%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818071420+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818071420+01'00') /Title (Gender and Change: Agency, Chronology and Periodisation) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4187 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Gender and Change: Agency, Chronology and Periodisation)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This edited collection of essays, published to mark the 20th anniversary of the journal )] TJ ET BT 448.964 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender and History)] TJ ET BT 544.952 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a welcome and timely reminder of the way in which gender and women?s history has successfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenged historical orthodoxies, has been used to scrutinize and enrich established timeframes for the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and has vividly exposed the way in which female agency has too often been rendered invisible in grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives of the past. As we look back on 40 years since the emergence of the Women?s Liberation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Movement and the subsequent, albeit slow, recognition of women?s and gender history within academia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there can be no more appropriate a moment to reflect on how the writing of history has been altered and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped by the gendering of historical research. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essays included in this publication, which first appeared as volume 20, issue three of )] TJ ET BT 464.288 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender and History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, present a fascinating, wide-ranging and critical examination of the use of gender as a category for historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis. The essays demand that we as historians re-think and question long held assumptions regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classic historical categorisation in light of what we now know about the different experiences of men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women throughout history. In the chapters that challenge standard periodisation, the criteria utilised to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(define the period is questioned now that the contrasting experiences of men and women have been brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the fore and the existence of women?s agency proven where little had been previously detected. This does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(975)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 October, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexandra Shepard)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Garthine Walker)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781405192279)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiley-Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chichester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caitriona Beaumont)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7687 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not mean that the overall objective of the authors is to reject the long view of history \(no one is advocating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throwing the baby out with the bathwater\). Indeed, as the editors correctly argue ?the discipline of history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot afford to be without the perspective this [the long view] allows, since the conventional timeframes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are constructively enriched and challenged by gender history and the analysis of women?s agency in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past? \(p. 10\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second but equally important objective of the editors, Alexandra Shepard and Garthine Walker, is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encourage a greater chronological depth when it comes to the field of women?s and gender history. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judith M. Bennett illustrates in her chapter, ?Forgetting the Past?, there exists a contemporary bias when it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes to journals of women?s and gender history, with a distinct under-representation of research on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premodern period, the decades before 1800. Bennett argues that the absence of articles in such journals on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the premodern period has occurred ?not because of a lack of research on women and gender before 1800, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead of our own lack of interest in that research?. \(p. 273?4\). There is a deliberate attempt here to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counteract such bias and half of the 11 chapters included in this volume have a pre-1800 focus. This editorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision is a success and requires readers to consider the often previously hidden lives and agency of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the premodern era as well as reminding modern historians that there is much to learn from the rich and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex history of women before the 19th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided into 11 chapters with some focussing on theoretical debates surrounding the use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender as a category for historical analysis and others looking in more detail at specific historical events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spanning across Britain, Europe and India where the incorporation of gender has challenged historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodoxies. All of the chapters demonstrate that the traditional delineation of time, when viewed through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lens of gender difference, can be rendered much more complex and problematic than previously assumed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within mainstream historiography. In the first chapter the editors reflect on the development of women?s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender history. Focusing on two key articles, Joan Kelly?s \(1977\) essay, ?Did women have a Renaissance?? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Joan Scott?s \(1986\) article ?Gender: a useful category for analysis? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.924 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.924 443.187 m 394.916 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 394.916 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the authors highlight the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and significant impact that gender, and the different experiences of women in particular, has played on our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of history. Kelly?s work illustrated that despite the major cultural advances associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Renaissance women?s ?legal, economic and political conditions in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deteriorated rather than improved? \(p. 2\). This was not only a key moment in women?s history but Kelly?