%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 54 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150830021107+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150830021107+01'00') /Title (When London Was Capital of America) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2829 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(When London Was Capital of America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?shock city? of the 18th century , London was always interesting to onlookers, but between 1763 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1776 it was particularly interesting. It was the capital city of one of the most successful Great Powers, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had just emerged the winner in the war with France. Britain had on the whole let others do the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting while it conquered the more desirable parts of the world, both in India and North America. When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting ceased in 1763 it appeared to be dominant in the West, with the decision pending whether to return )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guadeloupe or Canada to the French, the other dominant European power. In the East, Britain?s dominion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stretched ever wider, and over-reached that of France. Who would not want to be a citizen of it?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(971)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 October, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julie Flavell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300137392)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leonard Schwarz)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6620 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The \(to Londoners\) benighted provinces of New England might have their own ideas, but the wealthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabitants of the American South, such as South Carolina, as well as the even wealthier plantation owners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the West Indies knew that there was only one city that mattered, and that was London. Within Europe and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in terms of licking a man into shape and removing his rustic, provincial, not to say colonial ways, it rivalled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paris. Indeed Mercier, the great 18th-century biographer of Paris, declared that London, alone among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European cities, could measure up to Paris. The pre-eminence of London was unaffected by the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Declaration of Independence: ?This great city is an epitome of the whole world?, wrote Benjamin Rush from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadelphia to his son in 1810. ?Nine months spent in it will teach you more by year ?eyes and ears? than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life spent in your native country? \(p. 1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julie Flavell has written a book on North Americans in London in this period, when wealthy and well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected Americans took it for granted that they were a part of this empire, with some even attempting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignore the Declaration of Independence \(it was something that the French insisted upon and surely most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people would ignore it\). The book is on the whole about rich Americans, such as Henry Laurens, a slave-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owner from South Carolina, with a fortune of his own, who did his best to behave honourably ? though not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that honourably ? to his black slave. Other Americans include fortune hunters like Stephen Sayre, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaved as dishonourably as any fortune-seeking Londoner of the time. Originally from Long Island, Sayre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declared that he could not ?bear the thoughts of living in America or starving in England?, and he was as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good as his word. He became a Wilkite, a sheriff for the City of London, had a succession of devoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistresses and in 1775 he married a heiress. So far, nothing exceptional, but then he was arrested, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(released on a charge of high treason and caught up in the American Revolution, with his bank failing. Beside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all ? not necessarily above ? these people stood Benjamin Franklin, about whom a good deal could be said. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether a man \(it was usually a man\) was a slave owner from the South or a planter, maybe absentee, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the West Indies, was not of great concern to Londoners. They were all wealthy slave owners, and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians find it difficult to distinguish between absentee slave owners from the American South and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absentee slave owners from the West Indies \(p. 250\). They might be well-integrated, such as William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beckford, twice Lord Mayor of London, the absentee owner of some 22,000 acres and 3000 slaves in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jamaica, but in England a radical politician and leading Wilkite, they might even be that former London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printers? apprentice and evidently well-connected Benjamin Franklin ? they were all regarded as native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englishmen. ?No taxation without representation? was, after all, the cry of English people everywhere, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether they were in North America or in England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julie Flavell has written a good book about them all. This reviewer is in no position to judge the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side of the story, but the side referring to England, particularly to London, rings true. This is not Hogarth?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London ? that was in any case earlier ? there appears to be only one reference to him, and that in passing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is, on the whole, the town of the nobility and the ambitious.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, and this is to the author?s credit, she does not omit the poor. There is a whole chapter on Henry Laurens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his black servant, Robert Scipio, whom he brought over before the Somerset case in 1772. The Port of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London ? one of the world?s greatest ? had sailors of all races and colours. It imported goods, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tobacco and spices, from everywhere; its sailors, like those of the Navy, also came from everywhere. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising that somebody as well informed as Flavell does not mention Rediker ? unless she should quietly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disapprove of the approach. It is more surprising that she does not mention the work of Linda Colley, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly )] TJ ET BT 92.336 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.336 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.336 176.835 m 259.328 176.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 259.328 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( unless it be that Elizabeth Marsh?s ordeal mostly took place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in India at a slightly later date. One suspects that the publisher insisted upon some pruning, or at least a word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limit. This is the more likely, as the endnotes are full of references, some of them quite recent.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 245.3357 177.1495 259.3277 189.0295 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 9399 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julie Flavell is one of those who insist that no separate ?American? identity pre-existed the Revolution, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Londoners accepted Americans as they did provincials, that the slave states of the South had more in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common with the West Indian islands, and that if people in London thought about it all \(mostly they did not\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was to make a distinction between New England \(provincial, ridden with Puritans, generally backward and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclined to burn witches, if they were only allowed to do so ? in fact rather like Scotland without the clans\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the civilised states to the south.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is clearly a book that Julie Flavell took some trouble to research, and enjoyed writing. She has done it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well. Now for a few criticisms, written from the point of view of somebody who is by no means an historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of America, but of England, particularly of London.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first place, there is too much use of Dorothy George?s )] TJ ET BT 327.620 632.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Life in the Eighteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 512.624 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.624 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.624 630.771 m 529.616 630.