%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819051607+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819051607+01'00') /Title (A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4135 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How a country deals with enemy nationals within its territory during times of war is as much an issue today )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as it has ever been. In the western world these days such enemy nationals are most likely to be involved in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?war on terror?, and can be found masked behind a multiplicity of nationalities. During the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War, the list of enemy nationals was perhaps more clearly defined for the Allies. Once war had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declared by Great Britain on Germany, German and Austrian nationals at once became enemy aliens, soon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed by the Italians. In the United States of America, the day after the devastating attack by the Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Pearl Harbor, war was declared by the Allies on Japan; and, a few days later, America was at war with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany also. Whereas Britain had previous experience of dealing with enemy nationals, having interned all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German males during the First World War, America was comparatively unschooled in this area \(if one does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not count the relocation of Native Americans in the previous century\). Of course, not only was Britain at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war; but its dominions were also, including, most significantly in this case, Canada. Robinson, in his latest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to the field of literature on Second World War internment in Allied countries, has entered into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world of comparative history by undertaking the first study of North American internment as a cohesive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole, by examining the internment, or ?confinement?, of those of Japanese ancestry in both the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States and Canada.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not content with the ability of the existing lexicon of internment to adequately convey the internment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(983)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 October, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greg Robinson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780231129220)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(408pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Columbia University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel Pistol)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8000 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, Robinson has introduced a new terminology to the field. There are good reasons for Robinson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice of the word ?confinement? instead of ?internment?. As Robinson highlights, internment, in its true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense, refers to the ?detention of enemy nationals by a government during wartime? \(p. 2\). While America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did in fact intern enemy nationals in Justice Department camps during the war, the scope of Robinson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study is primarily concerned with the ?removal? of Japanese Americans to ?camps?. Therefore his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terminology is justified, as Japanese Americans were citizens of the United States, and therefore should not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been thus categorised as enemy nationals. Similarly, in Canada, Japanese Canadians, citizens by birth, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were denied their rights by being classed in the same category as native Japanese. There can be no doubt of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the implicit racism inherent in the actions of the governments of both the United States and Canada at this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time. Those of Japanese ancestry were singled out for victimisation solely because of their racial ancestry. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whereas other enemy nationals such as Germans and Italians were entitled to loyalty hearings where they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could ?prove? their loyalty to the nation, Japanese Americans were denied this right, ironically because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?would be a dangerous precedent for examining the loyalty of American citizens? \(p. 180\). And so, loyal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese Americans and Canadians found themselves ousted from their homes and livelihoods, forced to eke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out an existence in some of the harshest climates and remotest locations in their respective countries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In previous work, Robinson has examined the involvement of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signing of Executive Order 9066, which authorised the removal of approximately 110,000 Japanese and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese Americans from the West Coast of America, and their subsequent confinement for any time up to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the entire duration of the war. Interestingly, in )] TJ ET BT 258.644 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Tragedy of Democracy)] TJ ET BT 379.616 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the role of Eleanor Roosevelt is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlighted, and attention is given to how the first lady praised the loyalty of Japanese Americans. Yet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite her praise, she was unable to intercede effectively for them as a group within government circles. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While much has been written on Japanese American internment over the last few decades, Robinson has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managed to create something that brings a fresh perspective to the field. Not only does he analyse the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarities and differences between confinement in Canada and America, but he does so within a larger time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frame than most. Starting with Japanese immigration to North America in the 19th century, Robinson sets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scene for their eventual confinement by describing the anti-Japanese sentiment in both countries. When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put into a larger legal context, it is possible to see that the build up to removal and confinement of those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese ancestry in the Second World War began from the moment Japanese immigrants set foot on North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American soil. In America, anti-alien land acts were passed to deny the Japanese the right to own land in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western states such as California, Oregon and Washington. Japanese were excluded from working as public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants or voting in British Columbia. Anti-Japanese sentiment was expressed by multiple groups over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entire West Coast, sometimes violently. The Japanese were hard workers who often built up profitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farming enterprises on poor plots of land, a source of antagonism between the Japanese and white farmers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the latter envying the former?s industry. The Second World War proved to be the catalyst for anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese groups to bond together with the aim of ousting their Asian neighbours in the interests of ?national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(security? ? an argument that few could argue against and still appear to the greater public as being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?patriotic?