%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818062307+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818062307+01'00') /Title (Ellington?s America) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4639 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ellington?s America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For more than half its existence as a discrete though intensely varied musical form, jazz lacked a scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature. Periodicals ruled the roost. In the USA )] TJ ET BT 272.648 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metronome)] TJ ET BT 327.968 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, founded in 1881, and )] TJ ET BT 438.956 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Downbeat)] TJ ET BT 488.288 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1936, dominated, reviewing records, profiling leading instrumentalists and chronicling music )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry gossip. In Britain the )] TJ ET BT 180.020 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Melody Maker)] TJ ET BT 250.328 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which first saw the light of day in 1926, provided fans with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(news of leading hot musicians, as well as the more popular, smoother dance genres, and raised the domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical bar following historic visits by Duke Ellington in 1933 and Louis Armstrong in 1934. In France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the interwar period the critical scene was dominated by Hugues Panassie?s )] TJ ET BT 430.604 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Jazz Hot.)] TJ ET BT 490.268 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Pannasie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alienated the overwhelmingly white American critical establishment ? key figures were John Hammond and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leonard Feather ? by insisting that only black musicians were capable of making genuinely original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions to the art of improvisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the post-war era, bitter disputes between supporters of the old and new threatened to tear the music apart. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fans of traditional revivalist jazz, based on the classic New Orleans paradigm, denied the validity of bebop, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scarily demanding and harmonically complex music seminally associated with the monumentally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talented Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie. In Britain this was reflected in the rival positions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional )] TJ ET BT 86.348 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jazz Journal )] TJ ET BT 150.344 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and modernist )] TJ ET BT 221.672 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jazz Monthly)] TJ ET BT 285.332 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. When, half a generation later, the music entered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another period of revolutionary change, old battles were refought. To some, the saxophonists John Coltrane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(987)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 November, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvey G. Cohen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780226112633)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(720pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bill Luckin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7495 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Ornette Coleman produced anti-music. To others, their records signalled a majestic summation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creative development of all that had gone before. In his monthly column in )] TJ ET BT 396.632 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jazz Journal)] TJ ET BT 457.628 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Stanley Dance, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidant of and record producer for several of Duke Ellington?s later projects, praised the virtues of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition-based, swinging mainstream. At )] TJ ET BT 236.000 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jazz Monthly )] TJ ET BT 302.660 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prescriptively Leavis-like Max Harrison made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fine distinctions between the musically valid and invalid among the new experimentalists and championed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third Stream ? the merging of jazz and European art music.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the late 1960s, American jazz criticism had reached new levels of intellectual and stylistic sophistication. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leading white writers Martin Williams, Whitney Balliett and Gary Giddens, were now joined by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pioneering generation of black commentators ? Leroi Jones \(later Amiri Baraka\), A. B.Spellman and Stanley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crouch. Baraka in particular perceived jazz as integral to and indivisible from African-American history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture and politics and the distribution of social and cultural power and justice. The fundamental economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures of the music, he and other radical commentators argued, demonstrated the extent to which non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white bands and instrumentalists had from the very outset been subject to discrimination that reproduced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnic )] TJ ET BT 66.344 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(apartheid )] TJ ET BT 116.012 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and exploitation rife throughout American pre-civil rights society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jazz clubs were owned by white entrepreneurs. Major black innovators were paid appallingly low wages and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required to play three exhaustingly long sets a night, beginning work at nine and ending at three in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morning. Hotels, particularly in the South, closed their doors to touring black bands, who were forced to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sleep on the bus or with friends they had met when they last passed through town. Since only a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minority of non-white improvising musicians possessed access to reliable financial advice, they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeatedly cheated out of royalties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hardly surprisingly, life expectancy among jazz musicians ? black or white ? was appallingly low. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alcoholism, tuberculosis and, later, heroin addiction claimed a terrible toll. To survive you needed enormous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength, courage and luck. Some musicians kicked their habit. Others, remarkably, remained heavily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent on one or another addictive substance for the entirety of their professional career. Great musicians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Billie Holiday, Lester Young ,Charlie Parker and the white Bill Evans ? the last the subject of one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best biographies of a jazzman ever written, particularly on the subject of the self-destructive scourge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drugs )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 63.680 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 63.680 388.419 m 77.672 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 77.672 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? and many others died before they had enjoyed middle-age.