%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 45 0 R 80 0 R 103 0 R 124 0 R 166 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140731172639+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140731172639+01'00') /Title (The Invention of the Jewish People) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4336 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Invention of the Jewish People)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shlomo Sand?s )] TJ ET BT 111.356 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention of the Jewish People)] TJ ET BT 279.668 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which appeared in Hebrew as )] TJ ET BT 430.616 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Matai ve?ekh humtza )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ha?am hayehudi?)] TJ ET BT 119.672 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [)] TJ ET BT 126.668 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(When and How Was the Jewish People Invented)] TJ ET BT 358.292 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?] )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.616 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.616 271.929 m 384.608 271.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.608 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( elicited a thunderous response that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has yet to abate. Beginning with an interesting and very personal introduction, Sand proceeds to engage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronologically, the thought of Jews about their own character as a ?people,? ?nation,? and occasionally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?race? \(sic\), largely by examining the published writings of figures known to scholars in Jewish Studies, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less familiar to historians generally ? including Josephus, Isaak Markus Jost, Heinrich Graetz, Simon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dubnow, Yitzhak Baer, Ben-Zion Dinur, Hans Kohn, and Salo Baron. Sand?s preface to the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language edition states that ?the disparity between what my research suggested about the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish people and the way that history is commonly understood ? not only within Israel but in the larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world ? shocked me as it shocked my [Hebrew] readers? \(p. xi\). Sand insinuates that this ?shock? accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the excitement surrounding the book ? which is a more reasonable assessment regarding its reception in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israel than in the English-speaking world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To his credit, Sand admits that there is almost nothing original in his work, as it is mainly a synthesis and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter-narrative. He writes that ?I found myself being shaken repeatedly as I worked on the composition? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(973)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 October, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shlomo Sand)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781844674220)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(332pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Verso)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Berkowitz)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.6157 272.2435 384.6077 284.1235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 4525 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The moment I began to apply the methods of Ernest Gellner, Benedict)] TJ ET BT 64.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Anderson and others, who instigated a conceptual revolution in the field of)] TJ ET BT 64.016 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( national history, the materials I encountered in my research were illuminated)] TJ ET BT 64.016 705.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by insights that led me in unexpected directions \(p. xi\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 667.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But have not historians of Zionism, such as Steven Zipperstein, Derek Penslar, and David Myers, been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utilizing the ideas of Gellner and Anderson, and other cultural theorists, since their appearance?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.580 653.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.580 651.795 m 507.572 651.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 507.572 653.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indeed, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 638.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakness in historiography, and confusion of history with historiography, render this book deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 624.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic. ?I should emphasize,? Sand continues,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 586.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that I encountered scarcely any new findings ? almost all such material had)] TJ ET BT 64.016 560.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( previously been uncovered by Zionist and Israeli historiographers \(sic\). The)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( difference is that some elements had not been given sufficient attention,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 507.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( others were immediately swept under the historiographers? rug, and still)] TJ ET BT 64.016 481.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( others were ?forgotten? because they did not fit the ideological needs of the)] TJ ET BT 64.016 455.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( evolving national identity. What is so amazing is that much of the information)] TJ ET BT 64.016 428.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cited in this book has always been known inside the limited circles of)] TJ ET BT 64.016 402.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( professional research, but invariably got lost en route to the arena of public)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and educational memory. My task was to organize the historical information)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in a new way, dust off the old documents and continually reexamine them.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 323.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The conclusions to which they led me created a radically different narrative)] TJ ET BT 64.016 297.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from the one I had been taught in my youth \(p. xi\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Had Sand read more carefully Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi?s classic, )] TJ ET BT 355.268 259.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zakhor: Jewish History and Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 245.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memory)] TJ ET BT 74.000 245.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1982\), he would not have been surprised.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 278.960 245.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 278.960 243.699 m 292.952 243.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 292.952 245.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) One of the themes of the book is the ongoing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profound rift, and continuing tension, between ?Jewish history? as seen by scholars and ?Jewish memory?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To write the book Sand professes to write, and to note )] TJ ET BT 296.648 216.