%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 31 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141024093520+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141024093520+01'00') /Title (Parties and People, England 1914-1951) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4305 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Parties and People, England 1914-1951)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1914, as in 1882, it was still close enough to true to suggest that ?Every boy and every gal/ That's born )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the world alive/ Is either a little? Liberal/ Or else a little Conservative?. 37 years later, the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political landscape was radically changed, although arguably its continuities were more remarkable than its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disjunctures. For one thing, the political reforms of 1918 and 1928 gradually saw nearly every gal over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age of 21 granted the right to express her political conviction at the polls, a right that had been denied to all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in national elections, and to a majority of women in local politics. But, while the enfranchisement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women transformed English politics in many respects, it cannot be credited with the other biggest shock to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political system in this period: the rise of the Labour party, and the concurrent collapse of the Liberals. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For, while ?votes for women? did not revolutionize English politics as much as either the suffragettes had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promised or the anti-suffragettes had feared, the one notable difference between male and female voters in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interwar period is the latter?s apparent greater preference for the Conservative party. In order to explain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rise of Labour and the collapse of the Liberals, we must, then, look to a different set of explanations, and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is with these that Ross McKibbin opens )] TJ ET BT 237.356 116.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parties and the People, England 1914-1951)] TJ ET BT 448.676 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McKibbin begins by positing two competing theories: first, that the rise of Labour was an ?inevitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development?, accelerated but not determined by the outbreak of the First World War; and, second, that ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political system was stable in 1914 but buckled under the remorseless pressure of war? \(p. 1\). The reality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(985)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 November, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ross McKibbin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199584697)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(192pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laura Beers)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 9049 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsurprisingly, lies somewhere between the two. However, in laying out these competing hypotheses on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening page, McKibbin points his readers to one of the major themes of the book: ?the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between structure and contingency, that is, the extent to which party politics was determined by fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social changes on the one hand, and by contingency, historical accident on the other? \(p. 177\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author?s first work, )] TJ ET BT 152.324 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Evolution of the Labour Party, 1910-1924)] TJ ET BT 375.992 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published 35 years ago, essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took the former position.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.344 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.344 711.795 m 167.336 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 167.336 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The title?s encompassing dates, 1910 to 1924, emphasized that the rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour was a process well in hand before August 1914; and the study, when it was written, was partially a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to Peter Clarke?s )] TJ ET BT 163.988 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire and the New Liberalism)] TJ ET BT 335.996 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which had asserted the vibrancy of the New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal program and the centrality of the war to the Liberal party?s demise.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 395.600 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 395.600 669.027 m 409.592 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 409.592 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 35 years on, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McKibbin has seemingly come a long way towards Clarke?s view of Edwardian politics, admitting that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now thinks that the inevitably thesis ?inadequately represents the reality of Edwardian politics? \(p. 1\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, he argues that the pre-war system was in a state of equipoise. The progressive alliance, in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal party played the dominant partner to its Labour ally, was undergirded by a political system in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion still played a larger role than class in informing political allegiances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For those who have followed McKibbin?s work over the past four decades, this reassessment will not come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a surprise. Both in his 2008 Ford lectures, on which )] TJ ET BT 298.328 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parties and People)] TJ ET BT 390.320 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is substantially based, and to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lesser extent in his earlier )] TJ ET BT 159.656 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Classes and Cultures, England 1918-1951)] TJ ET BT 363.332 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, McKibbin showed an appreciation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interdependence of nonconformity and the Edwardian Liberal supremacy which had been largely absent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from his earlier works.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 143.324 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 143.324 514.467 m 157.316 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.316 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For those familiar with the full McKibbin oeuvre, the book offers many such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities to track the evolution of this distinguished scholar?s thinking on a subject that has formed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis of his academic career.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the fragile equipoise of the pre-1914 party system, the book goes on to discuss the volatility of inter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war politics in two chapters titled, respectively, ?Unstable equilibrium, 1918?1929? and ?The crisis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour and the Conservative hegemony, 1929?1939?. The latter chapter returns to an argument McKibbin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made famous two decades ago in his essay, ?Class and conventional wisdom?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 410.960 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 410.960 416.931 m 424.952 416.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 424.952 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Namely, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives? hegemony owed much to their ability to devise ?a form of social politics driven partly by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overt anti-socialism and partly by a broadening of the Party?s elites? \(p. 90\). But, to a lesser extent than he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does in ?Class and conventional wisdom?, and to a much lesser extent than Philip Williamson has done in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his )] TJ ET BT 51.020 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Crisis and National Government)] TJ ET BT 253.040 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or in )] TJ ET BT 284.372 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stanley Baldwin: Conservative Leadership and National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Values)] TJ ET BT 66.680 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, McKibbin does not present the Conservatives? success as the result of their own clever strategy so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much as of Labour?s lack of one.