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work also led to a wider reassessment of the Renaissance by social and cultural historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joan Scott?s seminal article, familiar to all of those working on women?s and gender history, is according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the editors ?one of the most cited historical works of all time? \(p. 4\). This is not surprising considering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of Scott?s attempt to define the meaning of gender as a tool for analysis and its success, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editors rightly point out, in identifying and analysing not only gender but other categories such as class and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race and the ways in which they ?operate together discursively to legitimate or undermine historically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific relationships of power? \(p. 4\). The influence of Scott?s work is evident in a number of the essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included in this collection and some of the criticisms of her analysis, for example the concern that gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis can result in women being ?locked? into a position of inferiority with no room for protest or change, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are addressed. Indeed one of the most important themes of this new collection of essays is the evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented here of the existence of female agency in times, places and amongst groups of women that in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past have been overlooked in the grand narratives of historical change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where better a place to begin an exploration of the impact of gender on history than by exploring the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences in representation of the female and male body in medieval history. Lynda L. Coon, in her chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Somatic styles of the early Middle Ages? sets out to challenge the existing perceived divide between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ancient/Dark Ages and ?to wear down the overstated premodern/modern rift? \(p. 15\). Using clerical texts c. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(600?900, spatial and anthropological theories, Coon explores the concept of the ?one-sex? model so often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with the premodern period. By arguing that the ?one-sex? model of the body was not as fixed or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominate in premodern history as has previously been assumed, Coon suggests that this classic division )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Ancient/Dark Ages needs to be re-considered and that the issue of gender difference can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified in the ?one-sex? model just as it has been in modern ?two-sex? \(sex/gender\) dichotomy. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much to fascinate those unfamiliar with early medieval history in this article, for example the ascribing of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 380.9237 443.5015 394.9157 455.3815 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7475 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different characteristics to male and female bodies: male bodies were ?hard? and ?dry? and female bodies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?porous? and ?wet?. The utilisation of spatial theory in the discussion of the virtual basilica of St. Gall is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to good effect to demonstrate the dangers of overlooking the possibility of female visibility in medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history based on the assumption \(possibly false\) that women were prohibited from entering places of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worship. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The assertion that the ?one-sex? model associated with premodern times was usurped by the ?modern? ?two-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sex? system is also the central point of contention in Dror Wahrman?s chapter ?Change and the corporeal in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth and eighteenth century gender history: or, can cultural history be rigorous??. Once again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of the body are used here to reflect upon the gendering of history but the author also presents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a critical assessment of the importance of ?the cultural history of the basic concepts in the field ? gender, sex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sexuality? \(p. 166\). This chapter presents an interesting critique of Thomas Laqueur?s )] TJ ET BT 470.264 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making Sex)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 529.580 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 529.580 640.515 m 543.572 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the ?British Continuity School? and offers what is really quite a complex argument \(at least for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uninitiated\) calling for a ?deep historical? perspective inspired by neurohistory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In keeping with the overall theme of this volume, Monica H. Green?s intention in her chapter on ?Gendering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of women?s healthcare? is to cast doubt on established historical categorisations by using gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis, this time in the field of women?s healthcare in premodern Europe. One of the main objectives in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this chapter is to find out ?who knew what about the female body? \(p. 44\) and to argue that men were much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more involved in women?s healthcare before the 18th century than has previously been acknowledged. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Focussing on the history of midwifery and women?s knowledge of contraceptive devices and abortifacients, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is argued that the pre-dominance of Western narratives of medical history has resulted in ?blind spots? that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can hide the motives of medical practices and in this case mask the agency of women with regard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(childbirth and conception. The chapter provides a detailed critique of the work of Barbara Ehrenreich and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deidre English which it is argued has defined the ?grand narrative? view of European women?s medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.352 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.352 443.187 m 84.344 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 84.344 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Green successfully argues that in this field of women?s healthcare there has been too much a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on women as the providers and experts when it came to women?s health in the premodern period. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendering the history of women?s healthcare and accepting that men were involved in such practices it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested that there was no ?golden age? of women?s healthcare before the 18th century. Coming to such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion Green warns that ?it matters that we get these stories right? as our understanding of the past casts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a long shadow over decisions taken regarding women?s health and welfare in more contemporary times \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(71\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other themes and periods scrutinised in this volume include Martha Howell?s exploration of ?Europe?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial economy, 1200?1700?. With much recent interest in the role and status of women as consumers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 20th century it is intriguing to learn that women also played a major role in transforming commerce, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deemed to be a morally hazardous activity in early modern Europe, into a much more respectable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honourable occupation. As Howell argues consumption was assigned to a female space \(the realm of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?virtuous? housewife\) and production \(money making\) to a male space where men controlled working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions of both male and female workers. In developing her argument Howell suggests that there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore no ?golden age? of women?s work in early modern Europe and that women?s involvement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce was ?gendered? in that women were associated with consumption to such an extent that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights within the production process were severely compromised long before the emergence of the industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her chapter ?Do women need a Renaissance?? Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks reflects on the work of Joan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kelly and argues that the term Renaissance, when looking at the experiences of women, isn?t a useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical category and instead argues that historians should consider replacing it with the classification of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?early modern?. It is argued this broader more inclusive timeframe much better describes an era which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought ?change to the lives of many women and stunning transformation to the lives of others, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their lives as women? \(p. 125\). Throughout this chapter Wiesner-Hanks also identifies important questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding the category of ?women? itself and how the experiences of some women may not reflect the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of all women, a salient point that gender historians, indeed all historians, should not forget.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 529.5797 640.8295 543.5717 652.7095 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.3517 443.5015 84.3437 455.3815 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7318 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The late Jeanne Boyston?s chapter in this collection is pivotal and should be essential reading for any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian engaged in research on gender and women?s history. Boyston provides a well argued, detailed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical deconstruction of the phrase ?gender as a category for analysis?. She makes clear that she does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view the use of ?gender? as a distraction from the ongoing task of recovering women?s history or that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the history of masculinity within this field of study undermines that central objective. Instead she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is concerned about the dangers implicit in relying so much on gender as a subjective and contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category for analysis that the writing of histories of gender as an historical process is lost \(p. 135\). I agree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholeheartedly with Boyston?s rejection of ?gender as a set of more or less universalised assumptions? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support her desire to instead interrogate gender ?as a set of relatively open questions applied to a discrete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time and place of inquiry? \(p. 135\). What Boyston is advocating is using gender as a question of analysis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not only does such an approach help ensure that historical sources are not at risk of misinterpretation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to ?fit in? with the category of analysis but also allows research to be source-led and lets the voices of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men and women from the past to be heard within their own historical contexts. This will, as Boyston )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests in her conclusion, make us better historians, an argument hard to disagree with. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Locating and listening to voices of the past, in particular to the voices of women, is a central concern in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remaining chapters of this book and, like the previous chapters, these highlight once again the very rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity and complexity that a focus on gender can bring to our understanding and re-evaluation of history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is achieved by Padma Anagol, Lynn Abrams and Kevin Passmore in their chapters which explore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of women in the history of colonial India, on the island of Shetland and in political religions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory. Anagol expertly demonstrates how the standardised history of Colonial India, written from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?imperialism-nationalism? paradigm, has resulted in a skewed account of women?s lives during the years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1885?1947. By focussing on gender as a historical process, as Boyston advocates, Anagol provides the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader with a clear account of the previously hidden agency of women in India which was evident long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the better known female activism of the Gandhian era. This spotlight on female agency in Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, beyond the nationalist struggle, allows Anagol to call for ?the periodisation based upon nation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism to be discarded?. This she argues is justified due to the fact that women were ?contesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist male reformist and conservative discourses; they were using the colonial state for their own