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zakhor)] TJ ET BT 331.316 216.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( only fleetingly, by citing it as support for ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of Jewish historiography? \(p. 66, n. 4\), indicates something seriously amiss in the author?s preparation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 188.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for his task. But while he may lack knowledge there is no shortage of bravado, as he laments that)] TJ ET BT 64.016 149.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( few of my colleagues ? the teachers of history in Israel ? feel it their duty to)] TJ ET BT 64.016 123.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( undertake the dangerous pedagogical mission of exposing conventional lies)] TJ ET BT 64.016 97.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( about the past. I could not go on living without writing this book \(p. xi\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of all of the sins of modern Israel, putting their historians in intellectual straight-jackets and censoring their )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 493.5797 652.1095 507.5717 663.9895 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 278.9597 244.0135 292.9517 255.8935 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 9186 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing is not high on the list.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 175.700 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 175.700 795.075 m 189.692 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similar to the buzz that accompanied Daniel Goldhagen?s )] TJ ET BT 315.968 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitler?s Willing Executioners )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 462.296 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 462.296 768.819 m 476.288 768.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 476.288 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(and likewise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(netted its author hefty returns\), there are many expressing strong opinions about Sand?s book who do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem to have read it, and have little or no basis for offering an informed judgment as to its merits or defects. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What Sand shares with Goldhagen is the reason for their books' flying off the \(actual and virtual\) shelves: an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent willingness and passion to simplify and distort scholarly discourse in order to produce a seductive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monocausal explanation. This fires the gut-instinct of thousands of avid readers who style themselves as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educated ? yet who mainly seek scholarly sanction for their existing worldview. For both Goldhagen and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sand this is marketing to the converted and giving them what they want which is not to say, though, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldhagen and Sand are in any doubt as to the veracity of their arguments. The reception of )] TJ ET BT 478.592 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Jewish People)] TJ ET BT 120.668 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, like )] TJ ET BT 147.668 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitler?s Willing Executioners)] TJ ET BT 290.996 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, has been dominated by emotion. We can assume that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sand?s brisk sales \(outside of Israel\) primarily are of those of the ?for? camp ? those in agreement about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree to which the Jewish people was ?invented? for Zionist and Israeli purposes. The cover of the \(British\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English-language edition, in bold Zionist azure, acclaims its status as an ?INTERNATIONAL )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BESTSELLER?. The myth of the Jewish people, as propagated by modern Israel, in Sand?s terms, exists in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inverse proportion to the authentic historical basis of Jewry?s claim to peoplehood, and even more tenuously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and disturbingly\), its ancestral homeland of Palestine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet there is a bizarre symmetry to this book, as a phenomenon, and Sand?s argument about Israel. Sand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infers that Jews are not an authentic people \(compared to other nations\), and Israel, contrary to the old tourist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slogan, is not ?real?. With a little critical distance, it is possible to criticize this book as a far cry from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?real? work of scholarship. It is flimsy, haphazardly built, slap-dash. There is no foundation in archival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, and Sand does not seem to have fully read \(or understood\) many of the secondary works on which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his thesis relies. He apparently has never heard of Aviel Roshwald and George Mosse, who are among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first names that should spring to mind in any consideration of Jews and nationalism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.996 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.996 443.187 m 451.988 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 451.988 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Shlomo Sand may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a genius for cultivating and managing the hype for his book. But its success as a ?bestseller? is no more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicative of the insight of his argument than, he might say, Israel?s military prowess reflects a humane and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic national character.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With some exceptions, )] TJ ET BT 146.672 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention of the Jewish People)] TJ ET BT 314.984 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has been ardently embraced by those who wish to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either weaken or totally undermine the relationship between Jews, Zionism, and the territory that became the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(State of Israel. Interestingly, it is not as hostile to Zionist ideology and the foundational legitimacy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(State of Israel as are two recent books published under the same imprint: )] TJ ET BT 386.288 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Returns of Zionism: Myths, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics, and Scholarship in Israel)] TJ ET BT 198.356 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Gabriel Piterberg and )] TJ ET BT 322.664 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Plowshares Into Swords: From Zionism to Israel)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, by Arno J. Mayer.