%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021212145+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021212145+01'00') /Title (War and Welfare: British Prisoner of War Families, 1939-45) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4335 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(War and Welfare: British Prisoner of War Families, 1939-45)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Hately-Broad?s purpose is to insert the neglected subject of British prisoner-of-war \(POW\) families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the history of army, navy and air force families during the Second World War, a subject that is itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather thinly tackled by historians. She casts light on the part played by the families of POWs through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lobbying, support mechanisms, and communications with the absent prisoners, alongside more familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(POW narratives of male bravery and suffering The hardships suffered by POW families, particularly wives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also on her agenda. More widely, Hately-Broad links family conditions to the development of a welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state that had difficulty internalising anything other than the ?classic? at-home family of the married couple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with children. She shows how the armed services and the British state grew to recognise a duty of care for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting forces and their families during the 19th and 20th centuries, but finds the exercise of care to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dilatory, cumbersome, and inadequate. The war in which welfarist principles became irresistible \(1939?45\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is no exception in her view. She does not deny that modern and total war )] TJ ET BT 386.636 145.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(does)] TJ ET BT 408.632 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( bring welfare, as the general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view holds, but severely questions the value and the extent of the welfare extended to service families.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hately-Broad points out a virtual absence of interest in POW families in conventional narratives of the war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and shows that this is equally true in feminist revisionist histories of the war. She aims to fill the gap, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also to give voice to POW families themselves. This is no easy task, as POW families? informal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(localised methods do not leave many traces in personal or official records. Despite her best efforts \(and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(981)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 October, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Hately-Broad)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719078545)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sally Sokoloff)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7464 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an adapted PhD with close on a third of the book taken up with notes and bibliography\), engaging with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of POW families proves to be largely a top-down exercise, relying on governmental and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative records. Some personal papers, memoirs, and memories of POW families are unearthed for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use in the book, but in truth this is a thin source. Given how much ordinary people did commit to paper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the war, this lacuna is in itself testimony to the reticence with which society, including the families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves, surrounded POWs. More discussion of this and of the frame of mind of the home front towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its unproductive captive men in Europe and in the Far East, would be welcome. Indeed, the subject would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefit from more reflection on the socially determined nature of individual and common memory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hately-Broad recognises that the wartime principles of equality and fairness on the home front could be used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to deny decent treatment for particular groups, as much as to develop welfare provision ? as the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the home front has it. This is very clear in the government?s response to the Army Morale Reports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that reported the concerns of men fighting abroad for many years in Africa or the East. Men were aware of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the civilian ordeal, believed that the state stood in place of the absent husband, and so asked that their wives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and families should be specially nurtured on the home front in Britain. However, the government?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to equality among women and children on the home front was used to deny the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special privileges for service families beyond an over-leisurely expansion of the allowances system that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already operated during the Second World War. If this was the case for the families of active servicemen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the field, it was equally applied to the families of more morally problematic prisoners-of-war, and there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no particular recognition of the specific anxieties and truncated communication that they suffered. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much easier for the state to relegate the needs of servicemen and POWs to the voluntary sector in the shape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Soldiers, Sailors and Air Force Families Association \(SSAFA\) or the Red Cross, and to regard the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local committees for POW support as unofficial and less valid .)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first two chapters overview the development of state responsibility for service families from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crimean War onwards. Charities were regarded as less demeaning to families in the Victorian period, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their provision was increasingly displaced by the growth of status-based benefits and of conscription in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th century. The availability and level of allowances to service families, whether the serviceman was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional, a volunteer, or a conscript, grew greatly during the First World War, albeit hinged with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions about the nature of the family and the ?good behaviour? expected of wives. The second chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes and analyses the evolving allowance systems of the 20th century. Hately-Broad shows the levels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratic confusion and delay, the inadequacy of rates of allowances, and the public debates about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowances in the forces that largely took place in Parliament because servicemen were forbidden to lobby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about their pay. In general, benefits to families were at a level where state responsibility could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated, where public concern would never get out of hand, and where taxpayers? money would not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?squandered?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters three to six focus in on POWs and their families. Chapter three \(?Dead, missing, or prisoner of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war??)] TJ ET BT 62.660 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\) )] TJ ET BT 69.656 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how the classification of men by the forces impacted on the status of dependants and on their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(types and levels of allowances. Once a man was known to be dead, his allowance was replaced by pension. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This change was disadvantageous to widows, and some British soldiers left off their dog tags during combat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so as to postpone identification if they should die. If a man was ?missing?, the time allowed before being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed dead was varied from time to time during the war and from war theatre to theatre. Men?s fates at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sea were particularly difficult to call in non-European waters. The British Army did not follow the Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Army in adopting a status of ?missing assumed prisoner? that might have cut this Gordian knot. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and here the administration was more sensible than Hately-Broad seems prepared to admit, the situation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Far East and the Pacific as the Japanese swept through, led to a more open-ended admission that a man?