%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 32 0 R 52 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R /F4 34 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140828071410+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140828071410+01'00') /Title (Exploring Environmental History: Selected Essays) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4193 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Exploring Environmental History: Selected Essays)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Originally seeing the light of day as conference papers or seminar presentations, this collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental history essays brings together a very personalised, and at times highly impassioned journey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Professor Christopher Smout reflecting how he turned his attention to this relatively new field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical enquiry in the 1980s, a decade after the ?great efflorescence of environmental history that occurred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in America? \(p. 15\). Despite being an apparent latecomer to the field, Smout quickly made his mark by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founding the Institute for Environmental History at St Andrews in 1992, and is therefore rightly regarded as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of environmental history?s foremost scholars having also published widely on the topic. In addition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a long career devoted to the economic and social history of Scotland, Prof. Smout is Emeritus Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Scottish History at the University of St Andrews and Historiographer Royal for Scotland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Structured over 13 chapters that deal mainly with Britain, and especially Scotland, in the period after 1600, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this volume opens with an introduction explaining the discipline of environmental history, which Smout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defines as ?the relationship between people and environment? \(p. 1\). This might seem a fair description. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as demonstrated by chapter one?s historiographical survey that introduces us to Victorian scholars engaged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with species history rather than simply assessing works that have emerged under the banner of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?environmental history?, Smout wrestles with definitions of his discipline. Partly this is because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations of environmental history can easily be applied to aspects of agrarian history, rural studies or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(966)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 September, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Smout)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780748635139)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(208pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederick Milton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7899 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban history, which were already well established when the new discipline arrived. Indeed, the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concedes that studies being carried out under the umbrella of environmental history might easily be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construed as surveys in urban or social history. One is certain, for instance, that Keith Thomas did not set out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to produce an environmental history work when he conceived his celebrated survey of early modern man?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing attitudes towards plants and animals.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.996 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.996 738.051 m 271.988 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 271.988 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( To further cloud the issue, Smout sees environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history as a close relation to economic or historical geography, a linkage evident in this volume?s short, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very useful bibliography. Scrutiny of the extensive footnotes supporting chapter one also demonstrates that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental history borrows much from the natural and physical sciences to the point where documentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence is sometimes dispensed with completely in favour of scientific methodology encompassing carbon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis and fossils. This point is demonstrated very well by Smout as he recollects the nature of material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented at a 1996 environmental history conference. We are left in doubt that this is then a highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interdisciplinary subject. Instead of becoming anxious about positioning its boundaries, we should celebrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental history?s unique willingness to embrace and blend with very different but broad strands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic enquiry as we seek, as Smout explains, to ?place man in the context of his environment, not as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(master with dominion over nature but as part of nature and subject to its own laws, and further to show how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his actions have impacted on nature? \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arriving in the wake of two new editions of seminal environmental history writing by J. Donald Hughes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clive Ponting which offer a global perspective this rather slim work by Smout is refreshing for its tighter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 63.008 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 63.008 526.467 m 77.000 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 77.000 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Whereas Hughes and Ponting include overlapping case studies, such as the familiar account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over-exploitation of Easter Island, Smout seeks to appraise rather niche evidence that it would be difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trace in grander sweeps of environmental history. From chapter one?s timely review of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental history, which should be read by anyone with even a passing interest in the discipline, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remainder of the book is best summarised as bite-sized chunks of historical interpretation. Chapters two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through nine deal largely with Scottish issues, in particularly the management and exploitation of woodland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and landscape. The remainder of the book then explores broader issues concluding with an examination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how individuals reach ?environmental consciousness?. These final chapters also denote a change