%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140920005147+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140920005147+01'00') /Title (Peaceable Kingdom Lost: The Paxton Boys and the Destruction of William Penn?s Holy Experiment) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3998 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Peaceable Kingdom Lost: The Paxton Boys and the Destruction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(William Penn?s Holy Experiment)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The massacres of Indians in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, by the Paxton Boys in December 1763, have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long been a notorious event in that part of the globe. A glance at Kevin Kenny?s bibliography provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of the continuous interest in the killings since the 19th century. Part of this, captured in this book, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the involvement, in the aftermath at least, of the state?s most famous citizen, Benjamin Franklin. Indeed his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fame contrasts sharply with the impossibility of establishing much about even the leaders of the Paxton Boys.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another reason for the fascination is surely the cold-blooded nature of the killings. This is not a tale of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instant retaliation for killings and scalpings by Indians, as part of the war that bedevilled this part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pennsylvania in the 1750s and 1760s. Instead, the slaughter was relatively well-planned and carried out in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two parts. First, was the attack on Conestoga Indiantown in mid-December where up to 60 men killed six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians in their homes. The other 14 members of this settlement were not at home during the killings and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took refuge in Lancaster workhouse, ten or so miles away. A fortnight later, two days after Christmas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the same size of group rode into town, broke into the workhouse and killed everyone inside. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horror of the event was captured in the account of the deaths of eight children among the fourteen Indians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There followed a few weeks of terror in Philadelphia as the Paxton Boys were said to be coming to the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(984)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 November, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Kenny)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780195331509)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eoin Magennis)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7384 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital to kill Moravian Indians sheltered there by the city authorities. Kenny describes these weeks superbly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the almost comical chapter fifteen as the rumours spread, the city militia proved difficult to array and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paxton Boys reached Germantown in early February 1764. The city?s Quakers do not emerge well from this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account, captured in the reproduced print \(p. 152\), ?The Paxton Expedition? \(which would have benefitted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a large reproduction to show the details\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the panic passed the story was not over. The Paxton Boys claimed the 500 acres granted to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conestoga Indians by ?right of conquest? but were driven off by provincial magistrates and their settlement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burned. At the same time the legal authorities never managed to bring the Paxton Boys to justice although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the identity of their leaders was well-known or, at least, not hidden. The limits of law enforcement were thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A decade of recurring violence followed, some of it aimed at Indians, and is detailed here. The pattern of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this, from the open clashes between ?Black Boys?, soldiers and Indian traders in Cumberland County in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1765 to the breaking out of jail of the Indian killer, Frederick Stump, in 1768, was one of open defiance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the authorities. Often the local elites, clergymen and military leaders, colluded with their fellow back-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country dwellers. Uniting them was an animus towards the Quaker majority in the Pennsylvania Assembly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, to a lesser degree, the Penn family.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenny locates the primary cause of the violence of the 1760s as the collapse of William Penn?s ?holy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiment? or ?Peaceable Kingdom?. He is certainly alive to other interpretations such as the ?frontier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school? of Frederick Jackson Turner and revisionists of this, such as Patrick Griffin.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.948 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.948 502.467 m 451.940 502.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 451.940 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frontier and land hunger are described here in detail. So too are the militarisation processes which preceded, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drove and survived the French and Indian War, beginning in the 1750s. As Fred Anderson has shown, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war was critical both to the imperial relationship and the question of violence which came to live at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre of any Indian policy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.316 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.316 445.443 m 180.308 445.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 180.308 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Kenny uses this historiography well, particularly for an historian whose first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area of interest was a century later. However, his interpretation of the Paxton Boys differs from others in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct link made to the Penn utopia and the impact upon this of the new settlers from Germany and Ireland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically Ulster.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Penn experiment was certainly a unique mixture of imperial policy \(of a royalist or hierarchical bent\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and genuine principles of compassion and tolerance arising from his Quaker beliefs. The latter are taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously by Kenny, as they were by the Delaware Indians \(whom Penn met in 1682\) and their descendants. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given his pacifism Penn was opposed to an armed militia for the new colony and thus his Indian policy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of pragmatic accommodation. The Delawares had good reason for accepting this, given their being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects of the Iroquois nation, a control they chafed at. Thus Penn and the Delawares agreed the purchase of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lands which formed eastern Pennsylvania, allowing the establishment of clear titles to land. This was not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?right of conquest? but something close to English property rights.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, these beginnings, which were themselves caught up in colonial practices ? albeit peaceful ones ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were soon betrayed. Part of the reason was, as Kenny describes, Penn?s need to ?turn a profit? \(p. 18\). He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to do so and died in debt, and his widow, heirs and agents were keen not to repeat this outcome. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through the 1720s and 1730s Thomas Penn and the key agent, James Logan, shifted policy. The taking of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lands from the Delawares became openly fraudulent in the ?Walking Purchase? of 1737 where the Indians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were expelled from their lands. Worse still, this policy was achieved by the Penns drafting in the Iroquois to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assert their authority over the Delawares. The scene, described here \(pp. 48?9\), where the Iroquois leader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dragged his Delaware subordinate, Nutimus, from the room by the hair marks a brutal contrast to the scene )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depicted on the book?s cover of William Penn meeting the Delawares in 1682. Not surprisingly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?burning grievance? created \(p. 49\) was probably a key to the war of the 1750s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is no doubt that the story of Indian policy is a difficult one for the non-specialist to follow. But it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical to the story and Kenny does a very good job of depicting the personalities \(from Sir William Johnson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Teedyuscung\) as well as the negotiations. The differing needs of the various Indian nations, the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the localised ambitions of the Penns and settlers from Connecticut or Maryland are all clearly delineated. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 437.9477 502.7815 451.9397 514.6615 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.3157 445.7575 180.3077 457.6375 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7646 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It?s hard to see any common good in this story ? it appears more like a tale of every man \(or group of men\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for himself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Into this combustible mix Kenny drops three other factors: the Anglo-French conflict in North America; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clash between the Quaker party and the Penn interest in the colony; and the arrival of new settlers and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitions. All three provide some context for what was to happen in December 1763 in Lancaster County. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Braddock?s defeat in 1755 meant that the French and their Indian allies were on the edge of Pennsylvania )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and raiding parties followed. The Quakers and proprietary interests were divided over raising a militia not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of pacifism but over the question of who would pay for the force and to whom it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible. Meanwhile the pacifists among the Quakers, led by Isaac Pemberton, sought to negotiate a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace and came to get a reputation for being ?Indian lovers? or busy-bodies interfering in Indian policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the meantime the Western settlers raged against the Quakers and formed their own Independent militias to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protect their own homes and fight alongside the British. These settlers, more realistically, squatters had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formed their own settlements with names redolent of west Ulster, such as Donegal, Derry \(interestingly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London prefix did not survive the Artlantic\) and Swatara \(probably a version of Swatragh in County Derry\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the time peace came in 1763 the ?peaceable kingdom? was anything but. It was divided into increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armed camps, poisoned by suspicion. In a sense the Conestoga Indians were the victims of this situation with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Paxton Boys being the weapon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The bitterness exploded into print after the Paxton Boys? killings. Kenny covers the ground well-known to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who have used John Dunbar?s edition of the pamphlet war but not to many others.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 457.964 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 457.964 502.467 m 471.956 502.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 471.956 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The anti-Paxton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphlets pick up on the contemporary anger at the predominantly Presbyterian Ulster settlers who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved. Their tendency to adopt Indian practices, in clothing and pasturage, were contrasted with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour of the frugal Germans \(p. 32\). Even more likely to insult was the comparison drawn between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paxton Boys and the Irish Catholic rebels of 1641. Franklin?s )] TJ ET BT 332.996 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative)] TJ ET BT 379.664 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( described them as ?Christian White )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Savages? and others depicted them as intolerant from Scotland to Ireland and on to New England \(see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter 18\). One author linked the events in Pennsylvania to the Hearts of Oak protests back in Ulster in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summer of 1763 which he said had attacked the monarchy. \(In fact much of the language of the Oakboys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(echoes the Paxton Boys? )] TJ ET BT 156.668 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Remonstrance)] TJ ET BT 225.320 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the denunciation of ?bad advisers? around the Penns.\) They had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their supporters, such as the local clergymen Presbyterian John Elder and Anglican Thomas Barton. The first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to pour the accusations of savagery back on to the Indians; the latter to use the events as a stick to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beat the Quaker Assembly with. \(This was in line with Barton?s ally, William Smith, who was jailed for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contempt in the 1750s for accusing the Assembly of betraying the settlers.