ends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and finally aligning with their imperial sisters to improve their own ends? \(p. 214\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seeking out and locating female agency and voices of resistance, where previously it was assumed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, including feminist historians, that none existed is crucial if we are to gain a full understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s history and the part gender plays within such histories. Lynn Abrams?s reflection on her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasting experience of researching the lives of women on the Shetland Islands and writing a history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women and gender in modern Europe demonstrates once again the intricacies of writing women?s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender history which are the central themes of this collection. Abrams argues that local histories of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that don?t ?chime? with the grand narrative shouldn?t be marginalised as an aberration but used instead to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledge the diversity that exists between geographical spaces and, as Wiesnder-Hanks reminded us, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the category of ?women? itself. In the penultimate chapter Kevin Passmore returns to the theme of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female agency, this time in the context of political religions theory and the rise of fascism in Europe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Providing a wide-ranging review of various theorists including Durkheim, Freud, Talcott Parsons and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mosse, Passmore argues that political religions theory has failed to acknowledge the role played by women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in far-right movements and in doing so overlooks the agency of women within fascist movements of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book presents an at times quite staggering breath of historical coverage and debate bringing to light )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new and diverse histories of women and demanding that historians of women and gender don?t become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complacent. Instead we need to consistently question and re-evaluate our methodology and seek out female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agency in unexpected places. In doing so we will be able to not only increase our knowledge about the lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of women in the past but question the validity of historical periodisation where required. As Judith Bennett )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues we should not forget the importance of the premodern period and begin to consider ?the earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of the specific subjects we study? \(p. 281\). This collection of essays is the ideal place to begin such )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 3807 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a process. I do have one criticism. Not all chapters of the book make for an ?easy? read and at times I found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the arguments quite impenetrable due to the use of rather obscure language and a lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation of specialist terminology. This could be off-putting to the more general reader interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s and gender history. As one of the main objectives of the work is to broaden knowledge of gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and history for this to happen would be a shame. Just as it is beholden upon historians to think critically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about how they engage with their sources and think about gender as a category for analysis, so too is it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important that when it comes to writing down those ideas the work is accessible to as wide an audience as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 661.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joan Kelly-Gadol, ?Did women have a Renaissance??, in )] TJ ET BT 341.948 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Becoming Visible: Women in European )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 100.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Renate Blumenthal and Claudia Koonz \(Boston, MA, 1977\) and Joan Wallach Scott, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Gender: a useful category of historical analysis?, )] TJ ET BT 306.620 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 442.604 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 91 \(1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 498.596 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 498.596 601.251 m 552.584 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Laqueur, )] TJ ET BT 151.664 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud)] TJ ET BT 424.604 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 572.739 m 118.004 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Ehrenreich and Deidre English, )] TJ ET BT 259.292 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Witches, Midwives and Nurses: a History of Women Healers)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1971\) and )] TJ ET BT 198.980 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Complaints and Disorders: The Sex and Politics of Sickness)] TJ ET BT 487.640 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NY, 1973\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 118.340 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 118.340 529.971 m 172.328 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 505.109 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 486.127 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 468.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 468.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/975)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 466.953 m 322.316 466.953 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 441.976 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5044)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.176 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 498.5957 601.5655 552.5837 613.4455 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 573.0535 118.0037 584.9335 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 118.3397 530.2855 172.3277 542.1655 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 467.2675 322.3157 479.1475 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/975) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000565 00000 n 0000000647 00000 n 0000004886 00000 n 0000004995 00000 n 0000005105 00000 n 0000005214 00000 n 0000008775 00000 n 0000008903 00000 n 0000008987 00000 n 0000009071 00000 n 0000016811 00000 n 0000016841 00000 n 0000016969 00000 n 0000017005 00000 n 0000017096 00000 n 0000024624 00000 n 0000024654 00000 n 0000024782 00000 n 0000024818 00000 n 0000024848 00000 n 0000024974 00000 n 0000025010 00000 n 0000025075 00000 n 0000032446 00000 n 0000032551 00000 n 0000036411 00000 n 0000036539 00000 n 0000036594 00000 n 0000036721 00000 n 0000036776 00000 n 0000036904 00000 n 0000036959 00000 n 0000037087 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37182 %%EOF