%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 67 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140923175128+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140923175128+01'00') /Title (The Likeness of Venice. A Life of Doge Francesco Foscari 1373-1457) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4241 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Likeness of Venice. A Life of Doge Francesco Foscari 1373-1457)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political biography has a relatively minor part in medieval and renaissance Venetian historiography when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared to other European states ? such as England ? or Italy?s other major republic in the period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florence. The explanation may be in part due to the enduring and influential ?myth of Venice?, an aspect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which stressed the corporate discipline of the Venetian nobility, and its loyalty to the state, qualities that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcended individual, family or factional interest. However under scrutiny this aspect of the myth does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hold up given, for example, the prominence of tomb monuments in Venetian churches, attention seeking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(palace building along the Grand Canal, the widespread placing of coats of arms and inscriptions on public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and private buildings, the prominence of portraiture in Venetian art. If it were possible to identify more of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these portraits and had not the fall of the Republic in 1797 led to the slighting or destruction of many noble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coats of arms, the image of a faceless or selfless Venetian nobility would appear even less convincing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another explanation that can be offered for the lack of political biography in Venetian historiography lies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the written evidence available to the historian. The archives of the Venetian Republic are incredibly rich, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the records that survive for key councils ? like the Senate and the Council of Ten ? record motions both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposed and carried, but they do not record the cut and thrust of debate like the Consulte e Pratiche of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florentine Republic. And while there is a rich chronicle tradition, it is only relatively rarely that the historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes across the personal, Florentine-style ricordanze ? personal and family memoirs ? which can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(977)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 October, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dennis Romano)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300112023)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(368pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Law)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 9109 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkably revealing in terms of personal and family interest. These are virtually absent from the Venetian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition, and while the cult of personality does appear in the humanistic literature and in correspondence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written by, for and between Venetians, loyalty to the state tends to emerge more strongly than individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement, let alone criticism of the government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, here too traditional perceptions are being challenged along with the opacity of the Venetian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence. In the Anglophone literature a start was made in Robert Finlay?s Politics in Renaissance Venice )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 546.932 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 546.932 711.795 m 560.924 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which drew on the minute diaries of Marino Sanuto ? among others sources ? to break into the political life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Venice?s ruling nobility c 1500 throwing light, for example, on the contests that preceded the election of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doge.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 60.344 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 60.344 669.027 m 74.336 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 74.336 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Coming from a similarly questioning point of view, is Donald Queller?s The Venetian Patriciate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reality Versus Myth which drew on a painstaking study of Venetian records from the early 14th to the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16th century to show that the Venetian nobility was not as selflessly dedicated to the common good of either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their class or the state as the myth claimed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 240.320 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 240.320 626.259 m 254.312 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 254.312 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Queller also built on earlier studies of Venetian diplomacy; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Venetian ambassadors had once been hailed as models of duty and their reports to the Senate ? their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relazioni ? were seen as exemplary in terms of their detail and objectivity. Queller undermined the myth by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealing the reluctance many nobles felt about serving the Republic abroad.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 402.272 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 402.272 583.491 m 416.264 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another approach which has questioned the ?Myth of Venice? has been in terms of prosopography. Here, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early contribution was made by Margaret King in her Venetian Humanism in an Age of Patrician )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dominance.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 92.336 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 92.336 528.723 m 106.328 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 106.328 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While this study tended to support the idea that the Venetian nobility was cohesive and loyal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the state, the ?Profiles? included in the book were an attempt to chart the careers, the cursus honorum, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some key members of the nobility. This approach has been taken a lot further forward in recent years with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the creation a database, The Rulers of Venice, 1332?1524. This project was inspired and led by Benjamin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kohl, and provides an insight into office holding within the nobility.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.684 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.684 471.699 m 376.676 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 376.676 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One of Kohl?s associates on this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project, Monique O?Connell, has built on her own earlier research on the key Venetian colony of Crete to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produce a study of the Venetians who ruled the Republic?s eastern empire, the Stato di Mar.