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.664 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.664 302.883 m 141.656 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 141.656 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Sand?s book is superior to those of Piterberg and Mayer. )] TJ ET BT 420.284 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention of the Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(People)] TJ ET BT 67.340 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also is more serious than )] TJ ET BT 191.996 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Time Immemorial )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 310.316 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 310.316 288.627 m 324.308 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 324.308 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Joan Peters, which tried to do to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestinian Arabs what Sand does with Israeli Jews ? show that they aren?t really a ?people? and that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim to Palestine is dubious.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With somewhat less exuberance compared to those calling for the outright destruction of Israel, )] TJ ET BT 495.596 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Invention of the Jewish People)] TJ ET BT 181.328 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has been championed by those who share the author?s demand for a dramatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift in the way that Israel defines itself, and its treatment of those who do not fit Israeli officialdom?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly narrow concept of the proper constitution of the state and its highly contested occupied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territories. One suspects that that are many more who support the aims of the book than are impressed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its execution. Sand is not, as one might think from much of the clamor, asking for Israelis to fold their tents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and go elsewhere ?as much as this sentiment may propel the robust sales of the book. He is slightly more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumspect, at least in terms of rational expectations: ?if it is senseless to expect the Jewish Israelis to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismantle their own state, the least that can be demanded of them is to stop reserving it for themselves as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polity that segregates, excludes, and discriminates against a large number of its citizens, whom it views as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undesirable aliens? \(p. 312\). But there are any number of books with similar underlying sympathies that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprise more formidable contributions to scholarly discussion, and lead to greater comprehension of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the current state of affairs came to be. Sand is not in the same league with the best of Israel?s ?new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians? such as Avi Shlaim, Gershon Shafir, and Amnon Raz-Kratkotzkin )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 409.304 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 409.304 48.531 m 423.296 48.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 423.296 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and he has not excavated )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.6997 795.3895 189.6917 807.2695 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 462.2957 769.1335 476.2877 781.0135 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 437.9957 443.5015 451.9877 455.3815 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.6637 303.1975 141.6557 315.0775 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 310.3157 288.9415 324.3077 300.8215 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 409.3037 48.8455 423.2957 60.7255 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R 51 0 R 54 0 R 57 0 R 60 0 R 63 0 R 66 0 R 69 0 R 72 0 R 75 0 R 78 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 9698 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the deep structures of Zionist politics and Israeli culture as have, say, Meron Bevenisti, Mitchell Cohen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yael Zerubavel, Derek Penslar, and most recently, Arieh Bruce Saposnik.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 388.268 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 388.268 780.819 m 408.260 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To a much lesser extent than high-pitched praise or condemnation, )] TJ ET BT 356.960 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention of the Jewish People)] TJ ET BT 525.272 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been subject to more mundane academic scrutiny about whether or not it is a good book ? although these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviews often reveal political overtones as well. It is indeed possible, however, to sympathize with Sand?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, while simultaneously calling into question the book?s merits as a contribution to scholarship. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the fundamental problem with this book, which also applies to the above mentioned works of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldhagen, Piterberg, and Mayer, is that the thesis runs way ahead of the supposedly dispassionate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation \(despite Sand?s protest to the contrary\), and therefore the book assumes the character more of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal brief than a scholarly monograph.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In another respect Sand?s book belongs to a self-consciously incendiary, or gadfly-like trend in Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies ? which ironically, is rather quaint. What's more Jewish than a Jewish intellectual saying that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyone else has got it wrong? The Jewish studies field is no stranger to books that style themselves as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audacious. Almost every few weeks works appear that aspire to debunk, or aggressively challenge some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect of received wisdom concerning the Jewish experience. One of the most successful of the recent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intentionally destabilizing books in Jewish history is Yuri Slezkine?s )] TJ ET BT 368.348 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jewish Century)] TJ ET BT 463.676 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 466.676 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 466.676 557.235 m 486.668 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 486.668 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Slezkine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacked the notion that Jews in Europe and the United States had largely assimilated, acculturated, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise accommodated themselves to the powers-that-be and dominant mind-sets of their host )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities. No, Slezkine writes, they helped make the world into something they thought would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amenable to themselves ? which had, however, unforeseen consequences. As much as Slezkine?s book was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongly criticized by many experts, it stands on far sounder footing than Sand?s )] TJ ET BT 422.636 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Invention of the Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(People)] TJ ET BT 67.340 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It is truly brilliant, while Sand's book is, well, plodding and dull.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short, Sand wishes to convey the message that Jews, as a collective entity in the modern world, have an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unusually slender claim on people-hood, or status as a nationality, and even worse, a particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questionable tie to Palestine and the Land of Israel. Didn?t Hobsbawm and Ranger tell us, some time ago, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that all of modern nationalism, and claims on tradition since the 18th century, were ?invented??)