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historically, once a given action is argued to be in the interests of ?national security?, common sense tends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be discarded in place of hysteria. When a particular group of people is suspected of being a potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger to the nation, it is possible for unfounded allegations to spread like wildfire. The belief that Asian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(races were naturally shifty and untrustworthy was widespread before and during the Second World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the West Coast of the United States and Canada. Fears of the existence of a fifth column )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged Canada and the United States to introduce curfews and restrictions on those of Japanese ancestry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after Pearl Harbor, in order to guard against a possible Japanese invasion of the mainland. No differentiation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was made between native Japanese \()] TJ ET BT 209.624 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Issei)] TJ ET BT 231.620 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and American or Canadian citizens \()] TJ ET BT 414.236 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nisei)] TJ ET BT 438.908 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Some argued that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was because no-one could be sure that someone who appeared to be Japanese by their facial features would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not be attacked as retribution for Pearl Harbor; and therefore removal and confinement was really about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protecting the safety of the racial group as a whole. However removal and confinement were packaged in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each country, the truth remains that ?an unpopular group of American )] TJ ET BT 372.608 88.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(citizens)] TJ ET BT 408.608 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was singled out on a racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis and summarily dispossessed and incarcerated without charge. By arbitrarily confining American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens of Japanese ancestry, the government violated the essential principle of democracy: that all citizens )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8319 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are entitled to the same rights and legal protections?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 286.976 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 286.976 795.075 m 300.968 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 300.968 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The word ?Canadian? could easily be substituted for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?American? in the above quote, as such a damning indictment is equally true of the Canadian government. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Citizenship should not be something that can be arbitrarily removed at the whim of a government, even, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps especially, in time of war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Tragedy of Democracy)] TJ ET BT 154.988 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sets out to bring the field of Japanese confinement up to the present day by using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newly available resources available through the digitisation of archival stock. The book is clearly structured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by chapter headings that cover events from the arrival of Japanese immigrants in North America up to and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the redress movement of the 1970s and 1980s. Each chapter is then subdivided, which makes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book easily digestible and aids the historian in locating specific events. Robinson has condensed a huge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amount of research into a few hundred pages and yet does not sacrifice the detail. He has achieved exactly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what he set out to do, namely to document what is still, in some areas, a relatively unknown subject area, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an accessible way to both the novice and experienced reader of internment history. )] TJ ET BT 433.916 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Tragedy of Democracy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an excellent introduction for those wishing to know what happened in North America during the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War, why it happened, how it affected those confined, and what was done to compensate the victims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this stain on the Allies? record. In order to paint as full a picture as possible, Robinson draws on a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of sources including government files, personal papers, transcripts of interviews conducted with those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved on both sides of the barbed wire, and newspaper articles; as well as drawing on the diverse body of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary literature available on the subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Significantly, Robinson also touches on the transportation of Japanese from Peru to the United States of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America, their subsequent incarceration, and their fight against deportation after the war. Together with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aleuts and Pribilof Islanders, they form the ?forgotten? victims of internment, as highlighted in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government inquiry that took place 40 years after these events.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 335.288 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 335.288 471.699 m 349.280 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 349.280 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Robinson also discusses the effect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(martial law on Hawaii, an often neglected topic; as, in comparison with the mainland, those of Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancestry were allowed to continue their lives in relative freedom. However, as Robinson demonstrates by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of convictions for cases brought before military tribunals, martial law was hardly a desirable state of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs either. It is indeed possible, as Robinson concludes, that the ?sacrifice of the )] TJ ET BT 436.940 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Issei)] TJ ET BT 458.936 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 482.264 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nisei)] TJ ET BT 506.936 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepting removal may thus perhaps be said to have preserved the fundamental liberties of other West Coast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans? \(p. 246\). However, one would have to ask those who were confined whether this was a sacrifice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worth making. After the war it was proved that not a single spy employed by Japan was actually of Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancestry, demonstrating the true futility of the predominant racist beliefs of the time. Confinement served to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroy the close-knit ethnic communities established on the West Coast prior to the War, by causing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese and Japanese Americans to spread across the rest of the United States and east of the Rocky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mountains in Canada. Many who were confined carried the shame of the events of the Second World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with them for a lifetime. Truly it was only with the movement for redress, in which many of the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(players were the children of the Japanese American citizens interned \(or )] TJ ET BT 383.576 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sansei)] TJ ET BT 414.908 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), that many were finally able )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to draw a line under the whole drama.