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 529.616 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is indeed an excellent book that has deservedly remained in print since its publication in 1925 ? she is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model to all subsequent historians of London, and I am writing as one. It is hard to do better, but the work is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a little dated now. The )] TJ ET BT 144.668 589.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Old Bailey Online)] TJ ET BT 231.992 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is used but reference to some more work by Hitchcock and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shoemaker would have been welcome, though admittedly, it is not easy to see where it would have fitted.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 541.280 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 541.280 573.747 m 555.272 573.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her guide to further reading the author also mentions Rud?s )] TJ ET BT 340.964 560.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hanoverian London)] TJ ET BT 437.960 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(though she does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make much use of it\). Rud was indeed a fine scholar, who regularly blazed new trails, and the obvious man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to turn to when writing a new book on 18th-century London, but )] TJ ET BT 346.988 532.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hanoverian London )] TJ ET BT 446.984 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows signs of being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written in a hurry, and was not among Rud?s finest efforts.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.968 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.968 516.723 m 335.960 516.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, a reliance on Hecht, )] TJ ET BT 183.644 491.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Domestic Servant Class in Eighteenth-Century England )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 475.964 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 475.964 490.467 m 489.956 490.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 489.956 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea, although one can see how such reliance came about. Several books and articles have been published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since then, although the latest, Caroline Steedman?s )] TJ ET BT 286.988 463.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labors Lost. Domestic Service and the Making of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern England )] TJ ET BT 118.676 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.672 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.672 447.699 m 136.664 447.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 136.664 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( probably appeared when this book was in press. Contrary to a common opinion, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(houses only had one maidservant, if that.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirdly ? this can only be the criticism of an English reviewer ? the book is a little too ?American-centred?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not difficult for an English reviewer to take for granted that North Americans felt at home in London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1776, particularly the likes of Henry Laurens, a self-made man and member of the slave-owning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentry of South Carolina, or even a universal man such as Benjamin Franklin, a former London apprentice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who fitted everywhere. This may be a little harder for some traditionalist Americans to accept, and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, aimed mainly at European readers, would have been welcome. The way that Americans ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for that matter Beckford ? seem to have reacted to John Wilkes is noticeable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fourthly, there is the database of Americans living in London before 1776. Flavell has published separately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describing this.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 107.348 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 107.348 281.139 m 121.340 281.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 121.340 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( That article was written at a fairly early stage of the research, did not look beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franklin and Laurens? papers, and estimated the number of Americans in London during the early 1770s as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to 829, at a 95 percent confidence level. Since then, Flavell has done more research, found more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans, and comes up with a figure ?closer to one thousand?, if one includes West Indian planters.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 525.584 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 525.584 238.371 m 539.576 238.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Very likely, but having co-authored an article on the subject, an extra paragraph in the appendix would not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(go amiss, however conservative the estimate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But these are all comparatively minor quibbles. This is a good book, that lives up to expectations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 150.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 119.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 119.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Colley, )] TJ ET BT 133.016 119.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh)] TJ ET BT 283.016 119.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.340 119.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.340 118.083 m 418.328 118.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 105.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dorothy George, )] TJ ET BT 148.328 105.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Life in the Eighteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 333.332 105.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1925\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.656 105.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.656 103.827 m 468.644 103.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 90.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 90.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 89.571 m 218.684 89.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 221.684 90.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 235.676 90.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 9 July 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.416 90.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.416 89.571 m 411.404 89.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 76.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 76.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Rud, )] TJ ET BT 133.664 76.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hanoverian London 1714-1808)] TJ ET BT 285.656 76.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1971\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 366.980 76.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 366.980 75.315 m 420.968 75.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 62.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 62.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Jean Hecht, )] TJ ET BT 133.664 62.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(T)] TJ ET BT 140.336 62.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(he Domestic Servant Class in Eighteenth-Century England )] TJ ET BT 425.984 62.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1958\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.308 62.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.308 61.059 m 558.296 61.059 l S endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 515.6237 631.0855 529.6157 642.9655 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 541.2797 574.0615 555.2717 585.9415 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 321.9677 517.0375 335.9597 528.9175 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 475.9637 490.7815 489.9557 502.6615 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.6717 448.0135 136.6637 459.8935 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 107.3477 281.4535 121.3397 293.3335 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 525.5837 238.6855 539.5757 250.5655 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 364.3397 118.3975 418.3277 130.2775 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.6557 104.1415 468.6437 116.0215 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 89.8855 218.6837 101.7655 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/) >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 357.4157 89.8855 411.4037 101.7655 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 366.9797 75.6295 420.9677 87.5095 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.3077 61.3735 558.2957 73.2535 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 3576 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caroline Steedman?s )] TJ ET BT 168.668 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labors Lost. 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and significance of absenteeism in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century Jamaica?, )] TJ ET BT 206.972 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic Studies,)] TJ ET BT 285.644 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1 \(2004\), 189.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 353.636 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 353.636 723.795 m 407.624 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/01/books/review/Wulf-t.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 669.027 m 339.692 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 342.692 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2010/aug/29/julie-flavell-when-london-was-capital-of-america-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 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