000 n 0000009597 00000 n 0000009693 00000 n 0000009817 00000 n 0000009913 00000 n 0000010039 00000 n 0000010189 00000 n 0000010315 00000 n 0000010465 00000 n 0000010570 00000 n 0000019686 00000 n 0000019716 00000 n 0000019844 00000 n 0000019880 00000 n 0000019910 00000 n 0000020038 00000 n 0000020074 00000 n 0000020104 00000 n 0000020232 00000 n 0000020268 00000 n 0000020298 00000 n 0000020424 00000 n 0000020460 00000 n 0000020551 00000 n 0000026307 00000 n 0000026337 00000 n 0000026465 00000 n 0000026501 00000 n 0000026531 00000 n 0000026657 00000 n 0000026693 00000 n 0000026758 00000 n 0000034953 00000 n 0000035100 00000 n 0000044785 00000 n 0000044913 00000 n 0000045026 00000 n 0000045154 00000 n 0000045209 00000 n 0000045336 00000 n 0000045449 00000 n 0000045577 00000 n 0000045632 00000 n 0000045758 00000 n 0000045813 00000 n 0000045941 00000 n 0000045996 00000 n 0000046124 00000 n 0000046179 00000 n 0000046306 00000 n 0000046361 00000 n 0000046488 00000 n 0000046673 00000 n 0000046799 00000 n 0000046854 00000 n 0000046938 00000 n 0000048402 00000 n 0000048530 00000 n trailer << /Size 74 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 48625 %%EOF