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the war, the all-)] TJ ET BT 146.324 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nisei)] TJ ET BT 170.996 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 442nd Regiment received more decorations than any other regiment of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable size. Through the incredible sacrifices that were made by men fighting for freedom when their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families were often still confined behind barbed wire within the World?s largest democracy, the Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were able to be recognised for what they invariably were: loyal to the United States. Robinson discusses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the 442nd, but also makes mention of the fact that those who resisted the draft should also be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised as courageous. The draft resisters decided to stand up and fight a government that denied them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their freedom and yet expected them to offer up their lives in service for their nation. Draft resisters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underwent incarceration and ostracism, but they did not falter, and after the war were offered presidential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pardons.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 75.008 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 75.008 131.811 m 89.000 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 89.000 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Whereas the Japanese Americans were able to demonstrate the loyalty of their ethnic group to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their Nation and thus ease their transition back into mainstream society, the Japanese Canadians were denied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a right. It cannot be denied that the decision to prevent loyal Japanese Canadians from fighting for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allies had extremely negative repercussions on the group as a whole, and caused problems for those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese ancestry attempting to reintegrate into a society that quite clearly did not welcome them.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 286.9757 795.3895 300.9677 807.2695 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 335.2877 472.0135 349.2797 483.8935 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 75.0077 132.1255 88.9997 144.0055 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 4891 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the western world attempts to negotiate its way in the ?post-9/11? landscape, )] TJ ET BT 421.964 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Tragedy of Democracy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serves as a timely reminder of how badly things can get out of control in times of war. Robinson devotes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last part of his conclusion to discussing the similarities between America?s actions in the Second World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the current ?war on terror?. In the aftermath of September 11th, revisionists expressed doubts about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese American loyalties in the Second World War and argued in favour of the extraordinary powers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(granted by Executive Order 9066. Interestingly enough, there was no such similar movement within Canada. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One cannot help but agree with Robinson?s final words concerning the importance of ?maintaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional safeguards, even ? especially ? in wartime? \(p. 304\). Robinson?s words serve as a warning to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us all that ?Governments and their leaders simply cannot be given arbitrary powers and trust on faith to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assure fundamental freedoms ? we owe it to ourselves to be jealous of our liberties? \(p.304\). There is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point in having a constitution if it can be discarded like a scrap of paper when the going gets tough. If the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western world truly believes in democracy, then it should take care to heed the lessons of the Second World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.499 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greg Robinson, )] TJ ET BT 143.012 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(By Order of the President: FDR and the Internment of Japanese Americans)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, MA, 2001\), p. 6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 207.668 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 207.668 532.227 m 261.656 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a more detailed analysis of all groups affected by internment in the United States of America see )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, )] TJ ET BT 464.996 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Personal Justice )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Denied)] TJ ET BT 98.672 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Washington, DC, 1997\), a combined publication of the reports that were published in 1982 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1983.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 111.344 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 111.344 475.203 m 165.332 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Eric L. Muller, )] TJ ET BT 159.332 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Free to Die for their Country: the Story of the Japanese American Draft Resisters )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in World War II)] TJ ET BT 141.008 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, IL, 2001\) for an in depth study of the draft resisters and the consequences )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their moral stand.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.336 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.336 432.435 m 215.324 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 407.573 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Cooperative)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/97.2/br_98.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 377.667 m 340.676 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 343.676 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 374.335 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 356.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 356.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/983)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 355.161 m 322.316 355.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 330.184 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.784 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5074)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.384 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/97.2/br_98.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 207.6677 532.5415 261.6557 544.4215 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 111.3437 475.5175 165.3317 487.3975 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.3357 432.7495 215.3237 444.6295 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 377.9815 340.6757 389.8615 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/97.2/br_98.html) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 355.4755 322.3157 367.3555 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/983) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000646 00000 n 0000004833 00000 n 0000004942 00000 n 0000005052 00000 n 0000005161 00000 n 0000008722 00000 n 0000008850 00000 n 0000008934 00000 n 0000008999 00000 n 0000017052 00000 n 0000017150 00000 n 0000025522 00000 n 0000025552 00000 n 0000025680 00000 n 0000025716 00000 n 0000025746 00000 n 0000025874 00000 n 0000025910 00000 n 0000025940 00000 n 0000026066 00000 n 0000026102 00000 n 0000026214 00000 n 0000031158 00000 n 0000031286 00000 n 0000031341 00000 n 0000031469 00000 n 0000031524 00000 n 0000031652 00000 n 0000031707 00000 n 0000031834 00000 n 0000031948 00000 n 0000032076 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32171 %%EOF