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The pamphlet war was probably a ?score draw? but the Paxton Boys legacy came back to haunt the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pennsylvanian authorities. The Connecticut Susquehannah Company offered them land in the Wyoming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Valley in 1769. Some became mercenaries fighting the Pennylvania forces. By the time of the Revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Paxton Boys found themselves on the ?Patriot? side fighting the ?Tories? in the Penn interest. And, all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time, Indians in the Wyoming Valley were killed in the skirmishes and, as Kenny puts it, the brutality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen in Lancaster had become commonplace by 1776.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is essential reading not only for Americanists but also for those interested in the Irish diaspora. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows Kenny?s earlier book, )] TJ ET BT 181.652 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making Sense of the Molly Maguires)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.628 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.628 193.347 m 375.620 193.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 375.620 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in taking an archetypical American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story and seeing what looking at the ethnic angle can tell us. By doing so, not only was the history of Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America further explained but so, too, was an important and violent event on the coal-fields of the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States. The same is true of this book on the Paxton Boys a century earlier in Pennsylvania.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some readers will cavil at Kenny?s steadfast refusal to theorise about these events. They are not gendered, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnicised or linked to ideas about frontiers between civility and barbarity. For that reason, this is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat old-fashioned narrative style of history akin to the best of the recent work by Fred Anderson. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is both a strength and a weakness. The book presents a compelling inevitability about what happened not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only in December 1763 but also in the revolutionary period in the western counties of Pennsylvania. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time people do change with time. And so it proved with the Paxton Boys. For this reason it would be )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 457.9637 502.7815 471.9557 514.6615 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 361.6277 193.6615 375.6197 205.5415 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 5343 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting to know more of why some members of the Boys fought former allies in the Wyoming Valley in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1770s. Money or the promise of land might be the obvious answer but the episode might also offer a hint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of possible roads not taken. Still, this is a minor point and should not take away from what is a superb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to both Colonial American and Irish-American historiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.803 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For further detail on this historiography see James Merrell, )] TJ ET BT 349.976 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Into the American Woods: Negotiators on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Pennsylvania Frontier)] TJ ET BT 190.004 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1999\) and Patrick Griffin, )] TJ ET BT 380.960 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Leviathan: Empire, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nation and Revolutionary Frontier)] TJ ET BT 232.352 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.660 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.660 658.275 m 380.648 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fred Anderson, )] TJ ET BT 141.668 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crucible of War: The Seven Years War and the fate of empire in British North America)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.324 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.324 629.763 m 209.312 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Dunbar, )] TJ ET BT 131.672 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Paxton Papers)] TJ ET BT 223.664 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(The Hague, 1957\). An excellent article, published since Kenny?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book was published, also covers this ground; see Benjamin Bankhurst, ?A looking-glass for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterians: Recasting a prejudice in late colonial Pennsylvania?, )] TJ ET BT 390.968 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pennsylvania Magazine of History )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Biography)] TJ ET BT 135.680 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 133 \(2009\), 317?48.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.000 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.000 572.739 m 292.988 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Kenny, )] TJ ET BT 134.336 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making Sense of the Molly Maguires)] TJ ET BT 311.312 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York and Oxford, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 463.604 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 463.604 558.483 m 517.592 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 533.621 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 503.715 m 240.992 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Cooperative)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/97.1/br_14.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 475.203 m 340.676 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 343.676 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Books in History \(audio interview\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://newbooksinhistory.com/2009/08/28/kevin-kenny-peaceable-kingdom-lost-the-paxton-boys-and-the-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 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http://newbooksinhistory.com/2009/08/28/kevin-kenny-peaceable-kingdom-lost-the-paxton-boys-and-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the-destruction-of-william-penns-holy-experiment/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.6597 658.5895 380.6477 670.4695 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.3237 630.0775 209.3117 641.9575 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 238.9997 573.0535 292.9877 584.9335 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 463.6037 558.7975 517.5917 570.6775 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R 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