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.280 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.280 402.675 m 513.272 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 513.272 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Is there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything new or different in Sand?s grab-bag? Even the establishment Zionist historians such as Walter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laqueur and David Vital were emphatic that the nationalist impulse was largely dormant, if not moribund, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until Herzl came on the scene.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.312 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.312 359.907 m 199.304 359.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 199.304 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Carl Schorske, in his seminal essay on ?Politics in a new key? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 503.276 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 503.276 359.907 m 523.268 359.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminded us how Herzl thought to ?shake the tree that fantasies had planted?, conspicuously drawing on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of Bismarck's appropriation of myths and symbols in his creation of a unified Germany. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schorske, and even Herzl, evince infinitely more historical savvy than Sand. Although there were obviously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different preconditions, including shockingly few prerequisites for Jewish statehood in 1896, Herzl saw that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own effort at nation-building demanded practices akin to those of Bismarck.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.296 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.296 288.627 m 437.288 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sand does not seem to understand the complex relationships and tensions between Central European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalisms and Zionism, as illuminated by scholars such as Mark Gelber, Steve Aschheim, and Adi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gordon.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.676 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.676 233.859 m 93.668 233.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 93.668 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Sand likewise falls flat in several comparisons with France. Sand, appropriately, cites the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundational work on the erection of the French nation by Eugen Weber, )] TJ ET BT 386.276 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peasants Into Frenchmen: The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernization of Rural France)] TJ ET BT 185.012 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 188.012 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 188.012 205.347 m 208.004 205.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 208.004 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet he fails to appreciate that nationalization, as expertly detailed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weber's classic, is a process. What makes )] TJ ET BT 237.788 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peasants Into Frenchmen)] TJ ET BT 361.100 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( so remarkable is its survey of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remote most Frenchmen were to national ideals, even well into the nineteenth century. Given Sand's old-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashioned type of 'history of ideas' that favors 'great men' \(as much as he means to criticize them\), it is little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonder that signal moments are given short shrift. To give but four examples: James Renton has shown, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his analysis of the politics surrounding the inception and early implementation of the Balfour Declaration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1917\), how much Zionism was shaped by British perceptions of race, nationality, and empire.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.288 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.288 119.811 m 508.280 119.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regarding the United States, Marc Dollinger argues that American Jewish expectations and ideals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning Zionism came to be bifurcated with their liberalism at home, beginning with the rise of Hitler.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 77.043 m 54.008 77.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Zeev Mankowitz, and later Avi Patt discuss how Zionism came to be seen as agreeable to a broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish consensus in the aftermath of the Holocaust, in part through the agency of Jewish Displaced Persons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.344 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.344 48.531 m 110.336 48.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 110.336 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In terms of understanding how modern Israel, after 1967, emerged as it did, Sand might )] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 388.2677 781.1335 408.2597 793.0135 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 466.6757 557.5495 486.6677 569.4295 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 493.2797 402.9895 513.2717 414.8695 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.3117 360.2215 199.3037 372.1015 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 503.2757 360.2215 523.2677 372.1015 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.2957 288.9415 437.2877 300.8215 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.6757 234.1735 93.6677 246.0535 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 188.0117 205.6615 208.0037 217.5415 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 71 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 488.2877 120.1255 508.2797 132.0055 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 74 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 77.3575 54.0077 89.2375 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 77 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 90.3437 48.8455 110.3357 60.7255 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 83 0 R 86 0 R 89 0 R 92 0 R 95 0 R 98 0 R 101 0 R ] /Contents 81 0 R >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Length 9061 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have turned to the trenchant analysis of Gideon Aran, who examines how the ideology of Gush Emunim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(literally, the ?Block of the Faithful,? a combination of religious fundamentalism and integral, right wing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism\) infiltrated the Zionist mainstream.