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.640 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.640 331.395 m 207.632 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 207.632 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Those who read his current )] TJ ET BT 344.264 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Review of Books)] TJ ET BT 463.256 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( columns well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know the low regard in which he holds New Labour. Old Labour, here, fares little better. The party is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(censured for failing to embrace any coherent strategy in the 1920s. Its leaders could not settle on whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they should be ?the party of the whole of the working class; ? the party of useful citizens[; or] ? a party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which served the specific interests of the unions and their members? \(p. 72\). In trying to be all things to all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people, it failed to hold the loyalty of any viable majority, and its fragile plurality quickly collapsed under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the weight of the 1931 financial crisis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The previous chapter, on the 1920s, is not much kinder to the Labour party, who are again accused of several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failures of omission ? they were unable to look past the shibboleths of free trade and free collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bargaining to a new economic order that might have been more advantageous to the organized working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes; they were unable effectively to marshal a coalition of producers against the rentier classes; and they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invested too much energy in revenging themselves on the Liberal party for the perceived slights of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian period. The chapter begins by presenting three ?roads not taken? in the aftermath of the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War, political structures that, McKibbin argues, would have been more ?logical? outcomes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict. These were: ?complete fusion of the Conservative and Liberal Parties ?; or the abandonment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free trade and the reshaping of the country?s political economy behind protection; or the creation of a cross-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class alliance of ?producers? against ?rentiers?, the useful against the useless; or a combination of the three? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 34\). The first failed because of the hatred of many Conservatives both for Lloyd George personally, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the expansionist policies which the Coalition increasingly pursued in the early post-war years. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second failed because the British working-classes were, perhaps irrationally, but nonetheless deeply, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 153.3437 712.1095 167.3357 723.9895 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 395.5997 669.3415 409.5917 681.2215 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 143.3237 514.7815 157.3157 526.6615 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 410.9597 417.2455 424.9517 429.1255 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 193.6397 331.7095 207.6317 343.5895 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7721 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convinced of the Victorian argument that free trade delivered the large white loaf. And the third failed in part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(due to Labour?s inability to rally together such a constituency around either a program of state expropriation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of unearned wealth \(through their proposed capital levy\), or anything else. As a result, while the Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party grew in size and strength in this period, they never became strong enough to displace the Liberals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully. Hence, the three parties hobbled on, each pursuing more or less the same policies as they had before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war in an economic and social climate that was increasingly unsuited to them. Until, of course, 1931 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came and swept the old order away.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four deals with the war and landslide Labour victory in July 1945. As Helen McCarthy wrote in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent review for this website, ?The Second World War has long occupied a privileged place in narratives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change and continuity in mid-century Britain?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.656 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.656 654.771 m 272.648 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 272.648 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While the solidity of the ?swing to the left?, its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanence and its significance have all been debated, scholars are agreed that the war was critical to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift in opinion which made possible both the Labour landslide and the consequent birth of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare state. Yet, despite this general agreement, there has hitherto been no one that I can recall who has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued, as McKibbin does here, that ?Labour would have won any election held after July 1940 ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence, )] TJ ET BT 101.324 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ex hypothesi)] TJ ET BT 160.976 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, of the swift conversion of many voters from Conservative to Labour? \(p. 119\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His rationale in selecting July 1940 as the pivotal date is that, after Dunkirk, the British public?s perception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Conservative leadership changed rapidly. The collapse of faith in Chamberlain was swift and total, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the publication of )] TJ ET BT 142.004 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guilty Men)] TJ ET BT 196.328 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in July 1940 put in words what millions of Britons now felt about their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former leaders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is doubtless truth in this assessment. British Institute of Public Opinion \(BIPO\) and Mass-Observation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources confirm the swift change to Chamberlain?s fortunes. What they do not show, however, is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour party was the obvious and immediate beneficiary of that change. Given the heavy reliance that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places on BIPO data in this chapter, it is surprising that McKibbin does not address the signal reality that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BIPO continued to forecast a Conservative victory up until May 1943. While people may have blamed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative leadership for the events leading up to the war and its initial setbacks, they did not yet believe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Labour opposition competent to form an alternative government. It is my opinion that the Labour victory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be accounted for solely by disillusionment with the ?Guilty Men?, but instead owes much to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour party?s active efforts during the war both to associate itself with new radical sentiment and to show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself competent to govern.