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.936 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.936 443.187 m 490.928 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 490.928 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Finally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Grubb has challenged the view that Venetians did not keep personal records.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 434.264 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 434.264 428.931 m 448.256 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book under review offers an opportunity to scrutinise an aspect of the myth of Venice close to its heart. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to the myth, the doge of Venice, though head of state, had the trappings of power only, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremonial that surrounded him was intended to reflect Venice rather than the doge himself or his family. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Likeness of Venice, this is a central theme; Romano raises the issue first in his preface where he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses his choice of title, ?The Likeness of Venice?. In a debate held in July 1447, the Venetian Council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Ten described the doge, Francesco Foscari, as ?that Imago which represents the government \(dominium\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Venetians [?] and by whose means the entire government of our state is administered?. Romano?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation of ?Imago? raises an issue that reverberates throughout his book; ?likeness? suggests similarity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and hence some distance or detachment, whereas the Ten perhaps understood ? as is suggested by the words )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?by whose means the entire government of our state is administered? ? a much closer relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the doge and Venice, that the former was the reflection or expression of the latter, rather than a mere cipher.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This introduces another major reason for the importance of this study. In his own lifetime, and after his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death, Foscari could be seen as challenging the myth of Venice in terms of his own ambition to obtain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use the ducal office. Did that mean that the doge was that powerless and empty? The conduct of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wayward son, Jacopo, particularly in relations to foreign powers, and the relationship between father, son )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and constitution are also issues that came to attract attention as Venice?s historical significance and legacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to be discussed from the late 18th century. This emerges clearly in the final chapter of Romano?s book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where he discusses the posthumous reputation of Francesco Foscari, as handled by poets, composers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painters, antiquarians, film makers, and ? even ? historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as Romano?s book reminds us, Foscari?s reign is not just matter of personalities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. He was doge for an exceptionally long time, from 1423 to 1457.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.304 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.304 93.555 m 432.296 93.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 432.296 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In this period, Venice?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation into a major Italian power was confirmed with the acquisition of key cities in Lombardy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Brescia and Bergamo\), from Filippo Maria Visconti, duke of Milan )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.640 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.640 65.043 m 384.632 65.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.632 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and with an incursion into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Papal States, ?inheriting? Ravenna in 1441. 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Meanwhile, in the eastern Mediterranean ? Venice?s more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional area of interest and source of wealth ? the balance of power was shifting against the Republic, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of the rise of Ottoman Empire, brought home by the capture of Constantinople by Mohammed II in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1453. These developments ? in the Stato di Terra and the Stato di Mar ? impacted heavily on the Venetian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government in terms of decision making, personal and family interest and the balance of power within an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwritten constitution of which Francesco Foscari was the head.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For obvious reasons, Romano?s basic approach is largely chronological. He begins with a discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foscari family in the 14th century, established as members of Venice?s hereditary aristocracy, if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituting one of its larger clans. He charts the offices they held, and their sources of wealth, which tended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be in property rather than trade, and their acts of piety and charity; he also makes it clear that from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early date the Foscari had interests in the Italian mainland, in terms of land and titles. Francesco was born in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1373, and if aspects of his early life are obscure, his political and social prominence was assured and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advanced by his acquisition of the prestigious office as one of the Procurators of St Mark in January 1416. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Procurators were the saint?s representatives on earth, and on earth too they had a fiduciary role, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trustees with considerable assets and discretion at their disposal. Romano explains convincingly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of the position within the Venetian government, and the opportunities it presented to ?win )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friends and influence people?. He also suggests how Foscari used the office to support his bid for the ducal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title ? which he attained in April 1423 ? while giving an exemplary account of the complicated constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process that preceded a dogal election. This was designed to counter favouritism, lobbying and faction, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foscari?s own election soon became regarded as controversial. Romano rightly agrees with earlier historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Hans Baron that such a view was largely the product of the personal and political divisions that arose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later in Foscari?s career.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was largely dominated by the implications of Venice?s increasing involvement in Italy in territorial, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and military terms, and Romano organises much of the rest of the book round the various phases of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wars Venice became engaged in to extend and hold its mainland state, though he does not neglect events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the eastern Mediterranean, for example by showing how the Republic?s relatively brief \(1423? 