%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930104435+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930104435+01'00') /Title (Anne Boleyn: Fatal Attractions) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4115 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Anne Boleyn: Fatal Attractions)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his new study of Anne Boleyn, George Bernard at no point defines the ?fatal attractions? to which his title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refers. There is not even an assurance that no rabbits were harmed in the making of the book. Perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title is deliberately polysemous, for we might think of at least six fatal, or metaphorically fatal, attractions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercised by the queen. Her own attractiveness to Henry VIII proved at length fatal to her, the first of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two beheaded wives. Her alleged attractiveness to five of Henry?s courtiers, Henry Norris, Francis Weston, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Brereton, Mark Smeaton, and her own brother George Boleyn, Lord Rochford, proved fatal to them, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as they were tried and executed for treasonable adultery with her. Moving out from the heart of the court, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry?s determination to wed her and to break with Rome in the process destroyed Thomas More, John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fisher, Elizabeth Barton and many other opponents of the king?s proceedings. In the next generation, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested title and related religious partisanship of her daughter Elizabeth in turn cost the lives of those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenged her.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two brands of modern attraction, lastly, might be considered, not fatal perhaps, but distorting. There is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread sense in the public perception of Henry?s reign that she was and remains the most fascinating of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his wives, whether as seductress, style icon or strong female operator in a male political world; whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depicted by Vanessa Redgrave, Genevive Bujold, Natalie Portman or Natalie Dormer. And debates about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her life, fall, reputation and significance have exercised a magnetic pull for Tudor historians in the nearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(967)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 September, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. W. Bernard)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300162455)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(237pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven Gunn)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8913 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four decades since Eric Ives published his seminal exposition of her demise as a textbook case of factional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict at court in 1972. Ives himself has produced two editions of a biography of the queen and a number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of supporting articles.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.004 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.004 766.563 m 152.996 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 152.996 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Retha Warnicke challenged Ives?s views with a biography in 1989 and articles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either side of it.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 109.340 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 109.340 752.307 m 123.332 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 123.332 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( David Starkey gave Anne a chapter, associating her with ?the beginnings of faction?, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his influential general study of the politics of Henry?s court in 1985, and 31 chapters in his )] TJ ET BT 473.300 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Six Wives)] TJ ET BT 519.620 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003: seven fewer than Katherine of Aragon, it is true, but a strike rate of chapters per year of marriage to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the king nearly five times that of her rival.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.984 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.984 709.539 m 250.976 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 250.976 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Greg Walker published an article re-examining her fall in 2002 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and George Bernard himself made three major contributions to the debate with studies of Anne?s fall, her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious proclivities and the fall of Wolsey, in 1991, 1993 and 1996 respectively.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 426.308 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 426.308 681.027 m 440.300 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 440.300 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Together these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguished scholars have wrestled over every aspect of Anne?s life, from the theological implications of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her book collection and her whereabouts on the dates of her alleged adulteries to the existence of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eleventh finger ? or was it just an extra fingernail? ? and the size of the lump on her neck.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inevitably such intense debate has placed extreme pressure on the fragile evidence that survives, and it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the difficulties of the evidence that Bernard begins his discussion, to those difficulties that he often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returns, and with the difficulties even of identifying a realistic likeness of Anne from the ?tantalisingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragile evidence? of portraits that he ends. The difficulties are complicated by questions of source criticism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as how systematically we should discount the evidence of Eustace Chapuys, the imperial ambassador )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostile to Anne, whose letters Bernard uses, to good effect, in the Viennese originals rather than the 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century English paraphrases of the )] TJ ET BT 202.976 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calendar of State Papers, Spanish)] TJ ET BT 368.648 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. They are dogged by hypothetical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues, such as what kind of evidence might have been adduced at her trial but destroyed in her daughter?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign. They demand close calls of judgment at every stage, to which no answer can be wholly satisfying: in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her first surviving letter, written from the Habsburg court in the Netherlands, why did she call Margaret of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austria a queen when everyone, surely even her lowliest English lady in waiting, knew she was not, or was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she referring to some other queen, and if so, to whom? They require dissection and assessment of a number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of key texts of very different sorts: Cavendish?s )] TJ ET BT 267.308 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life of Wolsey)] TJ ET BT 335.972 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Sir Thomas Wyatt?s verse, Anne and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry?s love letters, Lancelot de Carles?s French poem on the queen?s fate, the wonderful, but sadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unreliable, Spanish chronicle that has Anne calling to her attendant to bring her some marmalade as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signal to convey Mark Smeaton from the cupboard to the waiting queen?s bed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard?s close consideration of such sources has led him at almost every point to conclusions different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from those who have gone before him. He sees Henry as the dominant partner in his relationship with Anne; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the king?s self-restraint, rather than Anne?s determination to surrender for nothing