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McKibbin?s unwillingness to credit the party?s own agency in bringing about the 1945 election victory is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(par for the course in a book in which the Labour party is afforded little credit for doing much of anything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right, and in which it is charged with numerous failures of omission. Nowhere is this more true than in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter on the Attlee governments. Here, the party is taken to task for its failure seriously to broach the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibility of constitutional reform and its failure to develop any particularly profound or useful conception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of socialism. As McKibbin states, the Attlee government held the rather narrow-minded belief that ?public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ownership was socialism ? its irreducible minimum ? and that a commitment to public ownership was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirmation of the Party?s socialism? \(p. 152\). In all other areas, the government did little to challenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prewar orthodoxies. While industries were nationalized, their administration was not revolutionized. By and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large, the same managers remained at the helm of the new industries, and the government did not use its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position to ?achiev[e] any kind of strategic direction of the economy? \(p. 151\). Economic planning was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely abandoned after 1947. The public schools were allowed to remain intact. The constitution went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarly untouched, with House of Lords and voting reform both quietly swept under the rug. Not even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much-vaunted welfare state should be viewed as a real break with the past. The Beveridge system, as Pat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thane, Noel Thompson and others have noted, was based on Edwardian principles of social insurance, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than on social democratic ideals of a social minimum. Further, the one truly revolutionary component of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-war Labour platform, its adherence to the international socialist movement, suffered an unexpected blow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the war. The party, ironically, emerged from the international struggle against fascism reinforced in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parochialism and ?increasing reluctance to believe that the political and constitutional practices of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental socialism had anything to offer it? \(p. 147\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Labour party went into the 1950 and 1951 elections handicapped by the fact that it could not agree on a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 258.6557 655.0855 272.6477 666.9655 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8506 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new direction for the party now that its limited program of nationalization had been achieved. McKibbin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributes the party?s loss in 1951 to public frustration with continued austerity, the ideological bankruptcy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Labour, and the fact that the Conservatives successfully accommodated themselves to the new welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state. He writes: ?In my view the Conservatives fought the elections of 1950 and 1951 on two slogans: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare state is safe in our hands )] TJ ET BT 193.640 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 211.640 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( we will set the people free? \(p. 167\). In making this argument, he is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setting himself apart from Ewen Green and Ina Zweiniger-Bargielowska, who have argued that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative campaigns in 1950 and 1951 were run on a platform of ?set the people free?, of capitalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versus socialism and consumer interests versus the interests of production. In support of this argument, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cites the published and private statements of Cabinet ministers Harold Macmillan and Anthony Eden, as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the party?s 1947 )] TJ ET BT 129.332 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Industrial Charter)] TJ ET BT 217.676 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which he argues was ?seriously meant despite its obvious cosmetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications? \(p. 167\). But, while it is true that the Conservative party in practice had reconciled itself to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare state and the mixed economy by 1950, when one looks at the posters, election literature and party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political broadcasts produced in the 1950s, it is clear that Green and Zweiniger-Bargielowska are right in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stating that the party ran those elections on a straight platform of opposition to the new ?socialist? state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once the Conservatives won the 1951 election, they were able to remain in power for the next thirteen years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the strength of an ostensibly apolitical mix of patriotism, hierarchy and small-c conservatism, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeded in attracting not only the vast majority of the middle and upper classes, but a strong minority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the working classes as well. McKibbin devotes only a few paragraphs to the post-1951 Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments. However, the suggestion that the Tories succeeded in post-war politics, as they had in the inter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war period, in large part because of their ability to make Conservatism appear non-political has been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recurrent theme in his work, and has recently been developed by scholars of postwar political culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final chapter, McKibbin returns to the theme with which he opened the book: the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social change and historical accident in shaping Britain?s political destiny. The answer, of course, is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both were important. While class became the ?dominant variable? in party politics in this period, it was by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no means determinant \(p. 185\). And, in understanding the persistence of a constitutional structure largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intact from the days of Gilbert and Sullivan, we need to appreciate not only the conservatism of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working classes, but also the role played by Britain?s success in both the First and Second World Wars in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforcing political and social structures that might otherwise have been viewed as outmoded and in need of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform, if not revolution. It is an obvious conclusion, but one no less important for its obviousness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most readers will likely find points to take objection to with this work. Such is the case with any such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sweeping study in which a scholar presents his own version of an extremely contested historical narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some will also likely argue that there is little new to be gleaned from )] TJ ET BT 368.648 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parties and People. )] TJ ET BT 466.640 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not a work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary scholarship, and in fact the first primary source footnote does not appear until the bottom of page )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(42, when McKibbin notes John Maynard Keynes?s snarky comments about Lord Leverhulme to a private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(session of the Macmillan Committee in October 1930. Its presence in the book is an anomaly, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably reflects the fact that McKibbin had already begun research on his next project on Keynes while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing up )] TJ ET BT 86.684 