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.008 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.008 766.563 m 281.000 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 281.000 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These were critical junctures where, it may be said, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish people were 're-invented'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Generally speaking, the author also underestimates the radicalization of Zionist Revisionism \(the right-wing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-socialist, militaristic branch of the movement\) during the Second Word War, as recently illuminated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colin Shindler )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 107.360 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 107.360 697.539 m 127.352 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 127.352 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and too easily subsumes their luminaries, Joseph Klausner and Vladimir Jabotinsky, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the mainstream. Zionists continually defined themselves over and against each other. None of this is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deny that Israel, especially since the 1990s, has lurched toward policies normally associated with European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right-wing nationalism, Christian and Islamic religious extremism, and racist xenophobia. Sand paints this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as part of a long-term, intentional progression, as largely a reaction against its ephemeral people-hood. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this he misses or undervalues a great number of salient points. The study of accommodation to right-wing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideologies in the name of consolidating power \(especially during and after wartime\), the piecemeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integration of religious fundamentalism, restrictions on liberties of individuals and minority groups in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name of national security, and greed under the guise of national self-interest may not be sensational, or sexy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways to move books ? but they remain a large part of the story.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Sand's bizarre concoction, nearly everyone who written about the Jews, in any collective form, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed toward the venal fiction of a Jewish nation. If not, the engines of nationalization have done their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utmost to muzzle or force-fit them into the mold. He includes a few generous assessments of Israel's 'new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians' and 'post-Zionist' thinkers, despite the harsh appraisal of his colleagues at the book?s outset. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relies too heavily, however, on Paul Wexler?s controversial linguistic theory of ?relexification? in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historicize the growth and sustenance of medieval and early modern Jewish communities.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.612 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.612 471.699 m 484.604 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 484.604 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The shining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of a counter-narrative, which Sand sees as decisive, is the 'Khazar' theory, asserting that European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewry was largely the consequence of a mass conversion in the 8th century. As much as some aspects of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episode have been substantiated, the scale of conversion suggested by its proponents is highly questionable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the theory is still too reliant on supposed similarities between ?Khazars? and European Jews. But it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains an extremely attractive theory to those who maintain that there is no connection whatsoever between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewry, historically, and Palestine. This is one of numerous segments of the book that can be easily picked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apart. Likewise he pays too little attention to the interplay between rootedness in the diaspora and the sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a primordial, national homeland of ?Zion? in Jewish discourses; that ?exile?, consciousness of ?Zion?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and belongingness in the diaspora could exist simultaneously, as opposed to being mutually exclusive.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 525.656 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 525.656 343.395 m 545.648 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sand's handling of investigations into Jewish heredity and genetics, which he conflates with 'race science', is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likewise ham-handed. He does not, for instance, grasp the extent to which much of this work, such as that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pioneered by Tudor Parfitt, explicitly contradicts the absurd notion of a 'Jewish race'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 442.268 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 442.268 300.627 m 462.260 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is indeed true that it took a great amount of effort to nationalize Jews in the form of modern politics. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities were creative and borrowed heavily from the cultures Jews knew, as the historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigations of scholars such as David Myers and Natalia Aleksiun have shown.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 427.292 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(26\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 427.292 245.859 m 447.284 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 447.284 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But one of the things )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon which Jews generally agreed is that they, somehow, comprised a people ? not exclusively a fragmented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious community. Rather than ?religious? and ?national? being distinct categories and diametrically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed, many facets of Jewish life and culture embodied both. The challenge to the national-minded among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Jews was to make the national dimension vital, meaningful, and the pretext for action. Zionism was, after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all, but one of several manifestations of nationalism, while the )] TJ ET BT 335.984 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bund)] TJ ET BT 361.316 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which envisioned national-cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autonomy in Europe based on Yiddish culture, was a more popular alternative in late 19th and early 20th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Eastern Europe.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 149.648 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 149.648 146.067 m 169.640 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 169.640 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( When Herzl proclaimed in )] TJ ET BT 303.272 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Der Judenstaat)] TJ ET BT 376.928 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?we are a people, one people?, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fervently believed it to be true. The problem was not whether or not Jews were a people ? but what kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people they should become, and the specific means by which they should transform themselves. According )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Sand, though, the Roman Empire, Christendom, and Islamic civilization must have suffered fantastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common delusions in recognizing Jewry as a people, as well as members of a religious community. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern nationalization of Jewry was a process that began late, and proceeded with fits and starts. Yet the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion that a Jewish nationality, )] TJ ET BT 190.016 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se)] TJ ET BT 219.008 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was something that had to be conjured from thin air makes little )] TJ ET endstream endobj 82 0 obj [80 0 R /Fit] endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 84 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.0077 766.8775 280.9997 778.7575 ] >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 85 0 obj [80 0 R /Fit] endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 87 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 107.3597 697.8535 127.3517 709.7335 ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 88 0 obj [80 0 R /Fit] endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 90 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 464.6117 472.0135 484.6037 483.8935 ] >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 91 0 obj [80 0 R /Fit] endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 93 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 525.6557 343.7095 545.6477 355.5895 ] >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 94 0 obj [80 0 R /Fit] endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 96 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 442.2677 300.9415 462.2597 312.8215 ] >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 97 0 obj [80 0 R /Fit] endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 99 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 427.2917 246.1735 447.2837 258.0535 ] >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 100 0 obj [80 0 R /Fit] endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 102 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 149.6477 146.3815 169.6397 158.2615 ] >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 106 0 R 108 0 R 110 0 R 112 0 R 114 0 R 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R 122 0 R ] /Contents 104 0 R >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Length 9876 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly Zionism and other varieties of Jewish nationalism did not have to materialize as they did. In 1982 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Vital, a colleague of Sand?s from Tel Aviv University, asserted that Zionist historiography suffered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from perceiving the ascendance, and dominant institutions of the movement, as )] TJ ET BT 417.632 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fait accompli)] TJ ET BT 480.632 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally, from Zionist and Hebrew-centered parochialism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.944 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(28\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.944 726.051 m 338.936 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 338.936 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But the idea that Jewish society would, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different times and places, come to assume various national forms, is not shocking. That there should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissonance between what academic historians understand as the emergence of a nation, versus the way that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that nation chooses to represent itself, is not in the least bit surprising. Nations are supremely guilty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading backwards, and seeing continuity and consistency where it does not belong ? making the peoplehood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its own nation a dominant motif, as well as a value unto itself. Sand himself says: ?Every large human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group that thinks of itself as a people, even if it never was one and its past is entirely imaginary, has the right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to national self-determination?. But then he qualifies: ?This does not, of course, give a particular group that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees itself as a people the right to dispossess another group of its land in order to achieve its self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination? \(p. 282\). Sand seems to have missed the point: that this is, far too often, what nationalism has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been about.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Matai ve?ekh humtza ha?am hayehudi?)] TJ ET BT 255.320 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [)] TJ ET BT 262.316 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(When and How Was the Jewish People Invented)] TJ ET BT 493.940 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?] \(Tel Aviv, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 503.715 m 149.000 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2 Steven J. Zipperstein, )] TJ ET BT 180.008 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elusive Prophet: Ahad Ha?am and the Origins of Zionism)] TJ ET BT 463.004 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, CA, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\); Zipperstein, )] TJ ET BT 159.008 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imagining Russian Jewry: Memory, History, Identity)] TJ ET BT 415.640 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Seattle, WA, 1999\); Derek )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Penslar, )] TJ ET BT 116.012 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Israel in History: The Jewish State in Comparative Perspective)] TJ ET BT 422.984 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2007\); Penslar, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Radio and the Shaping of modern Israel, 1936?1973,? in )] TJ ET BT 343.640 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nationalism, Zionism, and the Ethnic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mobilization of the Jews in 1900 and Beyond)] TJ ET BT 281.012 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Michael Berkowitz \(Leiden, 2004\), pp. 61?82; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penslar, )] TJ ET BT 105.344 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zionism and Technocracy: The Engineering of Jewish Settlement in Palestine, 1870?1918)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Bloomington, IN, 1991\); David N. Myers, )] TJ ET BT 274.004 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Re-Inventing the Jewish Past: European Jewish )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Intellectuals and the Zionist Return to History)] TJ ET BT 285.356 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1995\), Myers, )] TJ ET BT 419.324 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Resisting History: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historicism and Its Discontents in German-Jewish Thought )] TJ ET BT 353.012 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 2003\). Only Myers, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Re-Inventing the Jewish )] TJ ET BT 182.324 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Past, is mentioned in )] TJ ET BT 285.332 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inventing the Jewish People)] TJ ET BT 420.308 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in a footnote, p. 96, n. 90.