short of wedlock, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key to the long delay in their sexual relations as the divorce campaign dragged on. He suggests, indeed, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they may have slept together for a while and then ceased as the threat presented by an early pregnancy to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy of their hoped-for heir became evident, and cites tellingly in support of the idea the clause in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispensation the king requested in 1527 that would have permitted him to marry a woman with whom he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already had sexual relations. He is equally unconvinced that Anne took a significant role in the divorce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiations or the fall of Wolsey, noting that she could not tell Edward Foxe from Stephen Gardiner and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that she wrote friendly letters to the cardinal, as she very well might do when he was trying to clear the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for her to marry the king. Anne?s demotion fits the view of Henry as a clear-headed driver of policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expounded in Bernard?s )] TJ ET BT 153.656 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The King?s Reformation)] TJ ET BT 271.664 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.664 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.664 215.091 m 288.656 215.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 288.656 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It also fits his analysis of Anne?s religion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ives in particular saw Anne as informedly and committedly evangelical in sentiment and as influential in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advancing reform. For Bernard her attachment to French devotional reading matter was Erasmian rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proto-Protestant and her attachment to ?my bishops?, as she called them in the Tower, a response to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingness to campaign for the divorce rather than their alignment with Luther. For him the evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who praised Anne?s devotion to the gospel in the 1560s, keen to press her daughter into further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform, is outweighed by her own ramblings under arrest, vaunting her good deeds and craving the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrament, and by the controversial sermon her almoner John Skip preached on 2 April 1536, defending the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy and traditional ceremonies against apparently imminent attack. These arguments might be finessed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shaxton, evangelical in the 1530s if not later, was her almoner too, so should she not be held as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for his views as Skip?s? The ceremonies Skip defended ? palms, ashes, holy water ? were )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.0037 766.8775 152.9957 778.7575 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 109.3397 752.6215 123.3317 764.5015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 236.9837 709.8535 250.9757 721.7335 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 426.3077 681.3415 440.2997 693.2215 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.6637 215.4055 288.6557 227.2855 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7484 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandoned only in Edward?s reign, so to defend them under Henry was mainstream rather than reactionary. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly the contention that Anne?s brother?s courtly gambling made him an unlikely Bible translator )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems not to take account of the capacity of contemporaries such as Surrey to mix aristocratic wildness with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pious literary pursuits. Yet here as elsewhere Bernard has certainly done enough to complicate and unsettle, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if not to overturn, the recently accepted view.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On Anne?s fall too he takes his own line. He agrees with most other commentators that her marriage to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry was a mixture of tiffs and devotion, but not such as to explain Henry?s destruction of his wife without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some other factor. For Warnicke that new element was the king?s conviction, sparked by Anne?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miscarriage of a deformed foetus, that Anne had bewitched him. Bernard gives this reconstruction short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shrift, his principal points being that there is no evidence of a deformed foetus and that in any case in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary belief witches caused other people to have deformed children, not themselves. He joins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warnicke, conversely, in rejecting Ives?s view that Anne was destroyed by a court conspiracy engineered by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell. It runs contrary, of course, to his view of the strong Henry, but there are also major problems in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining Cromwell?s motives: he exposes one by one the inadequacy of explanations based on England?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need for diplomatic realignment with the Habsburgs, on Cromwell?s need to survive an assault by more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative courtiers on him and Anne alike, on the advantages for reform of regional government of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removing power-brokers such as Brereton and Norris. None the less he has to resort to the ?he would say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, wouldn?t he? argument at one crucial point, when Cromwell told Chapuys, after the queen?s fall, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he had managed the whole affair: a nice illustration of the way that all the evidence cannot be made to tell a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforward story however hard we try.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The demolition of witchcraft and conspiracy leaves adultery. Here one source comes to the fore, De Carles?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poem which recounts how an aristocratic lady, almost certainly the countess of Worcester, responded to her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brother?s reproaches about her own indiscretions by incriminating the queen. Supporting evidence comes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the shape of the bantering letters about pastime in the queen?s chamber that suggest it was racier than later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depictions of demure godliness might imply, and the queen?s own recollections in the Tower of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard fairly characterises as her ?remarkably flirtatious? chatter with male courtiers. The context is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite as much sketched in as it might be. One element in the foregoing debate on which Bernard does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronounce is Warnicke?s attack on Ives?s account of the conventions of courtly love around the queen, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of which we would need to understand to judge how innocent or otherwise Anne?s jokes with Norris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and others were. Here as elsewhere Bernard remains clear, calm and cautious: it is ?by no means a far-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fetched interpretation of the fragmentary sources available to us? that Anne betrayed Henry with Norris and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceivably with others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The debate on Anne will doubtless continue, and more books will be written, perhaps all the more so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because this is a little too much an argument and not quite enough a life and times to serve as a general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader?s biography of Anne. There are elements of context that are quite properly mentioned ? parallels with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katherine Howard, for instance, or the rich cultural life Anne would have enjoyed at the French and Flemish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts ? but might have been filled out to give us more sense of what was special about Anne. There are a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few slight errors of fact that might confuse the unwary, over such matters as Anne?s father?s title after 1529 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the family relationship between Charles V and Katherine of Aragon \(pp. 40, 57\). Yet it would be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shame if this book did not come into the hands of those outside the narrow circle of Tudor historical debate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would tell them more about the challenge and the fascination of working out what really happened in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry VIII?s England than many a more uncomplicated account of Anne as saint, sorceress or sinner.