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fate might be unknown for a long time, even for years, and that declaring a woman a widow too soon opened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the door to bigamy. \(Indeed, in 1945, husbands turned up at the door of wives who had remarried.\) The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese were not bound by the Geneva Convention to a prompt declaration of who was a POW: they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only callous in this matter, they also held a cultural assumption that it would be shaming for a family to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learn their man had been taken prisoner.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four \(?The fortunes of war?\) examines the economic difficulties that POW families had. POW )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7630 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers? families had a particularly difficult time because the officer was expected to make arrangements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his bank about making funds available to his family before going abroad. If he had been negligent, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities were hesitant to intrude into his bank account and to infringe his independence. Makeshift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrangements were eventually made, but Hately-Broad estimates 100s of hard cases where substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpayment may have resulted in family hardship. The obsession with officers? kit, and its location and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ownership, which was prevalent in the First World War, continued into the later war. \(?Other ranks? had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fewer possessions to fuss over.\) General findings about the system emerge in this chapter. Administrators )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a pathological fear of overpaying recipients of allowances, born of the Treasury ethos and of a residual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor law attitude towards claimants assumed to be on the make. The air force had more commonsense and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanity than the other services.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five ?Nobody would tell you anything? clarifies the many official and unofficial channels through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which POW families could learn about their men and communicate with them. The author flays the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration \(especially the army\) for over-complexity, complacency, and inefficiency with regard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(POW administration. POW families were at the bottom of the feeding chain when it came to information and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support from government agencies, whether military or civil. During periods of large captures of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces such as Dunkirk and Singapore, it could take months before a man?s fate and location as a POW was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known. Hately-Broad makes much of these sorry stories of administrative foot-dragging, errors, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misunderstandings with POW families that she finds in the government papers, speculating ? probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correctly ? on how the real scale of inefficiency and uncaringness may have been much wider. Families, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, were relatively uncomplaining. \(I will come back to this point later.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six ?By ourselves, for ourselves)] TJ ET BT 227.984 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 233.984 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( examines POW families? self-help and their relations with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant charities. The home front was awash with charities, national and local, some dating back to the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War such as the British Legion, others new to the Second World War, who concerned themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with POWs, but less so with families. Voluntary bodies dealt with much of the nitty-gritty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communications in the shape of parcels and letters, \(notably the British Red Cross\), of support for families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(such as SSAFA\), and of information and self-support among POW families \(POW Relatives Association, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local branches of POWRA and of the Red Cross\), and of any lobby of a political kind for POW interests. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They tended to function in competition with each other, and could evade responsibility when complexities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and irregularities occurred, sometimes literally passing the parcel. Official agencies could be cavalier in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of the voluntary groups and bodies, underestimating the value of relatives? concerns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations, and showing a particular disdain for ?ladies? who were relatives of POWs. In general the Red )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cross shouldered the burden of public responsibility, even if the culprits giving poor service were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governmental, such as the Post Office, only occasionally bumping elbows with SSAFA. Hately-Broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a strong inclusive history of these organisations and their work in this chapter. Once again she is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stronger with administrative sources than personal ones, which do seem rather scant, though there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question that this historian has looked for them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven ?The rate for the job? looks at the public debates about pay, conditions, and allowances in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war forces, resuming the historical perspective shown in the introduction. It concludes with a discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the relative lack of support given by the state to returning POWs and their families. Their repatriation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received a hesitant response from government and voluntary organisation, fearful of interfering in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence and in the privacy of the restored family unit. Hately-Broad melds their issues with those of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returning servicemen, drawing on a growing recent historical concern with the millions of men who had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be reintegrated into a British society greatly changed by Home Front experiences of war. There is a rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfinished air about this chapter. The remainder of this review comments on the book?s sources, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engages with the author?s analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author omits one memoir of a POW family that is relatively well known in Home Front literature ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clara Milburn?s diaries.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 150.332 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 150.332 91.299 m 164.324 91.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 164.324 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Mrs Milburn shares with her diary the capture of her unmarried officer son )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Dunkirk retreat of 1940, her \(polite\) exasperation when the Red Cross read a list wrongly and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misinform her of his location in Germany, her anxiety when it transpires that he had been wounded, and her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the flow of resources to her son until his release in 1945. Typically the Milburns hear precise )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 150.3317 91.6135 164.3237 103.4935 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7153 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(news of Alan in 1940 from fellow officers and their families, who operate a phone network while their sons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are POWs in Germany, well before the War Office catches up with the situation. Alan Milburn broadly gets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what the Geneva Convention promises to officers. He spends his time in study, gardening, amateur plays, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(camp sociability, and farm work. His family at home are a material and psychological resource rather than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial drain on him. Mrs Milburn is rather unreflective, and yet her diary can provide a valuable discourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding men in captivity. ?Monday 17th January 1944. He has had very few letters lately. He has now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heard about his exam. Gardening is occupying a lot of time and for serious reading he has studied The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beveridge Report ? Alan! Gosh! He has also been out for a walk, ?very pleasant to get away from one?