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 346.899 m 118.004 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It appeared originally as the Stroum Lectures with the University of Washington Press \(Seattle 1982\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 318.387 m 118.004 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although not considered a ?new historian,? the work of anthropologist Nachman Ben-Yehuda, a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former Dean of the Hebrew University, may be seen as iconoclastic; see Nachman Ben-Yehuda, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sacrificing Truth: Archaeology and the Myth of Masada)] TJ ET BT 338.000 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Amherst, NY, 2003\); Ben-Yehuda, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Assassinations by Jews: A Rhetorical Device for Justice)] TJ ET BT 380.324 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Albany, NY, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.972 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.972 261.363 m 536.960 261.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 248.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published originally by Vintage Books. For a comprehensive treatment, see )] TJ ET BT 432.980 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The ?Goldhagen Effect?: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History, Memory, Nazism)] TJ ET BT 187.340 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Geoff Eley \(Ann Arbor, MI, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.624 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.624 232.851 m 434.612 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 219.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aviel Roshwald, )] TJ ET BT 147.680 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Endurance of Nationalism: Ancient Roots and Modern Dilemmas)] TJ ET BT 485.996 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006\); George L. Mosse, )] TJ ET BT 187.328 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Confronting the Nation: Jewish and Western Nationalism)] TJ ET BT 467.012 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hanover, NH, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\); see also Mosse?s foundational )] TJ ET BT 246.992 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Third Reich)] TJ ET BT 121.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1964\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.652 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.652 175.827 m 292.640 175.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 162.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both published by Verso, London, 2008. For a polemic from across the divide, likewise appealing to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a predictable subculture, see Yoram Hazony, )] TJ ET BT 282.620 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jewish State: The Struggle for Israel?s Soul )] TJ ET BT 520.952 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, NY, 2001\). Hazony alleges that Zionism was undermined by the founding professoriat of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hebrew University and leftists in its midst, and that ?real? Zionism as conceived by Herzl and Nordau )] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was regenerated in the right-wing variety advocated by Vladimir Jabotinsky and the Revisionists; see )] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David N. Myers, ??Hazono Shel Hazony?: or ?Even If You Will It, It Can Still Be a Dream??, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Israel Studies)] TJ ET BT 129.680 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 6, 2 \(Summer 2001\), 107?17.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.668 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.668 76.035 m 330.656 76.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 63.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joan Peters, )] TJ ET BT 124.340 63.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Time Immemorial: The Origins of the Arab-Jewish Conflict over Palestine)] TJ ET BT 511.652 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(San )] TJ ET BT 64.016 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francisco, 1984\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 147.668 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 147.668 47.523 m 201.656 47.523 l S endstream endobj 105 0 obj [103 0 R /Fit] endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 107 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 318.9437 726.3655 338.9357 738.2455 ] >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 109 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 504.0295 148.9997 515.9095 ] >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 110 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 111 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 347.2135 118.0037 359.0935 ] >> endobj 111 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 112 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 113 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 318.7015 118.0037 330.5815 ] >> endobj 113 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 114 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 115 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 482.9717 261.6775 536.9597 273.5575 ] >> endobj 115 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 116 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 117 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 380.6237 233.1655 434.6117 245.0455 ] >> endobj 117 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 118 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 119 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 238.6517 176.1415 292.6397 188.0215 ] >> endobj 119 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 120 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 121 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 276.6677 76.3495 330.6557 88.2295 ] >> endobj 121 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 122 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 123 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 147.6677 47.8375 201.6557 59.7175 ] >> endobj 123 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 39 0 R >> endobj 124 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 126 0 R 128 0 R 130 0 R 132 0 R 134 0 R 136 0 R 138 0 R 140 0 R 142 0 R 144 0 R 146 0 R 148 0 R 150 0 R 152 0 R 154 0 R 156 0 R 158 0 R 160 0 R 162 0 R 164 0 R ] /Contents 125 0 R >> endobj 125 0 obj << /Length 13058 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Avi Shlaim, )] TJ ET BT 125.024 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Israel and Palestine: Reappraisals, Revisions, Refutations)] TJ ET BT 407.684 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2009\), Gershon )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shafir, )] TJ ET BT 99.344 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Being Israeli: The Dynamics of Multiple Citizenship)] TJ ET BT 353.672 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2002\); Amnon Raz-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Krakotzkin, ?History textbooks and the limits of Israeli consciousness?, in )] TJ ET BT 423.980 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Israeli Historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revisionism from Left and Right)] TJ ET BT 219.356 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Anita Shapira and Derek J. Penslar \(London, 2003\), pp. 155?72.