%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818084257+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818084257+01'00') /Title (Dominion of God: Christendom and Apocalypse in the Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4256 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Dominion of God: Christendom and Apocalypse in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shortly before he left them, Christ told his disciples that the end of the world was imminent, and would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heralded by a time of tribulation. There would be wars, plagues, famines and false prophets. It would also be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a time of evangelical enterprise, during which the word of God would be carried to the ends of the earth. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the succeeding centuries, Christians constructed a powerful historical vision around these expectations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contained within it was what Whalen calls Christianity?s ?dual heritage? \(p. 2\) of hope and dread: hope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the spread of the universal Church and dread of the horrors of the violent last days. Over time, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scriptural account was enlarged by a wealth of details, rival interpretations, fresh prophecies and revelations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was anticipated that the Church would be reformed and renewed; the schism between the Latin and Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churches would be healed; Jerusalem would be regained; the infidels would convert and, finally, the Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would enter into the Church. During the period from the 11th to 14th centuries, the papacy sought to place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Roman church at the centre of eschatological events as part of the wider effort to establish its position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within Christendom. Critics of the papacy used the same ideas to urge reform on the institutional church. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Apocalyptic thought provided a fecund environment and vocabulary for such debates. Yet it also provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin Christians with a shared historical narrative which shaped their attitudes to the rest of the world, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially their Byzantine and Muslim neighbours. It is the story of these evolving ideas that Whalen tells in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his )] TJ ET BT 51.020 73.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dominion of God)] TJ ET BT 135.020 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(986)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 November, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brett Edward Whalen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780674036291)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amanda Power)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7594 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He begins with the struggle of the 11th-century popes to define themselves in relation to the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperors and the patriarchs of Constantinople. In order to do so, they developed a far-reaching and yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggressively narrow historical vision. In a series of official statements, they asserted that apostolic primacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came through St Peter alone and that orthodoxy was the sole preserve of his heirs. The pope was the head of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the universal Christian community; any church separating itself from Rome was departing from orthodoxy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dividing what was meant to be unified. This understanding informed the infamous events of 1054, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(date traditionally given for the beginning of the schism between the Greek and Roman churches. Whalen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objects to such characterisations, suggesting instead that Pope Leo IX sought unity with the Greeks, albeit on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own terms. He connects Leo?s handling of controversies with the Greeks over azymes \(unleavened bread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for use in the Mass\) and the )] TJ ET BT 170.324 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(filioque)] TJ ET BT 206.996 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( clause to the papal condemnation of the Eucharistic teachings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berengar of Tours, seeing in both episodes a new approach to questions of orthodoxy and authority. Two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades later Pope Gregory VII articulated this vision still more vigorously in his 1075 )] TJ ET BT 454.640 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dictatus papae)] TJ ET BT 527.636 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claiming authority over all Christians and increasingly directing violence against the perceived enemies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the faith. Whalen notes the complementary drive towards internal reform, but this is not his focus. He is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more interested in the way in which resistance to the papal programme was denounced within an overtly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apocalyptic context. Opponents of the papacy were transformed in papal propaganda into agents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antichrist. Yet, all this was something of an illusion, a ?trompe l?oeil? \(p. 40\). Despite the powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric, Gregory died in exile, his contemporaries unpersuaded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The relationship between the emerging ?papal monarchy? and apocalyptic thought is a crucial strand in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather complicated chapter. Whalen indicates that the papal vision began to crystallise amid the millennial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excitement around the year 1000, as contemporaries dreamed of a time in which a renewed Christianity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would spread across the world. At the same time, there was an uneasy perception that Christendom was in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state of moral decay, marked by the insidious growth of heresy. In this context, Adso of Montier-en-Der )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote an influential account of how events would unfold in the last days of the world. He told of how a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor would arise, defeat the infidels, come to Jerusalem and bring about the ?end and consummation? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Roman Empire. Antichrist would be born and would seduce the peoples of the world, unleashing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecutions on those who resisted him. Two witnesses, the prophets Elijah and Enoch, would be sent by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God to strengthen the faithful during the reign of Antichrist. They would be martyred, but in the process, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they would bring about the conversion of the Jews. The nations of the world would enter into the Church and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there would be a time of peace before the Final Judgement. Although Augustine had been clear that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christians should not try to find out when these events would unfold, there was a persistent temptation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(look for signs of the Apocalypse in current affairs. Adso?s description provided an enduring template.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter considers the role of the first Crusade in intensifying and popularising a sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian collective identity. An extensive literature was stimulated by the experience of crusading and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly by the conquest of Jerusalem. In these events, the Gregorian theology of history took a palpable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form. God?s hand was at work: the eastern churches had been liberated and the holy places cleansed of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muslim pollution. For some authors, notably Guibert of Nogent, these events had eschatological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance. Yet threaded through this were uncomfortable counter-narratives, especially as the triumph of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1099 gave way to a sequence of unsuccessful campaigns and the Latin Christians found themselves living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the ?heretical? Christians of the eastern Mediterranean world. The intimate connection between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sinfulness and manifestations of God?s displeasure meant that Christians needed to remain alert. Any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setback became the occasion for criticism of the papacy and of the moral state of the faithful. The crusades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus served to ?intensify the meaning of Christendom? \(p. 71\), but at the same time, opened the door for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisive insecurities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third chapter focuses on a number of 12th-century theologians who developed a ?reformist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apocalypticism? in the decades before the ideas of Joachim of Fiore began to dominate the scene. Whalen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sketches in a light background of ?reformation? and spiritual innovation in which new orders emerged, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains intent on tracing his particular themes. Rupert of Deutz is the earliest of Whalen?s theologians, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative thinker who, nonetheless, was willing to go beyond Augustine and to discern patterns in history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that indicated the imminence of Antichrist. Similarly, Honorius Augustodunensis attempted to impose a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7337 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherence on history that would lay bare the future within the context of reform. In particular, he and others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were attentive to the groups who worked to defend and expand the Church: apostles, martyrs and, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current day, monks and preachers. Such groups came to have an eschatological significance of their own ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role often dramatised by new orders with apostolic aspirations. The Greeks also had a part to play within this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly specific historical understanding. The schism between the churches was characterised as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially destructive when unity of the faithful in the ?one sheepfold? was so essential. Anselm of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canterbury, Gerhoh of Reichersberg and Anselm of Havelberg all wrote disputational works designed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilitate reunion, but within a specifically eschatological context. It is significant that these authors regarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Greeks as heretical in their rejection of Rome, a formulation that the crusaders would adopt outside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(walls of Constantinople in 1204. The final conversion of the Jews was a second important strand in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology of history, although Whalen passes over this fairly briefly. The papacy did not always appear to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantage in these 12th-century texts. There was a great emphasis on the need for ecclesiastical reform. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerhoh depicted the contemporary papacy as sinking beneath the waves, like Peter when he tried to walk on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(water ? but made it clear that Christ would renew it, so that it would rise again before it was entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(submerged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through these forerunners, we arrive at Joachim of Fiore, who has a whole chapter to himself. This section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is something of a hinge to the book, which gathers greater momentum from this point onwards. There is little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new here, but Joachim's thought is clearly outlined in relation to Whalen's main themes. Joachim's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concordances between Old and New Testament time schemes and his division of history into three stages are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully explained. He was ambivalent about the crusades because they did not fit into his historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schema: the defeat of the Muslims could not happen before they had played their role in the final tribulations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Christians, so it was futile to attack them at this stage. Particular emphasis is laid on Joachim's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the respective roles of Jews, Greeks and Latin Christians in history of the Church