%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 35 0 R 43 0 R 51 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827021421+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827021421+01'00') /Title (Songs of Protest, Songs of Love: Popular Ballads in Eighteenth-Century Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4108 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Songs of Protest, Songs of Love: Popular Ballads in Eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Century Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A new book in one?s specialist area, in this case the historical and cultural study of popular song, is a reason )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for both excitement and anticipation. Excitement because one wonders what new insights the work will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disclose, what new sources will be revealed and in what ways the area of study will be moved forward. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anticipates the ways in which the book will engage with what has been written and the \(as yet unknown\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways in which the book might reveal the need to revise established positions and interpretations. That a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work in the area should be welcomed is undoubted; an area of study needs a critical mass of scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working within it to create a necessary dynamic to develop the field of study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ganev has written a book which is explicitly about popular ballads in 18th-century England \(which she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defines as about 1700 to 1830\). The first chapter seeks to clarify what popular ballads are and answer the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question what they can tell the historian. Chapters two and three deal with ballads as social criticism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally, and specifically in relation to the question of enclosure. Four and five deal with rural labour, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firstly in terms of celebration of the life of work and secondly in terms of the celebration of rural labourers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality. The final chapter is on the work of Hannah More and her attempts to reform popular morality, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part through a critique of and at the same time through the use of the popular ballad form. There is also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion which largely summarises the findings of earlier chapters. These are all good topics, well worthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(980)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 October, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin Ganev)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719078903)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vic Gammon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8009 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of investigation. Ganev is not reticent in declaring her accomplishment in the book: ?This book has extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our knowledge of the place songs occupied in popular culture? \(p. 218\) although in fairness she immediately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adds that ?In some ways it has raised more questions than it has answered?. I will review the book in terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its accuracy, the quality of the writing, and the validity of its interpretations, asking to what extent it has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended our knowledge of the field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book seeks to examine the ?relationship between historical change and popular song?. There has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an increasing tendency in recent years for historians to use ballad collections as source material and this has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced some interesting work, for example in material written by V. A. C. Gatrell, Patrick Joyce and J. A. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sharpe.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.340 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.340 669.027 m 84.332 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 84.332 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These works use ballads as a particular type of source material to illuminate and inform broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns. Fewer works have placed the song material at the centre of their studies. Both approaches have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their strengths but ballad material is a difficult to work with; its provenance, authorship and date are often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertain. Although ballad material contains repeated themes and genres it also expresses multiple and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictory discourses. There is not one simple ballad view of the world; the popular culture of pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial Britain was not monolithic. Interpretation of ballad material is often difficult from a modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standpoint and the writer can easily not be aware of the extent of circulation of the material, its discursive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reach, and the way it accretes meanings and significances in the processes of transmission. The difficulty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the project in no way invalidates the enterprise; this is a fascinating area. But it does demand of the writer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both humility and care. Ganev was not always as careful as she could have been. The problems of accuracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the book range from downright error to significant problems of interpretation. I will give some examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of such problems early in the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ganev states ?Charles Harding Firth \(1857?1936\) was a historian of the 17th century who collected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadside ballads ... but he left no writings about ballads and we do not know his motivations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferences? \(p. 17\). Firth left some very significant writings about broadside ballads ? Carnell lists 29 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications related to the subject.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 198.332 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 198.332 443.187 m 212.324 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 212.324 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Much in Ganev?s spirit Firth wrote that ballads ?throw a light upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the past which we could not derive from other sources?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.956 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.956 428.931 m 365.948 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 365.948 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Firth had an excellent analytical mind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and produced an interesting classification system for the ballad material he examined. From his writings we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can gain a good sense of his motivations and preferences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other falsifiable statements are too common in the book. Thus we read ?The music, or tune, was also more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fixed than the text. We seldom get the music notation in broadsides or chapbooks but we are often told the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name of the tune, which would have been well known at the time? \(p. 14\). Declaring that she will deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily with the texts, Ganev writes that the analysis of the music will have to be left to musicologists. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone with the slightest knowledge of the folk music scholarship of the last couple of centuries, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statement is rather naive. It has long been known that oral/aural tradition wreaks wondrous variation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change on music circulated by the medium, whilst at the same time maintaining elements of stability over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long periods of time. The more we examine printed and manuscript musical sources the more we realise that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such change is not limited to aurally circulating melodies, rather written music reflects changes in the use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and realisation of melodic material. This may be a reflection of aural processes but certainly has its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifestation in nothing we could describe as fixity. To see the changes wrought in successive written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versions of a workhorse ballad and dance tune such as ?Greensleeves? never fails to surprise and interest me. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ganev may well ?deal primarily with the words? \(p. 14\) but not fully to appreciate the malleability of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material we are dealing with seems a severe limitation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On p. 15 we find a number of dubious statements. We read ?Another way to date ballads is to look for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title in the lists kept by some printers like the London Stationers Company and John Pitts?. The Stationers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company was not a printer, it was a guild set up to regulate and control the trade in printed material; its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members were printers, bookbinders and booksellers. It settled disputes among members and \(of great value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the historian\) registered publications. On the same page we read ?When British folklorists began )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recording folk songs in the 1900s they were often surprised by the degree to which the same songs appeared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in different areas throughout Britain?. A very few of those who collected traditional songs might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described themselves as folklorists, but on the whole they would not, nor would folklorists have described )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them as such. Only a tiny number of song collectors belonged to the Folklore Society, although many were )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.3397 669.3415 84.3317 681.2215 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 198.3317 443.5015 212.3237 455.3815 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 351.9557 429.2455 365.9477 441.1255 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 5314 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imbued with the prevailing spirit of folklorism. The song collectors were musicians and musical amateurs. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And whilst it is true that the period from c.1900 to the Great War was something of a golden age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collecting, with luminaries like Sharp, Vaughan Williams and Grainger in action, they were building on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of people such as Herd, Ritson, Motherwell, Jamieson, Dixon, Child, the Broadwoods, Kidson, Barratt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Baring Gould who had made collections \(including, in many cases, collections of broadsheets ballads as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as songs from oral tradition\) over the previous century. Ganev uses the words ?musicologist? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?folklorist? in a way that shows that she does not have a significant appreciation of the disciplinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanings of these terms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ganev states ?It would be well if we could access the oral life of popular ballads or find evidence of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each of them was interpreted by people from different walks of life? \(p. 68\). The latter part of the statement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a tall order but one sometimes comes across interesting observations on songs by people from different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social positions. However, it is precisely ?the oral life of popular ballads? that collectors of traditional song )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been accessing for a couple of hundred years. That accessing began in the period that Ganev is writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about. The source material produced by collectors is not without its difficulties of use, but it well rewards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement. The ?afterlife? of some of the songs Ganev discusses in relation to the period 1700?1830 gives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong evidence of their hold on popular imagination.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I could continue in this vein. There are examples of factual errors and misconceptions throughout the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but suffice it to say that the work rests on an insecure foundation. We all make mistakes, but the breadth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding demonstrated here seems insufficient for the enterprise in hand. In reading the book the flow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the argument is constantly interrupted by statements and assertions that are dubious, insubstantial or just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plain wrong.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let me turn briefly to a consideration of some of the contents of the various chapters. The problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed above are all from chapter one, ?What are popular ballads and what can they tell historians?? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is some good content here: ballads transcended print; literacy was the basis of an expanding print )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade. There is some terminological confusion \(p. 13\) when the writer contrasts ?white letter? ballads \(a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medium, sheets printed with Roman rather than gothic, ?black letter? type\) with ?traditional ballads? \(a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genre, ballads transmitted by tradition and having stylistic characteristics\). In reality many white letter sheets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried traditional ballads. The identification of ?Jack of Newbury? as a traditional ballad \(p. 13\) is, to my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge, incorrect. )] TJ ET BT 141.320 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jack of Newbury)] TJ ET BT 221.972 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an early novel \(which contains some ballad material\) by Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deloney, who was also a ballad writer ? this might be the basis of the confusion. \(?Jack of Newbury? was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also produced as a comic opera in the 1790s!\) The chapter is mainly a synthesis of secondary sources, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular rather than scholarly in approach. There is a disarming lack of discrimination about the relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality of the work synthesised. Most surprisingly there is a lack of discussion of the excellent writings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Fox, whose work is much more significant than a number of the authors cited, but perhaps overlooked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because its date range ends in 1700.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 206.312 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 206.312 274.371 m 220.304 274.371 l S endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 206.3117 274.6855 220.3037 286.5655 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6780 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The discourse of the book improves when the writer starts interacting with source materials rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summarising other people?s work, even if some of the interpretations are disputable. In chapters two and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three Ganev explores the use of ballad as social criticism. She makes much of what seems to be a ?gap? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the publication of songs of complaint ?after 1700? \(p. 44\). Yet in a footnote she states ?This is not a precise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(date. The first songs of rural complaint I have found in the eighteenth century come from the Douce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection, and could have been printed anywhere between 1736 and 1766? \(p.70, n.12\). Half a century is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially reduced to just over a third of a century and this supposed gap may simply be an illusion caused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the chance survival of evidence. One of the problems with ballad material \(in contrast say to newspaper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts\) is that it is often hard or impossible to give the specific chronologies with which many historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are most comfortable. Those good people at the Bodleian Library who have tried to specify printer?s dates of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operation give me the impression of expressing less certainty about their findings than Ganev does. I am not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputing that the content of ballad material changed over time in response to changing circumstances, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dates are not as certain as Ganev wants them to be. Equally if we ignore the long term continuities of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular ballad repertory we distort our perception of the evidence, and these continuities can be very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In seeking to fit a tight chronological framework the histories of songs themselves tend to be ignored. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a discussion of the song ?When my old hat was new? which Ganev states was ?printed in numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versions around 1800? \(p. 84\) although later in the book she writes ?the earliest version I could find comes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1820?4? \(p. 91\). She appropriately relates the song to feelings against enclosure around that time. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this may well be true, but Ganev seems not to have noticed that by 1800 this was already a very old song )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed. As ?When this old cap was new? or ?Times alteration? it is preserved in the Roxburgh and Pepys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ballad collections. The song was written by the ballad writer Martin Parker around 1620 and celebrates an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagined past time of hospitality and good manners ?when this old cap was new?. Versions and glimpses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the song can be detected in 18th-century sources. What is particularly interesting about the song is the way it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survived and was adapted to changing circumstances. The song was known to the poet John Clare; had an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afterlife beyond the early years of the 19th century; and 20th-century folk song collectors found versions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it in Hampshire, Durham and Aberdeenshire. More recently it has been heard in the repertories of performers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of traditional song and has been recorded a number of times. A life of approaching 400 years for an evolving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(song is moderately impressive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although ?plebeian representations of social tensions were balanced by a far larger body of literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portraying a harmonious social world? \(p. 44\) the songs of protest are significant and Ganev draws our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to some interesting examples supporting the traditional ?moral economy?. The use of ?The miller?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advice to his three sons in taking of toll? \(p. 47\) can hardly be taken as indicative of a new mood or attitude. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have not traced the song earlier than c. 1750 but it expresses an old idea of millers as cheats and swindlers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(they are also often cast as sexually opportunistic\). A ballad of the later 17th century says:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 237.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But yet for all those callings, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am a )] TJ ET BT 97.004 222.994 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Miller)] TJ ET BT 127.004 222.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( born, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 208.594 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And out of e'ry Bushel, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 194.309 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I pinch a peck of Corn.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 174.656 194.309 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 174.656 192.915 m 188.648 192.915 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 156.053 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My use of this quotation reminds me that the amount of source material reproduced in historical writing is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 141.797 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often a hard question of balance. Given the relative obscurity and difficulty of access of a lot of the material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.541 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ganev draws on I am not sure she gives anywhere near enough. The cases in which she reproduces images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.285 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of whole songs are valuable as this allows us at least to contextualise extracts)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.029 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ganev is prone to making statements, sometimes contentious statements, and giving little or no evidence to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 72.773 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support them. Thus she writes: ?Many ballads about poaching appear to be from the late nineteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.517 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but there are a few from the early 1800s?. One of the classic English poaching songs, ?The death of Bill )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 174.6557 193.2295 188.6477 205.1095 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 5035 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown? relates to a known incident that happened in 1769 \(Ganev comments on this song on p. 97\). ?In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thorneymoor Woods? was circulating in Sussex before The Rev. John Broadwood published it in 1843 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is on broadsides of a similar or earlier vintage. ?The Rufford Park poachers? is based on an incident which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred in 1851. Tasmania changed its name from Van Diemen's Land upon being granted colonial self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government in 1856; it was a penal colony for most of the first half of the 19th century and is named as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destination of convicted poachers in a number of songs. It is true that later 19th-century ballad printers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to issue songs about poaching and the crime continued to be significant, but I find no evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that many poaching songs are late 19th century in origin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On p. 78 Ganev makes a distinction between ?the social cost of enclosure? and ?its economic impact on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor?; I am not sure what this distinction means. John Clare certainly articulated an aesthetic view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detrimental effect of enclosure, remembering the pre-enclosure land as ?this sweet vision of my boyish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hours?. But Clare she claims, citing other writers, avoided ?the argument that enclosure impoverished the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasantry? \(p. 78\). I am not sure how one can read Clare?s echoing lines)] TJ ET BT 64.