in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach by the author, as he delivers a highly personalised perspective, raising some awkward and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculative questions for policy makers and conservationists alike. Smout admits this deliberate style was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(born out of a deep concern for man?s misuse of his environment. Such challenges, sometimes contentious, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might not be to everyone?s taste; therefore readers may prefer a ?dipping in? approach, especially when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaching the final four chapters. That said, Smout?s thought provoking and elegant prose make tackling this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume in one sitting just as rewarding, for many of these stand-alone papers have strong parallels, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially those dealing with woodland history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prefacing each chapter is an appropriate illustration or photograph with an explanatory title. For instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning chapter seven?s discussion of energy resources is a photograph of an )] TJ ET BT 417.932 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Orcadian)] TJ ET BT 463.928 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( pony alongside a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drying peat stack. Dated 1889, this visibly demonstrates the annual fuel requirements of the family. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the manpower hours required to dig this stack then duly follows \(p. 112\). That said, other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrations deserve further comment. The illustration of Locdhu Lodge in the Caithness Flow Country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfectly captures both the unique bog habitat of this northernmost area of the Scottish mainland and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolating nature of the landscape on the building, but the rationale for building the hunting lodge needs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further explaining. Game shooting, as Smout shows, had a devastating effect in clearing the Highlands of so-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called ?vermin? by zealous keepers, but the infrastructure to support this mainly upper-class sport that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved the construction of such lodges, and then the access roads and railways, such as that connecting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tiny hamlet of Forsinard, would also have had an environmental impact, as would the attendant workforce of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants and land managers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smout?s frustration with government policy and agencies is clearly tangible. For instance, his search for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?green consciousness? within the Scottish Highlands illustrates that ?all our attitudes towards the land and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature have a history? but this can be ?twisted and directed? \(p. 47\), as shown by the tentative steps towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish environmental protection, such as National Parks? legislation that have, for one reason or another, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persistently lagged behind English attempts. Political interference has, more often or not, stymied advances )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 257.9957 738.3655 271.9877 750.2455 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 63.0077 526.7815 76.9997 538.6615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7683 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in conservation and ignored valid local objections. Even when there is progress, Smout is concerned that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is being orchestrated by ?outsiders? who then merely trample upon Scottish sensibilities by not considering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Highlands to be part of a ?wider British society?, a fact that seems so blindingly apparent to Scots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves. This theme of detachment, especially with regard to policy-making or ?experts? offering their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinions, is one that Smout frequently revisits, leading to some arguments and evidence overlapping across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chapters, a trait that the author admits he has tried to minimise when collating and updating these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously disparate essays. However, when blended with Smout?s gentle humour such repetitions are easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forgiven and at times commensurately enhance the text. For instance, during the fight to preserve the Flow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Country the chairman of the Nature Conservancy Council notably opined at a press conference that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional habitat should be regarded as ?the natural heritage equivalent to the Taj Mahal?. Smout wryly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observes that local opinion had it that ?the only Taj Mahal known in Sutherland and Caithness was an Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restaurant in Thurso? \(p. 107\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three successive essays deal with one of Smout?s specialisms, woodland history. The exploitation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish woodlands is variously seen through a wide lens that variously focuses on semi-natural, pine and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oak woodlands. A further chapter then assesses selected historical linkages made with various individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trees or woodlands within the Scottish landscapes. However, as this does not immediately follow the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preceding three woodland-themed chapters there is a somewhat disjointed sense to the discussion. This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shame, as this chapter nicely concludes the issues raised in the earlier ones. It strongly argues the case for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of environmental history, not just for scholars, but also for those wielding financial and policymaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power. For example, Smout debunks the notion of the ?Great Wood of Caledon? as a romantic 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myth, like those of the numerous ?Wallace Oaks?. Myths though endure, and such ?bad history?, as Smout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puts it, is not only notoriously difficult to dispel, but can lead to costly and ill-informed policy-making, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the millions spent by the Heritage Lottery Fund in attempting to replant swathes of the supposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Caledonia Silva?. Historical research of man?s history with the landscape and its biota, as Smout underlines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later when discussing approaches to nature conservation strategies, is fundamental from not just a financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point of view, but also if we wish to protect and enhance biodiversity \(p. 210\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sandwiched between these analyses of woodland history, Smout turns his attention to another feature one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might identify as being particularly characteristic of the Scottish landscape. Totalling 1.6 million hectares in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United Kingdom, peat bogs have continually attracted man?s attention, to the extent that just 11 per cent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the total UK mires can be considered in a pristine state. Contributing to this decline has been large-scale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drainage for agricultural purposes, forestry planting schemes, and of course peat extraction for both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horticultural purposes and for burning, the staple heating fuel for many Highland communities until recently. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smout shows how opinions of peat bogs have shifted from regarding them as wasteland ripe only for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitation, such as the ill-advised and tax-concessionary schemes of Flow Country forestry, to recognition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these are fragile habitats deserving of special protection and restoration. Chapter seven continues this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of Scottish peat use within a broader survey of Scottish natural energy resources, which also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes some fascinating comparisons with those of Ireland and Iceland. The peat resources of the latter, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learn was too poor to be an efficient fuel and Icelanders basically shivered in compressed living spaces to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conserve the only heat generated by their own bodies and that of their domestic animals, that was at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conserved by ?the most energy-efficient houses in Europe? \(p. 123\). In comparison, both the Irish and Scots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gained access to increasingly cheap coal which, by the 18th century, had become the fuel of choice for well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(healed urbanites. Here, high windows and open hearths were, as Smout puts it, ?monuments to conspicuous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fuel consumption? \(p. 125\). Squaring this suggestion of visible profligacy in the emergent consumption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society of the 18th century is evidence of ?hidden? frugality. This included repeated clothes mending and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to mask repair of personal and household effects, and as Smout shows, rare incidences of household )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insulation \(in this case sphagnum moss in some Dublin houses\) as a means of reducing fuel costs. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking that such obvious measures for conserving heat and, of course, reducing costs were not more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread, and it leaves open the question as to whether those with far more to gain from heat and cost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(savings, such as the working classes, similarly adopted some form of lagging where possible for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housing. After all, insulating mosses, especially for rural communities, would have been freely available. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the current drive for energy efficiency, and the lack of effective fuel conservation measures in even )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7719 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparatively modern housing, this topic offers a tantalising subject for future investigation by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At chapter ten, the author switches tack and shares with us his very palpable concern for avifauna by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining two very thorny and controversial subjects for modern nature conservationists, namely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?problem? of ?alien species? and then the negative impact of modern agriculture on biodiversity. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former, Smout is concerned with conundrum often faced conservationists as to the actual terminology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?alien? and what species might be thus classed as such, and then what appropriate action, if any, should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken against such animals or plants introduced, deliberately or otherwise, by man. Is it legitimate on ethical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and economic grounds, for instance, to exterminate the ruddy duck at a cost of millions, whilst protecting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little owl, when both species were deliberately introduced to Britain? Again, all salient food for thought, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smout leaves us to ponder.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From an essay dealing with very deliberate increases in biota, we then move to a depressing report on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline of farmland biodiversity, which the author explains has been under continuous attack from habitat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degradation, pesticides, and intensive farming techniques all with the acquiescence of a political system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geared to maximising production via subsidies. Not surprisingly this has had a catastrophic effect on biota, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including extinctions of species of butterflies and bumblebees, sharp declines in plant varieties, and the well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studied plummeting populations of farmland birds, such as the tree sparrow, which according to the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trust for Ornithology, underwent a 97 per cent decline in numbers in period from 1967 to 2007.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 495.284 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 495.284 528.723 m 509.276 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 509.276 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Apart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the handful of successful species reintroduction programmes and the 1960s bans on organochlorine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pesticides, there are few good news aspects to this story. Even some arrests in the declining populations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selected bird species that was credited to set-aside \(an EU subsidised scheme devised to take land out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural production\) was temporary as this farming method has recently been abandoned, a point Smout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have included. Given the scientific data informing this chapter and his dismissal of subsidies, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointing that Smout also chooses not discuss the ?new agri-environment schemes? within this chapter. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He is certainly aware of these, for in a subsequent chapter the author regards these enterprises as being ?ill-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered? \(pp. 202, 208\), in this case for replacing weedy field margins with planted woodland. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overarching objectives of the many levels of subsidised stewardship programmes were to specifically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address the species loss issues that Smout highlights. Such schemes have encompassed woodland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hedgerow planting, managed field margins and the creation of wetland habitat, by amenable and enlightened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculturalists. Although mistakes have been made, data suggests that these schemes have been proven tools )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for increasing farmland biodiversity.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.984 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.984 343.395 m 223.976 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With this apparent disregard for sympathetic management of their landholdings, farmers make simple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(targets. It is easy, with hindsight to suggest, as Smout does, that the impact of level of biodiversity loss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have been lessened if British agriculture had sought to avoid the lure of subsidy and ?European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection and manipulation? as ?wise? farmers instead sought mixed agriculture as a protective measure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against uncertain markets \(p. 196\). However, we need to remember that agriculture is first and foremost a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business, and it is difficult to uncover the same level of animosity levelled at businesses or housing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments occupying former brownfield sites that can support greater levels of biodiversity than are to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found on the more aesthetically-pleasing, but often bereft ?green deserts?. Instead of taking such an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adversarial stance towards agriculturalists, we would do well to remember that many farmers have become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all too aware of declining levels of biodiversity, birdlife in particular, and many actively work with agencies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the RSPB, to support practical habitat improvement schemes. Conservationists also are charged with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land management. Unlike farmers, nature is given primacy, but this job can be fraught with problems and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with competing approaches. As Smout shows, ?re-wilders? attempt to remodel land back to ?original-natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state?, whilst ?gardeners? tend to actively manage small-scale sites to prevent any large-scale ecological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change \(p. 203\). Such different approaches raises controversy; re-wilding is difficult in a small and densely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populated country such as Britain, and these attempts are underscored by poor historical knowledge, whereas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the gardeners attempting to maintain a status-quo face problems with invasive native species. These issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reprise some of the arguments Smout already makes when he considered the issue of alien species and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethical parameters conservationists work within. Was English Nature correct when it made the decision to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 495.2837 529.0375 509.2757 540.9175 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.9837 343.7095 223.9757 355.5895 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 8502 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroy the rats living and feeding off Lundy?s puffin colonies?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These complex issues also question to what extent we remain wedded to ?ordering? of nature by continually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labelling its species with positive and negative values. This perception of nature links well with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concluding chapter that seeks to understand how environmental consciousness develops within individuals. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, the author issues a plea that we would all do well to understand and follow. According to Smout, man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must see himself as part of the ?countless twigs? rather than the upmost leaf, else ?the future of this spinning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earth may be a silence to match that of her sister planets? \(p. 232\). It is this interconnected role of man and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his environment that thus forms the constant theme of the book, which then lays bare the prophetic dangers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of not appreciating this concept.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is probable that many scholars will have already read many of Smout?s thought provoking essays in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own right, but this familiarity should not deter anyone from revisiting these articles again, many of which, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as those dealing with woodland history, benefit considerably, context-wise, from being in the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume and also updated. With regard to the revisions, there is no evidence of new source material simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being tacked on; instead the subsequent amendments by Smout have carefully integrated significant new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works. For instance, when assessing species exterminated by man such as the wolf or those that vanished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of habitat change, for example the great bustard, Smout reaches for Roger Lovegrove?s thorough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research of church warden?s accounts that tally the bounties paid out for ?vermin?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.248 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.248 542.979 m 446.240 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 446.240 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Despite being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revised text there are some unsatisfactory proofreading errors that should certainly have been weeded out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before publication. For instance, Nicholas Ridley, the controversial Minister of the Environment from 1987 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 1989, is erroneously named as Norman Ridley \(p. 107\). However, such minor quibbles should not detract )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from an entertaining and engaging work that augments the growing interest in environmental history. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume of essays by one of the leading scholars in the field should be a vital addition to the shelves of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyone conducting environmental research, whether in the humanities or sciences. Given its wide remit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and searching questions, )] TJ ET BT 154.664 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exploring Environmental History)] TJ ET BT 315.992 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( should also be compulsory reading for all those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaged, at whatever level, with environmental policymaking and practical nature conservation work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.427 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 364.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Vivien Thomas, )] TJ ET BT 174.008 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Man and the Natural World: Changing Attitudes in England 1500?1800)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1984\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 349.155 m 196.328 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Donald Hughes, )] TJ ET BT 155.672 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Environmental History of the World: Humankind?s Changing Role in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Community of Life)] TJ ET BT 153.356 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Abingdon, 2009\); Clive Ponting, )] TJ ET BT 321.032 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A New Green History of the World: The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Environment and the Collapse of Great Civilisations)] TJ ET BT 317.360 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.684 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.684 306.387 m 452.672 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. R. Baillie )] TJ ET BT 125.696 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al.)] TJ ET BT 149.696 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?Breeding Birds in the Wider Countryside: Their Conservation Status 2009?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(BTO Research Report No. 541)] TJ ET BT 211.004 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Thetford, 2010\) <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 303.752 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bto.org/birdtrends)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 303.752 277.875 m 447.752 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 450.752 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 464.744 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 1 June )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 263.619 m 149.000 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, the studies analysing birds and animals utilising new farm woodlands. N. P. Moore, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Askew & J. D. Bishop, ?Small mammals in new farm woodlands?, )] TJ ET BT 402.992 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mammal Review,)] TJ ET BT 486.308 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 33 \(2003\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(101?4; D. )] TJ ET BT 114.344 222.245 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Vanhinsbergh, S. Gough, R.J Fuller & E.D.R. Brierley,)] TJ ET BT 399.692 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Summer and winter bird )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities in recently established farm woodlands in lowland England?, )] TJ ET BT 425.312 207.989 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(A)] TJ ET BT 433.316 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(griculture, Ecosystems )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Environment)] TJ ET BT 147.008 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 150.008 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 92 \(2002\), 123?36.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 244.328 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 244.328 192.339 m 298.316 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Lovegrove, )] TJ ET BT 154.328 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Silent Fields: the Long Decline of a Nation?s Wildlife)] TJ ET BT 413.000 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.648 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.648 178.083 m 545.636 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 153.221 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 134.239 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 116.459 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 116.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/966)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 115.065 m 322.316 115.065 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 90.088 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.688 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.288 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.bto.org/birdtrends)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F4 /BaseFont /Times-BoldItalic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 35 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 432.2477 543.2935 446.2397 555.1735 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 349.4695 196.3277 361.3495 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 398.6837 306.7015 452.6717 318.5815 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 303.7517 278.1895 447.7517 290.0695 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.bto.org/birdtrends) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 263.9335 148.9997 275.8135 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 244.3277 192.6535 298.3157 204.5335 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.6477 178.3975 545.6357 190.2775 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 115.3795 322.3157 127.2595 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/966) >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 53 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Length 143 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 54 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000367 00000 n 0000000404 00000 n 0000000576 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000004903 00000 n 0000005012 00000 n 0000005122 00000 n 0000005231 00000 n 0000008792 00000 n 0000008920 00000 n 0000009004 00000 n 0000009095 00000 n 0000017047 00000 n 0000017077 00000 n 0000017205 00000 n 0000017241 00000 n 0000017271 00000 n 0000017397 00000 n 0000017433 00000 n 0000017498 00000 n 0000025234 00000 n 0000025325 00000 n 0000033097 00000 n 0000033127 00000 n 0000033255 00000 n 0000033291 00000 n 0000033321 00000 n 0000033449 00000 n 0000033485 00000 n 0000033618 00000 n 0000042173 00000 n 0000042288 00000 n 0000042318 00000 n 0000042446 00000 n 0000042482 00000 n 0000042610 00000 n 0000042665 00000 n 0000042793 00000 n 0000042848 00000 n 0000042976 00000 n 0000043057 00000 n 0000043184 00000 n 0000043239 00000 n 0000043367 00000 n 0000043422 00000 n 0000043550 00000 n 0000043605 00000 n 0000043733 00000 n 0000043828 00000 n 0000043893 00000 n trailer << /Size 54 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 44088 %%EOF