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 141.075 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. W. Ives, ?Faction at the court of Henry VIII: the fall of Anne Boleyn?, )] TJ ET BT 419.600 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 455.600 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 57 \(1972\), 169?88; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anne Boleyn)] TJ ET BT 125.000 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1986\); )] TJ ET BT 206.984 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn: 'the Most Happy')] TJ ET BT 465.092 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2004\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Stress, faction and ideology in early-Tudor England?, )] TJ ET BT 329.636 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 418.640 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 34 \(1991\), 193?202; ?The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fall of Anne Boleyn reconsidered?, )] TJ ET BT 235.304 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 361.304 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 107 \(1992\), 651?64; ?Anne Boleyn and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early Reformation in England : the contemporary evidence?, )] TJ ET BT 375.284 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 464.288 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 37 \(1994\), )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 9693 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(389?400; ?Anne Boleyn and the Entente vanglique?, in )] TJ ET BT 350.972 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Franois Ier et Henri VIII, deux princes de )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(la Renaissance 1515-1547)] TJ ET BT 191.336 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Charles Giry-Deloison \(Lille, 1996\), 83?102.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.636 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.636 780.819 m 485.624 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Retha M. Warnicke, )] TJ ET BT 164.324 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn: Family Politics at the Court of )] TJ ET BT 483.320 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry VIII )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1989\); ?The fall of Anne Boleyn: a reassessment?, )] TJ ET BT 375.956 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 411.956 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 70 \(1985\), 1?15; ?Anne )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boleyn's childhood and adolescence?, )] TJ ET BT 249.140 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 338.144 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 28 \(1985\), 939?52; ?The eternal triangle )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and court politics: Henry VIII, Anne Boleyn, and Sir Thomas Wyatt?, )] TJ ET BT 402.632 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Albion)] TJ ET BT 434.636 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 18 \(1986\), 565?79; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Sexual heresy at the court of Henry VIII?, )] TJ ET BT 274.280 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 363.284 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 30 \(1987\), 247?68; ?Anne Boleyn )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisited?, )] TJ ET BT 116.672 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 205.676 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 34 \(1991\), 953?4; ?The fall of Anne Boleyn revisited?, )] TJ ET BT 478.628 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 150.344 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 108 \(1993\), 653?65; ?Family and kinship relations at the Henrician court: the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boleyns and Howards?, in )] TJ ET BT 193.664 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tudor Political Culture)] TJ ET BT 307.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Hoak, Dale \(Cambridge, 1995\), 31?53; ?The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventions of courtly love and Anne Boleyn?, in )] TJ ET BT 306.320 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State, Sovereigns & Society in Early Modern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England: Essays in Honour of A. J. Slavin)] TJ ET BT 267.008 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Charles Hope Carlton, Robert L. Woods, Mary L. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robertson and Joseph Block \(Stroud, 1998\), 103?18; ?Anne Boleyn in history, drama, and film?, ?)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(High and Mighty Queens? of Early Modern England: Realities and Representations)] TJ ET BT 467.984 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Carole Levin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jo Eldridge Carney and Debra Barrett-Graves \(New York and Basingstoke, 2003\), 239?56; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Reshaping Tudor biography: Anne Boleyn and Anne of Cleves?, in )] TJ ET BT 395.636 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writing Biography: Historians & )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(their Craft)] TJ ET BT 115.028 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Lloyd E. 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W. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard, ?The fall of Anne Boleyn?, )] TJ ET BT 242.636 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 368.636 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 106 \(1991\), 584?610; ?The fall of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Boleyn: a rejoinder?, )] TJ ET BT 196.988 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 322.988 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 107 \(1992\), 665?74; ?Anne Boleyn's religion?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 153.020 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36 \(1993\), 1?20; ?The fall of Wolsey reconsidered?, )] TJ ET BT 412.952 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of British Studies)] TJ ET BT 535.964 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 35 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1996\), 277?310.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 146.336 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 146.336 467.187 m 200.324 467.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 454.330 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. W. Bernard, )] TJ ET BT 140.660 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The King's Reformation: Henry VIII and the Remaking of the English Church )] TJ ET BT 515.864 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haven, CT, 2005\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 150.668 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 150.668 438.675 m 204.656 438.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Literary Review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.literaryreview.co.uk/marshall_04_10.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 383.907 m 293.996 383.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 296.996 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Open Letters Monthly)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.openlettersmonthly.com/tudors-bernards-theorem/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 355.395 m 333.320 355.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 336.320 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herald)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.heraldscotland.com/arts-ents/non-fiction-reviews/anne-boleyn-fatal-attractions-by-gw-bernard-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 326.883 m 548.564 326.883 l S BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yale-20-1.1028290)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 312.627 m 125.000 312.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 128.000 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2010/jun/11/book-review-anne-boleyn-fatal-attractions/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 284.115 m 495.968 284.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 498.968 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf 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