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inclosure came and trampled on the grave)] TJ ET BT 64.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of labour's rights and left the poor a slave.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.472 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.472 547.491 m 282.464 547.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without thinking this has clear economic implications; it is the loss of rights to unenclosed and common land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that has destroyed the labourer?s degree of economic independence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters four and five deal with the celebration of the life of work and the celebration of rural labourers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality. Craft pride is an important and perhaps under-explored topic and relates to notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence and self-reliance. One would have thought that a discussion of Gerald Porter?s book on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Occupational Song )] TJ ET BT 190.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have figured here but it is not even in the bibliography. The writer has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a way of rendering subtle and nuanced accounts of some writers into bald and over-generalising one-liners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that reflect none of the complexity of the sources. She writes, for example: ?Historians tend to conclude that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the literary/artistic celebrations of the supposed pleasures of manual work were false while accounts of pain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were true?. This sweeping statement is referenced to Keith Thomas?s ?Introduction? to )] TJ ET BT 455.588 370.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Oxford Book of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Work. )] TJ ET BT 66.008 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a similar way we are also told that ?Harvest songs accompanied the celebrations after harvest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both north and south. There is no evidence regarding what particular songs were performed at these times ...? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first sentence is true, the second is not; songs specifically for harvest home have been collected in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and Scotland and older sources preserve what look like harvest home songs. In addition literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of the custom give significant detail of singing. Ronald Hutton comments on the eclecticism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(songs sung at the events but also records specific harvest songs.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 340.304 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 340.304 283.395 m 354.296 283.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 354.296 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hutton?s work does not appear in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.4717 547.8055 282.4637 559.6855 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 340.3037 283.7095 354.2957 295.5895 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 6373 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is in chapter five, ?Milkmaids and ploughmen: the celebration of rural labourers? sexuality? that Ganev )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes closest to some of my own work. Ganev is keen to stress the importance of an ideal of ?peasant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beauty and attractiveness? \(p. 149\) which was defined against a notion of ?impotent nobility?. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something in this but it may be little more than a version of the country versus city trope, which Ganev )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admits \(p. 153\). It also seems to be an idea that circulated among the educated rather than rural labourers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She stresses that songs ?allowed female characters considerable agency? and that ?the sexuality of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labouring men and women was celebrated by popular ballads? \(p. 151, see also p. 217\). What is meant here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by celebrated and who is doing the celebrating? She commends me for cautioning against the idea that songs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected reality and then seems to proceed in some ways as if they did. Thus we read of the ?considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual freedom? \(p. 166\) of the period, which was nevertheless subject to ?limits of what was sexually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permissible?. The book jacket picks up on these ideas, commenting on the ?free and easy sexuality of rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers? in the period. Ganev writes that illegitimacy is ?seldom described as a disaster? in songs \(p. 162\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not so, abandonment and illegitimacy is the theme of a considerable number of moving and eloquent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(songs.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My true love hath left me I know not why)] TJ ET BT 64.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Left me and my baby in sorrow to cry,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My father and mother forget I never shall)] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How they?ve turned their backs on the Wandering Girl.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.956 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.956 480.723 m 344.948 480.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 443.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The girl, first promised marriage and then abandoned by her lover, is rejected by parents and friends in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(song issued in York in the early years of the 19th century. Physically and emotionally ruined by what has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened to her the song ends with a warning to other young women: ?Never trust to a man in any degree?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ganev writes ?Porter and Hall?s argument that sex was only allowed between courting couples where there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 374.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an expectation of marriage, and that loose women or men who brought bastards into the world would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 360.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemned is not verified by my evidence? \(p. 162\). I suggest the problem is not with Porter and Hall. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Generally, Ganev offers no significant engagement with writers that have come to interpretations that are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly different from hers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 305.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ganev?s vision of pre-industrial society is not a fully worked through or integrated one. It runs counter to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 291.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the image of a regulating and in some ways self-regulating society, constrained by custom and sanction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 277.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gossip, rough music, church courts, the petty sessions and the poor law, that has been carefully built up in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent years by historians, even given some loosening of customary restraint in the later 18th century. Ganev )] TJ ET BT 34.016 248.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to both know something of the social and economic history of class and gender relations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously resist fully understanding the implications of this knowledge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work of the evangelical reformer Hannah More forms the subject matter of chapter six. Here we are on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firmer grounds and the work draws on some good secondary sources. More both despised popular ballads as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 179.