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fellow-men?. They must get a bit sick of each other.? And ?Monday 14th February 1944. A letter for Jack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today, dated 20.1.44 ? quite a quick journey for it. He wrote mostly of engineering matters, but at the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(says he has begun to smoke a pipe! ?We rather hope it continues. A man is so much more companionable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a pipe.?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Milburn returns home in 1945 in good shape, takes up his career as a draughtsman, and gets married. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He is well nurtured by his family for whom his absence was more distressing than their experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombing and rationing in Warwickshire. Mrs Milburn?s diary also provides accounts of the POW relatives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups and meetings in the South Midlands. In general, Hately-Broad is keener to comment on the factual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accuracy of information given in family sources rather than to analyse their attitudes and emotional flow. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Milburns adore Churchill, hate the Germans when the Ministry of Information bids them, and rarely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complain about the War Office or the Red Cross. They do not easily fit the image of the POW family that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hately-Broad tends to privilege ? the husband a POW, the wife inarticulate and put-upon by home front life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and by her status, the children deprived of a father, and the family economy dependent on a grudging state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and thus rather shaky.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another facet that Hately-Broad does not discuss is the issue of returning POWs having to render some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months of further conscription. They also shared post-war reserve status with other ex-servicemen, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many were called up for the Korean war. We hear of just one case of hardship. POWs had the last bits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their armed service extracted from them at a stage in their life when they had had enough of authority and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were deeply needful of time with their families. This is another situation where the language of equality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be used by the authorities \(why should an ex-POW be treated more generously than the normal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting man?\) and could coincide with a feeling that some labour contribution needed to be extracted from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men who had sat out the war in camps, whether dire or just plain Spartan.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More generally, Hately-Broad?s view that British POW families were disadvantaged sufferers from neglect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the British state is questionable. Playing devil?s advocate, one can point to the voluntary and unofficial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations that kept POWs in the public mind, and the level of military and civil attention to the incomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and allowances of POW families. All this was not bad by the standards of the Second World War. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Community-level creativity, and a rough-and-ready commitment to fairness \(if not equality\) was shown by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime Britain in its dealings with POW issues. All services wives had a tough time during the war, with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very high proportion of wives, including those with young children, having to take up paid work to survive. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The only alternative was to save expenditure by living with parents or in-laws. It is true that neither )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government nor armed forces saw reason to put discussion of POWs at the front of their concerns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies and they could be dilatory in working out policies for POW groups in particular theatres of war that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have been planned for. However, families suffered little from public disdain. Their menfolk were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded as cowards or traitors: the warmth with which ?retreating? British soldiers were greeted on coming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home from Dunkirk is instructive on this point. POWs remained as good a cause for philanthropy as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been in the First World War. In the economy of sacrifice of 1939?45, it ill behoved POW families to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whinge too much, and their unhappy voices remained private. Social relations and bonds could provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support of the type that the French in the Vichy state also directed at their POWs in German hands: Hately-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Broad makes instructive comparisons with other countries throughout the book. POW wives could garner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same public approval for their Home Front efforts as other women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British POWs were spared repatriation to defeated or divided homelands that Japanese and German POWs )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 3476 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced, in some cases as much as a decade after the end of the war.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 381.896 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 381.896 795.075 m 395.888 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 395.888 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is true that returning POWs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their families were left to sort out adjustment very much on their own, and that they received no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concessions from the state such as immunity from the men seeing out their period of conscription. They had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more or less the same access to the evolving Welfare State as other citizens. However, the latter was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common condition in 1945 for demobilised men, and partly mitigated by the priority that the state gave to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men above women in the labour market and to the ?traditional? family headed by a man. The feminist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians who Hately-Broad finds limited in their view of POWs have a significant general point to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here. However, she is right to link the POW families with the general issues of the status, conditions, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomes of service families. She also shows the seesaw of public attitudes across two centuries. Soldiers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sailors and airmen received approbation and better conditions in time of war than they did once wars were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over, and the same was true for their families.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 619.011 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mrs Milburn?s Diaries: An Englishwoman?s Day-to-Day Reflections 1939?45)] TJ ET BT 442.328 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Peter Donnelly )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1980\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 572.739 m 196.328 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Biess Homecomings: )] TJ ET BT 203.348 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Returning POWs and the Legacies of Defeat in Postwar Germany)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.336 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.336 544.227 m 224.324 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 519.365 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 500.383 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 482.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 482.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/981)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 481.209 m 322.316 481.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 456.232 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5066)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 381.8957 795.3895 395.8877 807.2695 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 573.0535 196.3277 584.9335 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 170.3357 544.5415 224.3237 556.4215 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 481.5235 322.3157 493.4035 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/981) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000650 00000 n 0000005037 00000 n 0000005146 00000 n 0000005256 00000 n 0000005365 00000 n 0000008926 00000 n 0000009054 00000 n 0000009138 00000 n 0000009203 00000 n 0000016720 00000 n 0000016804 00000 n 0000024487 00000 n 0000024517 00000 n 0000024644 00000 n 0000024680 00000 n 0000024745 00000 n 0000031951 00000 n 0000032056 00000 n 0000035585 00000 n 0000035615 00000 n 0000035743 00000 n 0000035779 00000 n 0000035907 00000 n 0000035962 00000 n 0000036090 00000 n 0000036145 00000 n 0000036273 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36368 %%EOF