1430\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquisition of the Byzantine city of Thessalonika brought it face to face with the realities of Ottoman power. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the political and financial costs of the Republic?s involvement on the terraferma had serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repercussion for Foscari himself, contributing to two attempts to resign the dogeship and leading to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventual abdication in 1457. Foscari was also weakened by the association of his son Jacopo, and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of his ?circle?, with foreign powers, and in particular with Francesco Sforza who became duke of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milan in 1450. In the course of his narrative, Romano explores these issues in some detail, showing how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(search for office in, and promise of favours from, the terraferma could compromise members of the Venetian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruling class at the highest level. In the end, as the ?likeness?, or personification of the Republic itself, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foscari carried the burdens of state even when they were not of his making alone. Already in ill-health and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering from the disgrace of his son, he died very shortly after his forced abdication on 1 November 1457.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout, Romano writes clearly, though he would have helped his readers if he had broken up his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely long chapters: the Foscari family background could have been separated from Francesco?s own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career, and the doge?s abdication should have been detached from the later historiography. However, for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most part the narrative and ?asides? to discuss aspects of the Venetian constitution or the geo-political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation in Italy and the Mediterranean ? for example ? read well. In places the narrative becomes quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic as in its treatment of the Republic?s disposal of the ambitious and unreliable mercenary captain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carmagnola \(Francesco Bussone\) in 1432, or Francesco?s relationship with his disgraced son, making one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand why such personalities and events had such an appeal in the nineteenth century. The author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displays a sound grasp of Venetian topography, and its significance, which could have been conveyed better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reader with a map of the city.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another commendable dimension to the book is Romano?s interdisciplinary approach, a readiness to use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremonial, architecture, painting and music to throw light on his subject. However, these insights could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been taken further. For example, the reader is left with ?mixed messages? about the iconography and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 51 0 R 54 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R ] /Contents 49 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Length 8271 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage of the Porta della Carta commissioned from the Bon workshop in 1439 this provided an entrance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the ducal palace, while linking it to the Basilica of San Marco; it also carried a likeness of the doge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself. A similar point could be made about the consruction of the Ca? Foscari from 1453 ? where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to Cosimo de?Medici as a model or rival \(p. 250\) in terms of palace building seem stretched and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too infected by ?Florentinitis?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.340 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.340 738.051 m 201.332 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 201.332 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Romano is right to argue that Foscari would not have to have visited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florence to know about Cosimo?s palace-building, but the architectural styles of the buildings and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions of their patrons were so different that explanations for Foscari?s commission are more likely to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found in Venice itself, and in his personal and family circumstances, than elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This leads to some more substantial points. The political, military and economic relevance of the east and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(west to Venice is certain, but the subject is relatively well charted. The strength and novelty of Romano?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book lies in its close reading of the Venetian archives, and its careful exploration of issues relating to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal and family status, and political groupings and shifts. The book might have gained from less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background narrative and more of a ?Namierite? approach to the rivalries, alliances, sects and problems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional balance which so concerned contemporaries. Some observations seem rather unsubstantiated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as when \(p. 119\) it is suggested that ?Foscari?s heightened visibility? \(in the early 1430s\) represented an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt ?to bind the subject cities and their inhabitants to the dominante through the personage of the doge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and by means of a common symbolic and ritual language?. Discussions of the significance of the building of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ca? Foscari could have been enhanced by more information on Francesco?s assets, and by the status of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other members of his family.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The promissione drawn up before each election in an attempt to regulate the incoming doge?s private as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as his public life ? is well discussed here, but it would have been interesting to have been given some insight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into Foscari?s life within the palace walls and the nature of his household. It also would have been useful to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have taken further the search for new material. As mentioned, one of the strengths of the book is its careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of the archival record. However there is more chronicle evidence on Foscari?s ?reign? than is drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on here; also missing is an evaluation of the chronicle sources used; Marino Sanudo, a later source, was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as hostile to Francesco?s memory as is sometimes suggested here, referring to him in his Itinerario of 1483 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as ?a most Serene Prince whose fame is ever-lasting ?, and as ?Pater Patriae?