%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221034732+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221034732+00'00') /Title (Containing Trauma: Nursing Work in the First World War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4304 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Containing Trauma: Nursing Work in the First World War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians of nursing in Britain have long been fighting for a place in the history of medicine. For example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 718 pages of text in Roy Porter?s best-selling )] TJ ET BT 285.992 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Greatest Benefit to Mankind)] TJ ET BT 443.312 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, only five are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with nursing, and these, inevitably, with Florence Nightingale and 19th-century hospital reform. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although nurses appear more frequently in Charles Webster?s magisterial two-volume history of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Health Service since the Second World War, there is no sustained discussion of their role, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though they were the largest section of the trained labour force in the National Health Service. There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some excellent general histories of nursing, with seminal overviews of the development of the profession by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Abel-Smith, Christopher Maggs and Monica Baly complemented by the more sociological approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of authors such as Celia Davies and Anne Marie Rafferty. These are indispensable in charting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the nursing profession in 20th-century Britain, but the nature of the professional struggle is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily at the centre of their work. This contrasts with medical history, which traditionally concentrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on advances in medical knowledge, while nursing history rarely discussed the technical aspects of nursing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many medical histories, the nurse?s functions are usually clearly limited within the Nightingale legacy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The nurse is important as the guarantor of hygiene, the dispenser of comfort, and the centre of calm in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often chaotic world of the hospital. Her actual duties are rather vaguely described, and the boundaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the roles of doctor and nurse are not clearly defined. This is, as Celia Davies and others have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(972)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 October, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Hallett)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719079580)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Crowther)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7705 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointed out, because these boundaries were always shifting. Many medical techniques, originally the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(province of doctors, and presented as evidence of medical skill, were passed over to nurses as the scope of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical expertise widened. Using a stethoscope, checking blood pressure, giving intravenous injections, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operating a defibrillator ? all regarded as highly skilled medical tasks when they were introduced ? have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passed into the domain of the nurse, or even further along the chain to paramedics; with the inevitable result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they are redefined as less skilled. The extent of a nurse?s power to diagnose and prescribe varies from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country to country, and is often hotly contested. In a state-run medical system like the British, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always pressure to transfer tasks to nurses, since they are so much cheaper than doctors. As Davina Allen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has written, ?Attempts to fix the nursing role too rigidly are doomed to fail; the content of nursing practice ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is forever changing, both historically and in daily practice, and will continue to do so.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 450.296 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 450.296 666.771 m 464.288 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 464.288 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( She also noted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in the modern British hospital there were pragmatic reasons for nurses taking over medical functions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since it sometimes took so long to get a doctor on to the ward that nurses ended up doing the job themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians and nurses now tend to use the phrase ?nursing work? to define what nurses do, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?nursing?, with its gendered assumption of a link between nursing and feminine domestic instincts. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid 19th century, Florence Nightingale?s admirers believed that she had transposed the female instincts for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cleanliness and nurture into the hospitals. By the mid 20th century, in a neat inversion, doctors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians were attempting to combat the nursing shortage in the National Health Service by arguing that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(girl trained in basic nursing skills would be better prepared for marriage and motherhood. ?Nursing work? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moves the subject firmly out of the home and into the workplace, though as the book reviewed here clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, the perceived link between the nursing and domestic ideals did not break down, even as the technical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expertise of nurses was more widely acknowledged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a historian who is also a nurse, Christine Hallett is well qualified to take up the challenge of writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about nursing work, and what it entailed under the unforeseen strains of total war. She makes her approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear at the beginning, arguing that although there have been many books about nurses, ?yet, remarkably, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these have said very little about the work those nurses actually did? \(p. xi\). The First World War is a central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject in many fine histories of medicine, for, like the Napoleonic wars, it stimulated medical research and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led to the development of new surgical techniques. Nurses certainly featured in histories of the Great War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but less for their importance to the medical endeavour, than for the revelation of women?s endurance under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extreme pressure. The books that leave the most lasting impression of wartime nurses are not histories, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the unforgettable literary accounts by Ernest Hemingway and Vera Brittain. Yet, as Hallett points out, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nurses who were chiefly responsible for the continuing care of wounded men, and for implementing the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(types of wound treatment when the doctors? initial work was done. Hallett emphasizes nurses? work in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holding together both shattered bodies and shattered minds, hence the book?s title. ?Containing trauma? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deals with the techniques for maintaining stability while healing took place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is organized around different aspects of the theme of ?containment?. Containment of physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trauma includes the grosser conditions encountered close to the front: haemorrhage, sepsis, physiological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shock, the effects of toxic gas, and, because nursing work did not end when the patient was beyond hope, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coping with the dying. Under the heading ?relief and restoration?, Hallett describes longer-term treatments, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the aftermath of surgery, handling pain, and rehabilitation. These two sections are focused mainly on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Western Front, and are followed by a chapter on nursing in more far-flung places, particularly in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle East and on hospital ships in the Mediterranean. Although the nurses? living and working conditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were hardly ideal in many of the western hospitals, they were even more basic and badly supplied in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas, and Hallett is concerned not only with the nurses? work, but how they coped with the constant threats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to their own health and efficiency. The next section deals with mental and emotional issues, including shell-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shock, and the final chapter with ?self-containment?, the nurses? relationship with their patients, and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own mental and physical condition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hallett?s main sources are a very wide range of personal accounts from the nurses themselves ? letters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diaries and published memoirs. She has tracked these down in a number of Commonwealth archives as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as in Britain, and so her story also draws on the experiences of Australian, New Zealand and Canadian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nurses. She recognises that each type of source has its own pitfalls. Letters had to be written with the censor )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 450.2957 667.0855 464.2877 678.9655 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7285 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in mind. Memoirs might be unreliable or written for a particular audience. Hallett contends, I think rightly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these objections are less significant when the subject is the everyday work of nurses. Descriptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events and relationships in personal accounts may be distorted for various reasons, but the routine work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nurse, and the techniques she employed, are less likely to be forgotten or elided. In novels written by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nurses, the characters and events may be fictitious, but the descriptions of nursing work are usually rooted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience. These accounts therefore offer cumulative, rather than individual, evidence of nursing work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is engrossing and extremely readable in spite of its appalling subject matter. The tone is set in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first section with the reception of wounded from the front line into the casualty clearing stations. Here the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical team tried to revive patients suffering from physical shock so severe that death might occur before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surgery could begin. In these conditions, the usual boundaries between medical and nursing broke down far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more rapidly than in peacetime conditions. The medical staff struggled to cope with emergency surgery, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so the trained nursing staff took on duties that would not normally fall to them, such as triage, administration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of saline drips and intravenous injections, and the dispensing of stimulant and narcotic drugs. Legally, only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctors could prescribe these, but, as Hallett notes, ?in the tense, urgent atmosphere of a CCS, details of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequency and dosage were often left to [the nurses?] discretion? \(p. 32\). It is interesting that a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these techniques were returned firmly to the medical province after the war, though they moved over to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nurses again in later decades.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the conditions of the Western Front, where wounds were contaminated with mud from agricultural land, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the medical staff were confronted with sepsis that was no longer common in aseptic British hospitals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together with other life-threatening infections such as tetanus and ?gas gangrene?. The nursing staff were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for implementing many of the new research developments aimed at combating infection. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administered the new tetanus injections \(a laborious process\), and the complex Carrel Dakin treatment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constantly irrigating wounds with a weak solution of sodium hypochlorite. Nurses had to care for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparatus as well as the patient. The Carrel Dakin method involved a mass of rubber and glass tubes, all of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which had to be kept sterile. Trained nurses passed on to the volunteers \(VADs\) the time-consuming hospital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(techniques of their own training, with particular emphasis on clean hands. They had also to cope with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects of new wartime technology, using oxygen cylinders for soldiers with lungs full of mustard gas, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sodium bicarbonate lotion for their blinded eyes. Having cared for the wounded in the often primitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions of the clearing stations, nurses were then detailed to accompany them during their journeys to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(base hospitals in overcrowded hospital trains.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A number of personal accounts by wartime nurses were written by VADs like Vera Brittain. They had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minimal training, though many, as a result of their war work, acquired considerable nursing skill. Some, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly literate feminists, wrote accounts of their experiences that were intended to emphasize the essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of women in the war. While drawing on these accounts, Hallett gives more emphasis to the professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nurses who had to manage chaotic situations, while organizing teams of volunteers and orderlies. Under war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions, even the more basic duties of nursing required exceptional administrative skills, as in the account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by one nurse of taking 480 sick and wounded on a hospital train, with a junior nurse, one doctor and two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orderlies. Seeing that all were fed properly was ?a stupendous business? \(p. 108\). VADs could cook and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clean, but the overall organization of these tasks required managerial skills.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hallett?s account of nursing in the distant theatres of war is an interesting contrast to the more familiar story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war in France. In Salonika and the Middle East, nurses worked and lived in tents, with poor supply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines for food, and difficulty in finding clean water. Nurses and patients coped with heat, flies, dust, snow, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mud, enteric diseases and malaria, while those on board the hospital ships off Gallipoli came within firing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range to collect the wounded. Hallett puts all this into perspective, while still concentrating on the work done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by nurses in these extreme conditions. Their own diaries and letters tended to emphasize the ?travel? aspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of foreign places, but Hallett extracts much information on the types of treatment offered and the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nursing work in adverse conditions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her chapter on ?emotional containment?, Hallett ventures into more difficult territory. Nurses had to deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with psychological as well as physical suffering. ?Shell shock? and the trauma of war have continued to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7170 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinate, with Pat Barker?s highly regarded fiction following the story first told by Siegfried Sassoon and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Graves. There were severe cases that required specialized treatment in Britain, but many wounded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers suffered various degrees of trauma that could be ameliorated in comfortable and orderly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surroundings. Hallett argues convincingly that nurses have largely disappeared from the familiar accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological trauma, yet they were responsible for providing the environment that assisted recovery. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the more traditional role of the nurse: restoring cleanliness, peace and order. For men who had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removed from their families, sometimes for years, Hallett argues that nurses represented ?home and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normality?. The relationship between patient and nurse, she contends, had to be asexual, with the nurse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trying to avoid ?both cold, clinical professionalism and romantic attachment? \(p. 178\). Nurses also had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide spiritual comfort for the dying, and remain with them to the end. Hallett is aware of the irony, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasized in Joanna Bourke?s )] TJ ET BT 190.652 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dismembering the Male: Men?s Bodies, Britain and the Great War)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.616 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.616 652.515 m 528.608 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 528.608 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the medical duty of repairing bodies and minds had a primary aim of returning men to face mortal danger. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, she concentrates on the ?artistry? of the nurse, who had to achieve self-containment in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perform her work: ?Nurses protected the psyches of their patients by being available to those who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering. This sounds simple, but was in reality, incredibly difficult to achieve: being with a severely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutilated and psychologically distressed patient and showing neither horror nor fear took some practice? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(158\). Experienced nurses were perhaps better able to meet this challenge, but they could help the VADs to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meet it also.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a fine and moving book. I have two reservations, which do not detract from its value as a historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account. Firstly, Hallett sometimes relaxes her critical approach to her source material. Some of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting accounts are from personal letters, yet these must have been greatly affected, less by the censor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than by the tailoring of news to a particular recipient. If one is looking for sexual attachments in wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nurses, they are hardly likely to appear in letters to parents. Hallett did not entirely convince me that nurses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and officers formed no romantic ties. Traditional footnoting of letters always used to include the recipient as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as sender, and would be particularly desirable in a work like this. Secondly, were there)] TJ ET BT 473.924 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( no)] TJ ET BT 488.924 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( bad nurses in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War I? Following hints from the diaries of Irene Rathbone and Enid Bagnold, Hallett briefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comments that some nurses? outlook ?probably bordered on the callous? \(p. 159\). Since the nurse-patient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship was a mutual one, would soldier?s accounts throw further light on this subject? These are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quibbles. Christine Hallett?s book helps to restore nurses to their rightful place in the front line in coping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the wreckage of war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 321.747 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 291.130 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.125 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davina Allen, )] TJ ET BT 134.336 291.125 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Changing Shape of Nursing Practice. The Role of Nurses in the Hospital Division )] TJ ET BT 64.016 276.869 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Labour)] TJ ET BT 111.692 276.869 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2001\), p. 179.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.016 276.869 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.016 275.475 m 283.004 275.475 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.618 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.613 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanna Bourke, )] TJ ET BT 141.668 262.613 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dismembering the Male: Men?s Bodies, Britain and the Great War)] TJ ET BT 465.632 262.613 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 248.357 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 246.963 m 118.004 246.963 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 222.101 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 207.845 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 193.589 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 192.195 m 240.992 192.195 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 193.589 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 179.333 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Cooperative)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 165.077 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/hah/12.1/br_2.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 163.683 m 337.340 163.683 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.340 165.077 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 160.351 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 142.571 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 142.571 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/972)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 141.177 m 322.316 141.177 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 116.200 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.800 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5032)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=30369)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/hah/12.1/br_2.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 514.6157 652.8295 528.6077 664.7095 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 229.0157 275.7895 283.0037 287.6695 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 247.2775 118.0037 259.1575 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 192.5095 240.9917 204.3895 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=30369) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 163.9975 337.3397 175.8775 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/hah/12.1/br_2.html) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 141.4915 322.3157 153.3715 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/972) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000557 00000 n 0000000639 00000 n 0000004995 00000 n 0000005104 00000 n 0000005214 00000 n 0000005323 00000 n 0000008884 00000 n 0000009012 00000 n 0000009096 00000 n 0000009180 00000 n 0000016938 00000 n 0000016968 00000 n 0000017096 00000 n 0000017132 00000 n 0000017197 00000 n 0000024535 00000 n 0000024654 00000 n 0000031877 00000 n 0000031907 00000 n 0000032035 00000 n 0000032071 00000 n 0000032199 00000 n 0000032254 00000 n 0000032381 00000 n 0000032436 00000 n 0000032563 00000 n 0000032664 00000 n 0000032791 00000 n 0000032904 00000 n 0000033032 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33127 %%EOF