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?dirty and indecent stuff? \(p. 161\) and made use of the idiom to promote her views about how the lower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 165.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orders should behave. Ganev writes of More?s ?fake ballads? \(p. 107\) and she feels it is clear that ?the poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could distinguish between culture that was created by them or reflected their values and culture that that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 136.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposed upon them from above \(p. 208\). In many cases this was probably true, but it is interesting to note )] TJ ET BT 34.016 122.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a century after More had published her Cheap Repository Tracts, the moralistic ballad ?The ploughboys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 108.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dream?, written not by More but by her associate Rev. William Mason and published by her, was found in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oral tradition by song collectors in England and Scotland.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 310.328 94.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 310.328 92.835 m 324.320 92.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 324.320 94.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It had been reprinted on ballad sheets and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 79.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become part of oral culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 53.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are many other aspects of the book I could comment on, \(for example, the unqualified statements of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 45 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.9557 481.0375 344.9477 492.9175 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 310.3277 93.1495 324.3197 105.0295 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R ] /Contents 52 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Length 7366 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions as truths, the relationship between popular ballads and the work of ?peasant poets?, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting but problematic area, and the whole issue of the way that Ganev makes quantitative statements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which are simply not provable or for which no quantitative evidence is given\) but this response to the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is already too long. There are some passages of interest and insight in the book but I have not enjoyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading it or writing this review. I wanted this book to be a significant contribution to a fascinating if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat specialist area of research. It fails to be this. The noise created by the problems of the text tends to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drown out the interesting things the writer has to say. The writer must bear responsibility for this, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something must also be said about the role of academic supervisors and examiners \(it has all the signs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originating as a PhD\), and publishers and their readers \(a university press in this case\), in the process of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s formation and production. One feels the writer could and should have been helped to produce a much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better book than here offered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 619.011 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example, V. A. C. Gatrell, )] TJ ET BT 230.648 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hanging Tree: Execution and the English People 1770?1868)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1994\); Patrick Joyce, )] TJ ET BT 213.320 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visions of the People: Industrial England and the Question of Class, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1848?1914)] TJ ET BT 118.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1994\). J. A. Sharpe, ??Last Dying Speeches?: religion, ideology and public )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(execution in seventeenth century England?, )] TJ ET BT 275.972 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 357.968 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 107 \(1985\). Interestingly, only Gatrell )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features in Ganev?s bibliography.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 225.980 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 225.980 529.971 m 279.968 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter W. Carnell, )] TJ ET BT 150.332 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ballads in the Charles Harding Firth Collection of the University of Sheffield: A )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Descriptive Catalogue with Indexes)] TJ ET BT 235.664 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Sheffield, 1979\) pp. xiii-xiv.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 379.988 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 379.988 501.459 m 433.976 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. H. Firth, ?The ballad history of the reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII?, )] TJ ET BT 431.600 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transactions of the Royal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Society )] TJ ET BT 153.344 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2 \(1908\), 21.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.336 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.336 472.947 m 269.324 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 460.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Fox, )] TJ ET BT 121.016 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oral and Literate Culture in England, 1500?1700)] TJ ET BT 361.364 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.012 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.012 458.691 m 494.000 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jovial Tom of all trads)] TJ ET BT 173.360 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [sic], )] TJ ET BT 203.684 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(or, The Various cries of London-city to the tune of A Begging we will go)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([broadsheet, London, 1687?].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 208.652 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 208.652 430.179 m 262.640 430.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 417.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Selected Poems and Prose of John Clare)] TJ ET BT 259.988 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Eric Robinson and Geoffrey Summerfield \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1967\) 169?70.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 133.340 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 133.340 401.667 m 187.328 401.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 388.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ronald Hutton, )] TJ ET BT 141.020 388.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Stations of the Sun : A History of the Ritual Year in Britain)] TJ ET BT 445.376 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1996\) 342?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 373.155 m 118.004 373.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 360.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bodleian Library Broadside Ballads, Firth b.34 \(306\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.328 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.328 358.899 m 376.316 358.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 346.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9 See )] TJ ET BT 93.344 346.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cheap Repository Shorter Tracts)] TJ ET BT 252.344 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. \(London, 1798\) 417?8. )] TJ ET BT 371.996 346.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marrowbones: English Folk Songs )] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(from the Hammond and Gardiner Manuscripts)] TJ ET BT 289.004 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. 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