and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eschatological future. Joachim imagined that the 'spiritual men', symbolised by Enoch and Elijah, would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually ?convert? the Greeks as they would the Jews. These spiritual men would, he thought, emerge out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the renewal of religious life visible in his own day among the Cistercians and other orders. They would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform the Church, protect the faithful during the time of persecution to come, and take the word of God to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unbelievers. The problem with this vision of the future was the uncertain role it allowed the institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The popes of the 13th century were not immune to the seductions of Joachim?s thought. In his fifth chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whalen shows its influence on the extraordinarily ambitious agenda of Pope Innocent III. Hungry to reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Church, achieve unity with the Greeks and recover the Holy Land, Innocent was a man in need of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sophisticated and all-encompassing theology of history. Whalen is most interested in how these ideas were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed in relation to the Greek Church, especially in the aftermath of the fourth Crusade. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges the connection made by the papacy between reform and Latin success against its enemies, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores the relevant canons of Lateran IV. While Innocent had no inkling of the vast expansion of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horizons that would come with the Mongols, he undoubtedly gave a lasting form to many of the ideas that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be central in Latin dealings with this new world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next two chapters take the story forward through the 13th century. During these decades, European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement with the wider world intensified in various directions. In particular, missionary activity was for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first time seriously espoused side-by-side with crusade. From the 1240s, the Mongol empire provided a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(startlingly apposite opportunity to fulfil the ambitions nurtured in the Latin West for so long. The word of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God could literally be taken to the ends of the earth ? and it occasionally was. Whalen charts Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations with the Mongols rather briskly, before dwelling at greater length on the emergence of troubling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new forms of apocalyptic thought. In the hands of some Franciscans, the ideas of Joachim of Fiore were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extrapolated in radical and subversive directions. The friars imagined themselves as Joachim's ?spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men? and some recklessly speculated about the end of the institutional Church. For the first time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream critics turned eschatological expectation against the papacy. Although the most dangerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exponents of these ideas were largely silenced, Joachite ideas persisted among the most austere devotees of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apostolic poverty. In more muted form, mainstream Franciscans such as Bonaventure and Roger Bacon )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7603 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to view the roles of their order and the Church through the lens of apocalypticism. A ?safe? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(197\) use of eschatological imagery characterised the deliberations of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culminating in the council of 1274 at Lyons, where it was used to assert the authority of the papacy and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimise its goals. These events inaugurated a period in which the ecclesiastical hierarchy sought to control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apocalyptic thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter investigates the increasing stridency with which competing interpretations of history were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought to bear on the affairs of the church through the 14th century. Whalen looks in detail at the claims of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at some of the most extreme voices among the Franciscans. Peter John Olivi, Fra Dolcino, Angelo Clareno )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and John of Rupescissa all used Joachite ideas to attack the contemporary church. When John XXII burned a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group of Spiritual Franciscans for their views on poverty, he signalled a mounting intolerance for alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginings of the Christian life. The event engendered a sense of persecution that only fuelled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apocalyptic expectations of the order. Some writers produced dramatic and colourful visions of history, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Christendom was transformed and the world converted to Christianity against a backdrop of gathering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(darkness and the appearance of Antichrist. With the troubles of the late Middle Ages, especially the ?Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schism? \(1378?1417\), the universal pretensions of the Roman papacy came under increasing attack. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence was, Whalen explains, that Christians ?could imagine expansion of their faith without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims of the papal monarchy to universal dominion? \(p. 226\). As Marsilius of Padua put it, Christ, not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pope, was the true head of the faith. In a brief epilogue, Whalen extends the story to the Americas and to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentalist evangelicals of present day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As will be evident from this summary,)] TJ ET BT 219.008 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Dominion of God)] TJ ET BT 306.008 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is to some extent a work of synthesis. It offers a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roughly chronological narrative, although with an occasionally confusing internal structure as each chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begins with an extended chronological summary of its argument, then goes back in time to make it. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(senses familiar formulations in the background of each chapter: the Gregorian reform, the origins of the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusade, the 12th-century renaissance, the formation of a persecuting society, the papal monarchy, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franciscan concept of mission \(courtesy of E. R. Daniel\), and so on. Whalen occasionally nuances or even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions his meta-narratives, but unevenly. It would be wholly unfair to suggest that this is other than an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely common, perhaps unavoidable, tendency in studies that pursue ideas across considerable spans of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time. Yet it seems to this reviewer, at least, that Whalen has amassed material and themes of sufficient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power that a re-imagining around them of the intellectual, spiritual and political life of these four centuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might eventually be possible. In the meantime, the importance of the book is the way it re-tells the familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives of the medieval period through a set of ideas that are more usually left mute in the background, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are even known. It traces the evolution of a powerful theology of history within the echo-chamber that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed between the papacy and scholars from the religious orders. Sketched in around the ideas is a tide of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events and experiences, hints of terrible violence, extraordinary journeys and enterprises. Once again, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have been done to link ideas and experiences ? as Whalen himself has shown, they were closely, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often unexpectedly, related. For example, one of the book?s great strengths is its incorporation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interactions with the Greek Church into the well-trodden history of the ?papal monarchy?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not entirely clear for whom this book is intended. The raw material is interesting, but covered with at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable speed. Only a few medieval authors rate more than a few pages \(Joachim of Fiore is the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exception\), and most are introduced in a rather perfunctory fashion. There is not enough explanation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who do not know the material, and yet most of its examples will be well known to scholars of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. More disappointing is that, despite its 74 pages of rich endnotes, it contains only a six-page ?select )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography? of primary material. Despite these mild reservations, this is a fluent and accessible book that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings medieval theology of history to life within its wider environment. Anticipation of the end of the world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often seems the preserve of social critics, rather than that of the leaders of institutions. It seems counter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intuitive that such people, whose business was stability and continuity, would promote a view of history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which anticipated the imminent dissolution of all temporal institutions. This may be one reason why there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the substantial gap in the historiography that Whalen's thorough study goes a long way toward filling. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medieval historians are aware of the employment of apocalyptic rhetoric by the papacy in moments of strain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the existence of a systematically-asserted vision that placed the papacy at the heart of eschatological )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1687 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events, and at the same time, reinforced papal status and authority, has not been as widely recognised as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should have been. This should now change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to accept this review without any further comment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Books in History \(audio interview\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://newbooksinhistory.com/2009/09/18/brett-whalen-dominion-of-god-christendom-and-apocalypse-in-)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 699.795 m 544.964 699.795 l S BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the-middle-ages/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 685.539 m 114.668 685.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 117.668 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 682.207 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 664.427 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 664.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/986)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 663.033 m 322.316 663.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 638.056 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 623.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5085)] TJ ET BT 34.016 609.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://newbooksinhistory.com/2009/09/18/brett-whalen-dominion-of-god-christendom-and-apocalypse-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 595.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in-the-middle-ages/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 700.1095 544.9637 711.9895 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://newbooksinhistory.com/2009/09/18/brett-whalen-dominion-of-god-christendom-and-apocalypse-in-the-middle-ages/) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 685.8535 114.6677 697.7335 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://newbooksinhistory.com/2009/09/18/brett-whalen-dominion-of-god-christendom-and-apocalypse-in-the-middle-ages/) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 663.3475 322.3157 675.2275 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/986) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000572 00000 n 0000000654 00000 n 0000004962 00000 n 0000005071 00000 n 0000005181 00000 n 0000005290 00000 n 0000008851 00000 n 0000008979 00000 n 0000009063 00000 n 0000009128 00000 n 0000016775 00000 n 0000016840 00000 n 0000024230 00000 n 0000024295 00000 n 0000031951 00000 n 0000032049 00000 n 0000033789 00000 n 0000033916 00000 n 0000034083 00000 n 0000034210 00000 n 0000034377 00000 n 0000034505 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34600 %%EOF