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parties and People)] TJ ET BT 178.676 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But the book was not meant to be a work of new research. Like many books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that have emerged from a series of prestigious lectures, it reads as a sort of valedictory, the summation of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive career. Readers who have followed McKibbin?s thinking from )] TJ ET BT 392.612 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evolution )] TJ ET BT 442.280 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to )] TJ ET BT 454.616 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideologies of Class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through )] TJ ET BT 74.348 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Classes and Cultures )] TJ ET BT 179.360 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will recognize both those topics on which McKibbin?s ideas have held fast, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and those on which his views as evolved with time. They will also recognize McKibbin himself in the book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The voice of the book is distinctly his, and for those who know and like him, and presumably also for some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of those readers who have come to know him through the pages of the )] TJ ET BT 373.952 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Review of Books)] TJ ET BT 492.944 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, reading the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is actively heartwarming. To a greater extent than his earlier published work, it is written as he speaks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and as he writes his )] TJ ET BT 131.000 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(LRB)] TJ ET BT 152.336 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( columns, and in flipping through the pages it is hard not to feel as if he is in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(room with you. His frustration with and disappointment in the Labour party on which he has long pinned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high political hopes is evident. So too is his fascination with counterfactual electoral sociology \(if Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voters had had to cast an alternative vote, who would they have chosen?\); his fondness for middle-brow inter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war fiction, particularly A. J. Cronin?s )] TJ ET BT 222.320 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Citadel)] TJ ET BT 278.660 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and his biting, but too often apt, turns of phrase. At one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point, he refers to the longtime Tory MP for Barnard Castle as ?that old grouch, Sir Cuthbert Headlam?; and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 6293 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his comment on the ubiquity of what historians often condemn as political ?apathy? is: ?that?s life ? Hardly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone leads a purely ?political? existence, and those who do are usually dangerous? \(pp. 166 & 129\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, the book also showcases one of McKibbin?s weaknesses, his willingness to hold an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual grudge. In a book that is only 202 pages long, Robert Skidelsky comes in for a full page worth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abuse for his persistence in believing that the Labour government realistically might have behaved any other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way in 1929 to 1931; and over three pages are given over to an argument ostensibly against the entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?apathy school? of Second World War historiography, but in fact primarily against the work of Steven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fielding. Both Skidelsky and Fielding, however, are doubtless big enough to take the heat, and, if they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choose, will have ample forums to fire their own counterblows at McKibbin. In the meantime, those of us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who are not left licking their wounds after reading )] TJ ET BT 278.300 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parties and People)] TJ ET BT 370.292 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can only be pleased to have such an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elegant and engaging addition to the history of English democracy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.011 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 576.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ross McKibbin, )] TJ ET BT 145.688 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Evolution of the Labour Party, 1910?1924)] TJ ET BT 371.360 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1975\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 450.008 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 450.008 574.995 m 503.996 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Clarke, )] TJ ET BT 129.668 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire and the New Liberalism)] TJ ET BT 301.676 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1971\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.996 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.996 560.739 m 452.984 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ross McKibbin, )] TJ ET BT 145.688 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Classes and Cultures, England 1918?1951 )] TJ ET BT 354.368 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.016 546.483 m 484.004 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ross McKibbin, ?Class and conventional wisdom: the Conservative Party and the ?public? in interwar )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?, in Ross McKibbin, )] TJ ET BT 202.688 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ideologies of Class: Social Relations in Britain 1880?1950)] TJ ET BT 507.368 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1990\), pp. 259?93.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.340 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.340 503.715 m 208.328 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Williamson, )] TJ ET BT 157.700 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Crisis and National Government: British Politics, the Economy and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire, 1926?1932)] TJ ET BT 159.344 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1992\); )] TJ ET BT 260.000 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stanley Baldwin: Conservative Leadership and National )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Values)] TJ ET BT 96.680 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 194.000 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 194.000 460.947 m 247.988 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen McCarthy, review of )] TJ ET BT 198.980 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nine Wartime Lives: Mass Observation and the Making of the Modern Self)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(review no. 937\) < )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.428 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/937)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.428 432.435 m 380.072 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 383.072 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 397.064 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 24 August 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 418.179 m 118.004 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Statesman)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.newstatesman.com/books/2010/04/england-1914-labour-liberals)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 363.411 m 400.652 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 403.652 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 360.079 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 342.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 342.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/985)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 340.905 m 322.316 340.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 315.928 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5082)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.128 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/937)] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.728 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.newstatesman.com/books/2010/04/england-1914-labour-liberals)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 450.0077 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