%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150902051824+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150902051824+01'00') /Title (Crime, Prosecution and Social Relations: The Summary Courts of the City of London in the Late Eighteenth Century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4116 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Crime, Prosecution and Social Relations: The Summary Courts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the City of London in the Late Eighteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Underpinning a good deal of the scholarship on the history of crime in early modern England is the careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and systematic analysis of the records of the busy criminal courts. The most heavily exploited of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records have been the Assize courts and their metropolitan equivalent, the Old Bailey, for examining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences and patterns of crime and the administration of the law. The assizes, which heard the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious criminal offences, generated a rich vein of official records from which historians have been able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prize a whole range of insights about social life in the past. In some jurisdictions, the survival of the records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the quarter sessions has occurred in sufficient numbers to allow for equally detailed analyses of how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less serious offences were dealt with.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What has long been known is that the trials that took place at the quarter sessions or at the assizes were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really the latter stages of a process of going to law which was initiated in the intimate surroundings of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Justice of the Peace \(JP\)?s parlour room. It was there that men and women first went to law, seeking justice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or at least a hearing for their petty and not so petty grievances. Sitting alone, these magistrates made on-the-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spot decisions about the nature and merits of a claim that someone had done another a wrong, and exercised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his legal authority either to dismiss a case, when he could, or help it to proceed to the next stage of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criminal justice process. Invariably, the former route was preferable, as it saved the aggrieved parties time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(976)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 October, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drew D. Gray)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230203976)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(52.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greg Smith)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7668 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and expense, it saved the judges at quarter sessions or assizes another case, and it kept a check on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential for malicious abuse of the courts by too frequent turning to law for settling every dispute. The JPs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were guided in this by practice manuals including among others Richard Burn?s ubiquitous )] TJ ET BT 475.640 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Justice of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peace and Parish Officer)] TJ ET BT 156.332 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What criminal justice historians have claimed about the day-to-day operation of such proceedings has, until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently, been based largely on the proscriptive information found in guide books such as Burn?s, or in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation that was passed in the 16th century, outlining the formal limits of the magistrate?s powers, and on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assuming that the formal rules were followed. Such assumptions were warranted because of the paucity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence that remained showing exactly what these legal authorities did, and little evidence of systemic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns about the work of JPs. Since they were not required to keep formal records of the preliminary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hearings that they oversaw, the principal document of record emerging from the magistrate?s work was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formal indictment which was sent to the grand jury. There were plenty of indictments, thus magistrates were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing their jobs. However, the hearings, negotiations and mediation that led up to the creation of the bill of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indictment was a process that was, for the most part, lost to the historical record. Or so it was thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interest among historians in England?s criminal past gravitated first to the formal records of trial for various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons that may be ascertained from reading the now voluminous historiography. But the search for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informal, preliminary and summary proceedings \(at least before the 19th century\) garnered little attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because few thought to look for any available evidence. As it turns out, a small cache of such records have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survived from the early modern period, and historians are gradually bringing these sources and their details )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to light.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 71.360 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 71.360 500.211 m 85.352 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One particularly rich and largely untapped vein of such documents is the surviving minute books created by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the clerks for the sitting magistrates in the City of London. The Lord Mayor of London had long served a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judicial role as part of his administrative duties, and over time, the City Aldermen had taken on these duties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well. One of the courts over which the Lord Mayor presided was the magistrate?s court that sat in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guildhall. Like other venues for preliminary hearings, the Lord Mayor heard a mixed bag of claims that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged from time to time. Given London?s busy commercial and residential character, there was enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business to warrant frequent sittings of this court ? many days of the week by the reign of William & Mary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and daily by the mid 18th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The business of these courts recorded in the Lord Mayor?s waiting books, as they were styled by a one-time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(City archivist, were later supplanted by the minute books generated by the work of not just one, but two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice rooms by the mid 18th century: the Guildhall Justice Room and the Mansion House Justice Room. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These justice rooms were open for business every week day, and from 1752, were presided over by one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Aldermen in the Guildhall?s Matted Gallery, or else by the Lord Mayor himself in the newly finished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mansion House. It is the surviving records from these two courts that form the principal basis for Drew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gray?s well-researched and cleanly executed study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gray?s work adds an important metropolitan dimension to the fragmented work on summary proceedings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the work of rural or at least sub-urban justices that has appeared in recent years.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.240 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.240 221.859 m 451.232 221.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 454.232 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He shows that far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from being a brisk and perfunctory hearing in which the necessary legal forms were filled out in preparation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the ?real? trial at quarter sessions or assize, in many hundreds of instances, the preliminary hearing )] TJ ET BT 528.908 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(was)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the trial. The London magistrates were often engaged in thorough and detailed examinations into the case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with witnesses called and with constables empowered by search warrants to seek out and obtain evidence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To be sure, as Gray ably shows, these justices were gathering evidence at the preliminary stage in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepare cases for more speedy and efficient trial at the higher courts. But Gray is also right to see in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts an underlying and unwritten code which encouraged the magistrates to proceed in a manner which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasized what we now call ?restorative justice? \(p. 27\). Operating in this frame of mind meant that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines between criminal and civil procedure could be blurred, and the formal restrictions placed on JPs by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statute and by customary practice as outlined in practice guides such as Burn?s, were sometimes ignored or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberately fudged in the name of procedural and likely financial expediency. The London magistrates sent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a little more than 15 per cent of cases on to the higher courts according to Gray?s sample, while nearly 85 )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 71.3597 500.5255 85.3517 512.4055 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 437.2397 222.1735 451.2317 234.0535 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7440 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per cent were settled in one way or the other on the spot. Such settlements could be as simple as a handshake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and apology, but the magistrates also fined, imprisoned, or otherwise punished offenders based solely on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own assessment of the case and the evidence \(pp. 27?8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After a chapter that describes the form and function of the justice rooms, Gray moves on to an examination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of police and the important links between the business of the magistrates and the nature of policing agents in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 18th-century metropolis. Here Gray builds on the work of Beattie, Harris Reynolds and Paley and offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fresh insight into the ?overlapping combination of public, private and community policing? \(p. 53\) that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradually evolving in London. Gray offers a functional explanation to the question of why police reform was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not forthcoming in the late 18th century. From the point of view of the City, he suggests, it wasn?t necessary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the City seemed to be well policed for what it cost. This seems fair enough, especially as he shows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree of policing coverage that City residents experienced, long before a professional police force arrived.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the other conclusion that he draws in this chapter, that the City constables ?were detecting crime, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arresting suspects and prosecuting them? \(p. 66\) in these City courts is not uniformly supported by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal sources. It is true that constables are named in nearly every case noted in the minute books, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost always in conjunction with a named victim/prosecutor. Sometimes it is clear that the constables, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(watchmen and beadles were actively involved in the matter, even proactive. But in the vast majority of cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reported in these justice room minute books, the degree of proactive involvement by the policing officials is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unclear. It is indeed likely that constables and other policing agents played a much more active role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detection and prosecution of crime, but Gray does not expand on the claims on this front made by Bruce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smith.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 65.696 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 65.696 500.211 m 79.688 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 79.688 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( More information is usually revealed in cases that proceeded to trial at the Old Bailey. But even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there, the role of victim prosecutors remains significant. It would have been interesting to know more about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the constables who worked the docks or who built up expertise in certain areas and whose knowledge was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trusted in the summary proceedings. Some policing figures who appear regularly in the summary court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minutes also appear in detailed cases at the Old Bailey.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four describes property offences as they came to these courts and the following chapter does the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same for the many cases of interpersonal violence that were heard and usually mediated or dismissed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lord Mayor and Aldermen. Here Gray suggests that London women may have had a little more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence and a little more power in their ability to harness the law and the legal institution of the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when it came to their demands for protection from violence. This is followed by chapters that explore assault )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosecutions, the regulation of public and semi-public places, such as the streets, alehouses and bawdy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(houses, and an entertaining chapter on the practice of bullock-hunting. The final substantive chapter deals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more specifically with the regulation of the poor and of tradesmen, including apprentices. Each of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters provide further insights into the ways in which social control was deployed by way of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceedings and negotiations before the City?s aldermen justices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, Gray?s claim is that the summary courts were really the place where Londoners went to law. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the courts were busier that the Old Bailey is not surprising, given that there were two of them in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneous operation from 1752, and that they sat five days per week and for 12 months of the year, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared with the Old Bailey?s eight annual sessions of perhaps a week?s duration. Gray shows how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume of business at these two courts reflected a willingness of a broad cross-section of metropolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population to use the courts for the maintenance of social order. Given the geographical jurisdiction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two courts, with the Mansion House taking in the area of the busy docklands while the Guildhall oversaw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the City?s west side, it would be interesting to know if there was a way to differentiate or compare the nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the business coming before the two courts. Was the lord mayor a different kind of magistrate from his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alderman colleagues? Also, were some magistrates more notorious? Did any have reputations for being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly harsh, or lenient?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other question I would raise is why Gray was reluctant to explore the class dimensions of certain parts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his argument in greater depth. In his examination of policing and the exercise of summary power, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear from his evidence that the magistrates were using the law in arbitrary ways in order to discipline and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control the lower orders. The manipulation of the vagrancy acts, as he points out, offer a clear example of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 65.6957 500.5255 79.6877 512.4055 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 5335 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how those in positions of power were able to exploit the laws conceived for a particular set of persons in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to arbitrarily control an even larger set. While the historiographical pendulum has recently swung in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favour of examining the ?agency? of those usually found on the wrong side of the power ledger, it s still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worth stating when the evidence indicates, how the larger structures of power and authority in the past were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very much biased in favour of the wealthy and powerful, and the alderman justices that presided over these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summary courts were quintessential such examples. Gray is more inclined to read his sources in this way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he discusses the ways in which prostitutes in the City were handled, or in the disposition of bastardy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions. And in chapter eight, which deals with beggars, vagrants and vagabonds, Gray is able to tease out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the strategies used by the poor to manipulate the system for their own benefit, while recognizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it was in the end the elite who were governing the poor. But overall, Gray seems to be reluctant to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employ his findings to test a more theoretically robust hypothesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author was no doubt upset to see the map of London printed upside down, and there are some minor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typographical errors in the text and inconsistencies in the footnotes that might not have escaped more careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proofreading and may throw off future researchers seeking to expand on the findings of this study. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references bear the former Corporation of London Record Office shelfmarks while a few sources mentioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the footnotes do not appear in the bibliography. But these are only minor quibbles with a book that makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a fresh and welcome contribution to our understanding of the role of law and the exercise of discretion in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management of social relations in 18th-century London.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Peter King, ?The summary courts and social relations in eighteenth-century England?, )] TJ ET BT 501.272 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past & )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Present)] TJ ET BT 100.676 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 106.676 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(183 \(May 2004\), 125?72, for an excellent overview.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.284 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.284 460.947 m 411.272 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King lists the recent work in his article, esp. n. 18. The other key source for the eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolis is )] TJ ET BT 129.356 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Justice in Eighteenth-Century Hackney: The Justicing Notebook of Henry Norris and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hackney Petty Sessions Book, )] TJ ET BT 210.980 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. Ruth Paley \(London, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.636 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.636 418.179 m 416.624 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruce P. Smith, ?The Myth of Private Prosecution in England, 1750-1850?, in )] TJ ET BT 445.664 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Histories of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crime and Punishment)] TJ ET BT 174.680 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Markus Dirk Dubber and Lindsay Farmer)] TJ ET BT 401.300 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Palo Alto, CA, 2007\), 151?74.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 375.411 m 118.004 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 350.549 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 331.567 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 313.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 313.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/976)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 312.393 m 322.316 312.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 287.416 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.016 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5046)] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.616 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 357.2837 461.2615 411.2717 473.1415 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 362.6357 418.4935 416.6237 430.3735 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 375.7255 118.0037 387.6055 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 312.7075 322.3157 324.5875 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/976) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000616 00000 n 0000000698 00000 n 0000004866 00000 n 0000004975 00000 n 0000005085 00000 n 0000005194 00000 n 0000008755 00000 n 0000008883 00000 n 0000008967 00000 n 0000009058 00000 n 0000016779 00000 n 0000016809 00000 n 0000016935 00000 n 0000016971 00000 n 0000017001 00000 n 0000017129 00000 n 0000017165 00000 n 0000017249 00000 n 0000024742 00000 n 0000024772 00000 n 0000024898 00000 n 0000024934 00000 n 0000025039 00000 n 0000030427 00000 n 0000030555 00000 n 0000030610 00000 n 0000030738 00000 n 0000030793 00000 n 0000030920 00000 n 0000030975 00000 n 0000031103 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31198 %%EOF