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 738.051 m 118.004 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meron Benvenisti, )] TJ ET BT 156.344 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conflicts and Contradictions)] TJ ET BT 295.700 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1986\); Mitchell Cohen, )] TJ ET BT 497.672 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zion and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State: Nation, Class, and the Shaping of Modern Israel)] TJ ET BT 331.688 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1992\); Yael Zerubavel, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Recovered Roots: Collective Memory and the Making of Israeli National Tradition)] TJ ET BT 464.984 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, IL, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995\); Penslar, )] TJ ET BT 139.676 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zionism and Technocracy)] TJ ET BT 264.332 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; Arieh Bruce Saposnik, )] TJ ET BT 382.652 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Becoming Hebrew: The Creation of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a Jewish National Culture in Ottoman Palestine)] TJ ET BT 295.364 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 413.000 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 413.000 666.771 m 472.988 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published by Princeton University Press.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.348 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.348 652.515 m 320.336 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 639.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention of Tradition)] TJ ET BT 191.024 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger, \(Cambridge, 1988\). This )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared in 1983.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 149.660 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 149.660 624.003 m 209.648 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walter Laqueur, )] TJ ET BT 145.652 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Zionism)] TJ ET BT 245.996 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1976\); David Vital, )] TJ ET BT 429.296 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of Zionism)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1975\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.664 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.664 595.491 m 199.652 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carl E. Schorske, ?Politics in a new key?, )] TJ ET BT 267.656 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fin-de-siecle Vienna: Politics and Culture )] TJ ET BT 478.304 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NY, 1981\), p. 165.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.340 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.340 566.979 m 214.328 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 554.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Berkowitz, )] TJ ET BT 162.332 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zionist Culture and West European Jewry before the First World War)] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.336 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.336 538.467 m 218.324 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 525.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark H. Gelber, )] TJ ET BT 146.324 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Melancholy Pride: Nation, Race, and Gender in the German Literature of Cultural )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zionism)] TJ ET BT 102.692 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Tbingen, 2000\); Steven E. Aschheim, )] TJ ET BT 299.672 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Times of Crisis: Essays on European Culture, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Germans, and Jews)] TJ ET BT 158.336 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Madison, WI, 2001\); Adi Gordon, )] TJ ET BT 332.648 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brith Shalom and Bi-National Zionism: The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Arab Question? as a Jewish Question)] TJ ET BT 251.012 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(in Hebrew\) \(Yerushalayim, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 423.632 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 423.632 481.443 m 483.620 481.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 468.586 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eugene Weber, )] TJ ET BT 140.984 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peasants Into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870-1914)] TJ ET BT 501.284 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Palo Alto, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(CA, 1976\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 117.680 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 117.680 452.931 m 177.668 452.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 440.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Renton, )] TJ ET BT 137.012 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Zionist Masquerade: The Birth of the Anglo-Zionist Alliance, 1914-1918)] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Houndmills, Basingstoke, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.352 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.352 424.419 m 286.340 424.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 411.562 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marc Dollinger, )] TJ ET BT 144.332 411.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Quest for Inclusion: Jews and Liberalism in Modern America)] TJ ET BT 443.312 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 395.907 m 124.004 395.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 383.050 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zeev W. Mankowitz, )] TJ ET BT 168.992 383.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life Between Memory and Hope: The Survivors of the Holocaust in Occupied )] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Germany)] TJ ET BT 108.668 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2002\); Avinoam J. Patt, )] TJ ET BT 312.644 368.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Finding Home and Homeland: Jewish Youth and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zionism in the Aftermath of the Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 269.024 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Detroit, MI, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.676 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.676 353.139 m 424.664 353.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 340.282 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gideon Aran, ?The Father, the Son, and the Holy Land: the spiritual authorities of Jewish-Zionist )] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentalism in Israel,? in )] TJ ET BT 206.996 326.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spokesmen for the Despised: Fundamentalist Leaders of the Middle )] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(East)] TJ ET BT 85.352 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. Scott Appleby \(Chicago, IL, 1997\), pp. 294?327.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 358.328 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 358.328 310.371 m 418.316 310.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 297.514 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colin Shindler, )] TJ ET BT 140.360 297.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Triumph of Military Zionism)] TJ ET BT 299.048 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 308.384 297.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nationalism and the Origins of the Israeli Right )] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 281.859 m 202.328 281.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 269.002 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Wexler, )] TJ ET BT 129.668 268.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Two-tiered Relexification in Yiddish: Jews, Sorbs, Khazars, and the Kiev-Polessian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialect)] TJ ET BT 99.344 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.652 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.652 253.347 m 253.640 253.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 240.490 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Erich S. 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