%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916030007+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916030007+01'00') /Title (Japanese Society at War: Death, Memory and the Russo-Japanese War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4414 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Japanese Society at War: Death, Memory and the Russo-Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Japanese Society at War)] TJ ET BT 152.324 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( deepens our understanding of the impact of the Russo-Japanese War on Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. An accomplished historian who is a Senior Lecturer in Japanese History in the School of Classics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Archaeology at Birkbeck College, University of London, Shimazu?s previous publications include, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Japan, Race, and Equality: The Racial Equality Proposal of 1919 )] TJ ET BT 353.336 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and an edited collection, )] TJ ET BT 473.648 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nationalisms in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Japan)] TJ ET BT 63.344 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 66.344 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 66.344 207.777 m 80.336 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 80.336 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the book under review, she deftly uses primary sources to expose the social and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisions that existed in Japan at the time of the Russo-Japanese War. In demonstrating that Japanese society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not offer unified support to its government?s imperial efforts in Manchuria in 1904, Shimazu shatters the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myth of a homogenous Japan falling in line with the demands imposed upon it by the government at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the start of the book, Shimazu reveals that serious divisions existed in Japanese society at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the 20th century. She accomplishes this first by demonstrating that through ?modern? media, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referring here mainly to photography and cinematography, Japanese people were able to more closely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify with the war in a constructed, manufactured, ?patriotic bubble?. These new media forms, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided viewers with a more graphic depiction of conflict than previously available, resulting not only in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the birth of war reportage in modern terms, but also in fostering the emergence of people questioning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(970)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 October, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naoko Shimazu)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521859349)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(354pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Steinberg)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 66.3437 208.0915 80.3357 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 4872 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point of conflict in general. From here Shimazu offers an analysis about the anti-war movement that grew in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength as war casualties mounted thanks largely to the graphic presentation of the conflict that people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could witness at their local movie theaters. Hence, a new public sphere emerged in Japanese society thanks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely to mass media outlets that fueled popular nationalism. This nationalism expressed itself most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominently in lantern parades that were originally intended to occur as a means to support the war effort. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead they became a forum where people felt free to express themselves, an attribute the government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feared because of the potential such demonstration offered to Japanese people to express their true beliefs. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The government?s worse fears, of course, came true with the Hibiya Riots of 5 September 1905. Shimazu is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careful to inform her readers that, while there is no direct link between the Hibiya Riots and Lantern Parades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a political sense, the latter had given the Japanese a sense of empowerment that came to bear when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of the Peace of Portsmouth were made public. Thus, from the outset of her book, the author reveals the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of a Japanese society that has a developing public identity which the government fears because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the potential of forces opposed to its policies and conduct.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beginning with the second chapter of the book, however, Shimazu emerges as a superb practitioner of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian?s craft through her use of basic primary sources. Her examination of the dairies of Takada Kiichu, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sawada Matashige, Makaida Hatsuichi, Tada Kaizo, Negoro Tokichi, Nakazawa Ichitaro,Iwai Shichigoro, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all soldiers or non-commissioned officer and veterans of the Russo-Japanese War provides readers with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vivid evidence of the war time experiences of common soldiers. Shimazu, however, is not interested in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?war stories? per se. Instead, she focuses on two themes, the first being, the journey that the soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced from their homes to the front where they would ultimately meet the enemy. What emerges from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this research is the story of men who did not necessarily view themselves as ?Japanese? when they left their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homes. Instead, they identified with provincial or local political and social issues. But, on the way to points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of debarkation for the theater of operations, a sense of national identity \()] TJ ET BT 381.608 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kokumin)] TJ ET BT 422.264 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) emerged as a result of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment they received over the course of their journey; hence the idea of being a citizen of a nation comes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of the mobilization of Japanese society in 1904. The other topic that Shimazu presents at this stage of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is the attitude of the soldiers toward dying in battle for their Emperor. Contrary to perceptions at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time of the war, Japanese soldiers thought little of meeting their death prematurely and on a foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battlefield. These revelations alone shatter common perceptions of Japan and the Japanese in 1904?5. After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all, traditional historiography of the Japanese army of the period paints a picture of it prevailing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchuria because of its better training and superior lan. Traditional portraits of the Russo-Japanese War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paint a picture of Japanese soldiers willing to die for their Emperor while Russian soldiers had no such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclination.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7589 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The close analysis of Japanese solders in the Russo-Japanese War provides Shimazu with the information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she needs to dedicate the rest of her book to her main concerns which are death and memory. No one ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese, Russian, Chinese, the over 100 military observers, and the countless journalists and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnesses ? anticipated the extent of the casualties arising from the combat activities of this war; medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(units were completely overwhelmed during and after battles. To cope with this unfolding catastrophe, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese propagandists legitimized the sacrifice of its citizenry by inventing the idea of ?honorable war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death?. While Japanese soldiers paid lip service to the idea, mainly to satisfy wartime censors, Shimazu, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through her use of primary sources, ably demonstrates that they thought very little of dying for the Emperor; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here the stereotypical image of death defying Japanese soldiers is shattered. Instead, the reader learns that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese soldiers maintained discipline and morale through their desire to return home and take care of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families. If a national political element entered into their thinking, it related back to their provincial identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to the emerging sense of national citizenry that the government did not necessarily support because such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas could lead to opposition against the war, and potentially against the government and the nation itself. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, the author?s fine work allows readers to closely identify with Japanese soldiers when she reveals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how these men were overwhelmingly lonely when they went into battle and squarely faced death. Regardless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the propagandistic goal of the ?honorable war death? concept, Japanese soldiers feared death and met it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking of their loved ones instead of the Emperor or the State. Through this analysis, therefore, Shimazu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly exhibits a Japanese soldier who is not unlike most other soldiers going into battle. They were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some type of Asiatic superman who did not fear death or mutilation on the battlefield.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once Shimazu made clear that death on the battlefield was not a preferred option for the soldiers, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(launches a complex explanation of Japanese attitudes toward war dead. Demonstrating incisive consistency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in her analysis, the author reveals how local/provincial officials oversaw the handling and treatment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains of soldiers killed in battle or who later succumbed to war wounds. Even better, particularly for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western readers not familiar with Japanese burial practices, she takes her reader on the commemorative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death journey of a Corporal Nakazato Yoshiji. From this description readers learn that Yoshiji?s remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were interned in seven different sites: battlefield grave, family grave, private family monument, county war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monument, village war monument, army burial ground, and the Yasukuni Shrine. His family had little to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the decisions that culminated in these multiple burials. Only the return of a portion of his remains to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private family monument allowed the family some personal closure for their loss; the bereaved family had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little input into the final disposition of the remains of their loved one. The central point Shimazu seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make through this portion of her manuscript is that in controlling the final internment of the men who came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from their province, the local elites first sought to address local interests and then appealed to patriotism, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually on a local, not a national level. At the time this was occurring, the Japanese government, most likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupied with military concerns, supported the activities of local officials. As this part of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes, however, Shimazu notes that the Yasukuni Shrine was still being consolidated into site of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national war commemoration and, as a result, it did not serve as a national outlet for the remembrance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who sacrificed for the State. From this experience the Japanese government learned that it had to work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harder to link the power of local officials to a national Japanese vision.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having carefully constructed a paradigm that exhibits a diverse society composed of powerful local elites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who sent men to war without a firm idea of being a national citizen embedded in their minds, Shimazu then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on the prime goal of Japanese governmental communication throughout the war. The Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government went into the Russo-Japanese War determined to shatter all perceptions of a medieval, barbaric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan by acting as a civilized nation; civilization, therefore, became the key word of Japanese governmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse in 1904?5. In their effort to fight the war as a civilized state, the Japanese government commanded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that all of its representatives follow international law in their conduct during wartime. So closely did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese government link its proper international conduct to state policy that Shimazu coins the phrase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?humanitarian nationalism? to demonstrate that the Japanese government became determined to shatter all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yellow peril myths by the end of the war. Nothing epitomized this development more than the treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given to Russian prisoners of war. In addition to the treatment of mass casualties, Japanese government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials also had to contend with overwhelming numbers of prisoners of war. By focusing on the activities )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7581 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Matsuyama prison camp, the author ably demonstrates that Russian POWs were treated with such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kindness, particularly by the local population who benefited economically from their presence, that she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Shimazu\) ultimately will describe them as accidental tourists. Japanese officials understood that the entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world was watching them and did not wish to squander the opportunity to properly place themselves on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same international stage as the other Great Powers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Then, in a strong display of her skills as a storyteller and historian, Shimazu uses a hero?s tale, that of naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commander Hirose Takeo, to inform her readers about such wide ranging topics as the Japanese idea of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?God of War,? through representations of modern masculinity, to how his exploits in the Russo-Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War transformed into myth and, along with other heroic war myths, maintained a lasting impression among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Japanese into the 1930s. Hirose died an ?honorable war death? on 27 March 1904 while participating in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naval action designed to impose a blockade on Port Arthur. The naval ministry immediately started the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of propagandizing his death to generate support for the war effort. Shimazu brushes aside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing interpretation of the Hirose hero myth ? that it was a creation of spontaneous popular enthusiasm ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, true