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.916 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.916 400.419 m 426.908 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 426.908 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Finally, as the ?likeness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Venice? the perception of his dogeship from abroad, in the form and style of diplomatic correspondence as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as in the wider record ? beyond the occasional remarks of an Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini ? would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been instructive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are some minor slips. John Hus could not have been dealt with in the 1430s \(p. 120\); he had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burnt at the stake at the Council of Constance; the Cenedese was not a region ?furthest from Venice? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199\). However, on balance the The Likeness of Venice, handsomely produced and reasonably priced, makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an extremely important contribution to the study of Venetian history and its grasp of institutions and events, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its coverage and its accessible style are likely to make it a major source of reference for students of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic at all levels, as well as encouraging further research into the city?s government and ruling class. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1986, James Grubb published ?When myths lose power: four decades of Venetian historiography? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 509.264 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 509.264 245.859 m 529.256 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 529.256 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he sought to show how the myth of Venice was being subjected to greater scrutiny by historians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romano continues this process of scrutiny, but he also shows that the myth retains validity, not just as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge to historians, but as something which Venetians believed in themselves, if only when it suited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them. This is revealed in the concern felt by contemporaries, and articulated in the records of state, over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat to the Republic posed by faction, personal and family interest, inequity within the nobility and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of the doge, all of which are prominent among the issues discussed in this fine biography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.819 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Finlay, Politics in Renaissance Venice \(New Brunswick, NJ, 1980\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 424.976 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 424.976 94.803 m 478.964 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sanuto?s diaries cover the period 1496-1533.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.312 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.312 80.547 m 335.300 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 67.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Queller, The Venetian Patriciate. Reality Versus Myth \(Chicago, IL 1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.948 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.948 66.291 m 515.936 66.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donal Queller, Early Venetian Legislation on Ambassadors \(Geneva, 1966\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.940 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.940 52.035 m 484.928 52.035 l S endstream endobj 50 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 181.3397 738.3655 201.3317 750.2455 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 406.9157 400.7335 426.9077 412.6135 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 509.2637 246.1735 529.2557 258.0535 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 424.9757 95.1175 478.9637 106.9975 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 281.3117 80.8615 335.2997 92.7415 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 461.9477 66.6055 515.9357 78.4855 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.9397 52.3495 484.9277 64.2295 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R ] /Contents 68 0 R >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Length 5459 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret King, Venetian Humanism in an Age of Patrician Dominance \(Princeton, NJ, 1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.936 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.936 795.075 m 555.932 795.075 l S BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 780.819 m 78.008 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.784 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://rsa.fmdatabase.com/fmi/iwp/cgi?-db=venice4-0%20intact&-loadframes)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.784 766.563 m 444.824 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 447.824 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 461.816 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 14 July )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 752.307 m 149.000 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. O?Connell, Men of Empire: Power and Negotiation in Venice?s Maritime State \(Baltimore, MD, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 723.795 m 149.000 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Grubb, Family Memoirs from Venice \(15th to17th centuries\) \(Rome, 2010\), published with the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support of the Comitato per la Pubblicazione delle Fonti relativi alla Storia di Venezia, vol. 52.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 519.980 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 519.980 695.283 m 559.976 695.283 l S BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 681.027 m 78.008 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foscari was born in 1373. He died shortly after his abdication in 1457.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 402.644 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 402.644 666.771 m 456.632 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather dismissively, Romano tends to refer to this formidable opponent of the Republic as ?Visconti?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 638.259 m 124.004 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Florentinitis? is a term coined by Vincent Ilardi to describe an exaggerated and myopic view of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of Florence in the Italian Renaissance.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 308.960 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 308.960 609.747 m 368.948 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Itinerario per la Terraferma Veneziana, ed. Rawdon Brown \(Padua, 1847 ? though in fact 1848\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(116. The honour was first bestowed on Foscari by Bernardo Giustinian in the eulogy delivered )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following the doge?s death, Likeness of Venice, p. 316.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 331.304 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 331.304 566.979 m 387.296 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 554.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Grubb, ?When myths lose power: four decades of Venetian historiography?, Journal of Modern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History, 58 \(1986\), 43?94.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.336 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.336 538.467 m 251.324 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author has read the review with great interest and does not care to respond.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 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