to her standards, uses primary sources to exhibit how the navy cultivated this tale. Using the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the )] TJ ET BT 64.676 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de facto)] TJ ET BT 103.004 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( official Japanese naval historian of the war, First-Lieutenant Ogasawara Naganari, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that Hirose?s heroic tale begins in his narratives, something he did for other naval heroes, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Admiral Togo Heihachiro, and then took on a life of its own. What makes this part of her narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful is how the author then demonstrates that Hirose?s tale takes on a life of its own because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way his death was treated on a local level. Hence, his story ends up fitting nicely into Shimazu?s overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the relationship between national and provincial sources of power. In this case they worked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together to propagate the heroism of both a national and local hero. Hirose?s story, in the post 1905 period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became embedded in the national educational curriculum, a part of the national narrative in film, literature, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wood block prints, and even the construction of a bronze statue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pageantry, exhibitions, and film are the three genres of commemoration and remembrance that Shimazu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embraces to inform readers how the lessons and myths of the Russo-Japanese War prevailed in Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society up to the Marco Polo Bridge incident of July 1937. She notes how these genres perpetuated heroic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war myths while gaining significant traction in major urban areas. At one point she notes that Tokyo is able )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to emerge as a center of national power on a new and heighten level because of its prominence in promoting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the memory of the War. Moreover, activities aimed at remembering the war in its proper national context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave political authorities the capability of blending traditional customs and practices with modern media that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together helped to move Japanese society into the 20th century. Her argument gains strength as she spells )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out that, while the Japanese used traditional ideas to define the martial spirit of soldiers, they at the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time used modern thinking to convey ideas of power and technological mastery. Much of this propaganda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also contributed to, and supported, the widely held belief of the period that war was a masculine activity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with women playing a minor support role at best. Ultimately, the propaganda that created war heroes who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became the source of myths that created a spiritual legacy would fade after the Japanese army invaded China )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proper in 1937. Once the Japanese army engaged in combat against the Chinese, the Russo-Japanese War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faded rapidly into the background of conversation and commemoration as a war of a bygone era.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In summation, Naoko Shimazu?s book shatters multiple myths that emerge from the early 20th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about Japan as a militaristic country. Her research demonstrates that Japan, and the Japanese people, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much like the citizens of the rest of the world powers who were engaged in imperial activities. Japan was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a unified nation composed of citizens or subjects who were so blindly loyal to an Emperor that they did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value their lives or the lives of their loved ones. Soldiers went to war with much trepidation, hence they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though little of meeting their end on a foreign battlefield. Civilians on the home front first questioned and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were later outraged by government policies that culminated in the loss of loved ones. Meanwhile, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to the power of provincial authorities and a growing anti-war movement, the national government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strove to develop everything from war monuments to myths designed to commemorate and justify the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardships and ultimately the sacrifices of soldiers in Manchuria. At the same time, the Japanese government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to enhance its international reputation as a great civilized nation by demonstrating that it could treat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian prisoners of war with the respect and dignity warranted to brave combatants regardless of their )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 2339 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Japan?s\) own attitude toward men captured in battle. This shattering of myths allows Shimazu to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantially revise the long standing historiographic interpretation of Japan at this moment in history. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such, her book is a valuable contribution to the literature and should be read widely by all people interested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the period when Japan entered the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.803 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naoko Shimazu, )] TJ ET BT 147.008 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Japan, Race, and Equality: The Racial Equality Proposal of 1919 )] TJ ET BT 466.328 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1998\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nationalisms in Japan)] TJ ET BT 172.028 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Naoko Shimazu \(London, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 353.672 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 353.672 672.531 m 407.660 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 647.669 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan Society)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.japansociety.org.uk/8104/japanese-society-at-war-death-memory-and-the-russo-japanese-war/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 617.763 m 544.220 617.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 547.220 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 614.431 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 596.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 596.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/970)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 595.257 m 322.316 595.257 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 570.280 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 555.880 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5024)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.japansociety.org.uk/8104/japanese-society-at-war-death-memory-and-the-russo-japanese-)] TJ ET BT 539.888 541.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 353.6717 672.8455 407.6597 684.7255 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 618.0775 544.2197 629.9575 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.japansociety.org.uk/8104/japanese-society-at-war-death-memory-and-the-russo-japanese-war/) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 595.5715 322.3157 607.4515 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/970) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000575 00000 n 0000000664 00000 n 0000005130 00000 n 0000005239 00000 n 0000005349 00000 n 0000005458 00000 n 0000009019 00000 n 0000009147 00000 n 0000009231 00000 n 0000009260 00000 n 0000009386 00000 n 0000009422 00000 n 0000009487 00000 n 0000014412 00000 n 0000014477 00000 n 0000022119 00000 n 0000022184 00000 n 0000029818 00000 n 0000029916 00000 n 0000032308 00000 n 0000032436 00000 n 0000032491 00000 n 0000032618 00000 n 0000032770 00000 n 0000032898 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32993 %%EOF