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Kennedy ? Duke ? Ellington, the greatest composer and certainly the most influential jazz musician )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 20th-century America avoided nearly all these temptations and traps. A light-skinned, spoilt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washingtonian child, Ellington, the only son in a family dominated by daughters, aunts and a much adored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mother, rapidly became precociously self-assured and vain. In time this engendered a unique and uniquely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seductive stage persona ? super-relaxed, witty, articulate. Many studies and biographies have presented this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handsome, at times over-weight, genius as an unreadable mask \(or bewildering series of interchangeable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masks\). Making psychological sense of Ellington the man is peripheral to the main task that Harvey G. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cohen, an American scholar who works at King?s College, London, has set himself in this vast and richly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented exploration of 50 years of American improvised and popular music. However, Cohen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that the great band-leader?s self-absorbed personal and deeply religious make-up, his pride, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vanity and elusiveness helped him to survive for more than half a century as a major 20th-century musical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure and composer of more than 2,000 songs, suites, sound-tracks and ballet scores.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cohen also etches in the essential elements of Ellington?s mysteriously clandestine private life. Too many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier memoirists and biographers knew the man personally and tacitly signed an oath of loyalty to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maestro and his unconventional ?extended family? of relations, intimates, business associates, physicians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and publicists, the most influential of whom was the indefatigable Stanley Dance. The author has also made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telling use of a treasure-trove of interviews with numerous individuals ? family, friends, musicians, business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associates ? who worked with or knew Ellington, housed at the National Museum of American History in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smithsonian Museum. Interpretation of this fascinating cache of evidence is combined with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encyclopaedic coverage of the American and European musical press, additional oral material, State )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Department files and radio and television transcriptions and interviews.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 63.6797 388.7335 77.6717 400.6135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6474 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Married and separated by the time he was in his early thirties ? he never divorced his wife, who he had met )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in high school ? Ellington had a 30-year, obsessively secretive relationship with Ruth Ellis, a former dancer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the Cotton Club, sometimes erroneously known as ?Mrs Ellington?. However, both on and off the road, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ellington had innumerable brief and sometimes much longer than brief affairs. His view of the world of love )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and commitment consciously ?challenged traditional American middle-class values?. In 1956 he half-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(playfully told an anonymous interviewer that music remained his first and most important ?romance?. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more serious vein he went on to say that he associated the conventions of a married or fully shared life as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tainted with ?possession? and the social need to ?demonstrate? feeling and togetherness rather than simply to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(love and be loved. Formally authenticated relationships implied ?condition? ? ?unconditional? remained a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much favoured Ellingtonian adjective ? with marriage and partnership dictating that passion and affection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became routinized into a mere ?behaviour?. This undermined the very qualities that such arrangements were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designed to foster \(pp. 332-3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To this we may add that Ellington?s approximately 150,000 days and nights away from his New York )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apartment ? in hotels, on the road or in planes and on boats ? constituted the price \(if it was a price\) he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciously chose to pay to retain absolute personal and creative independence. Working in an industry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated by white businessmen, hustlers and gangsters, even this well-educated, light-skinned, articulate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and astonishingly talented Washingtonian son of a butler could have tumbled off the wire. Too many others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? and particularly black musicians ? had suffered that fate: Ellington, the sybaritic, arch-romantic, aesthete-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cum laid-back showman and ambitious workaholic, was determined to survive. He went on dramatically to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transform what he preferred to call ? eschewing ethnic connotations ? ?American Music?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Records from the early 1920s with the Washingtonians reveal the young pianist-composer as a stiff-handed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?society? instrumentalist who nevertheless possessed the insight to understand that his skills might develop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if he recruited exceptionally talented improvisers as sidemen. By the late 1920s, when the Ellington band )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was creating a sensation at Harlem?s elite Cotton Club, these musicians ? Bubber Miley, Tricky Sam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nanton, Johnny Hodges, Harry Carney ? had transformed the band into a quite different kind of unit. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Society? politesse had been replaced by hot improvisations, sonorous harmonies, growling trumpets and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trombones ? the distinctive ?jungle sound? that transfixed night-clubbers and nationwide radio audiences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How much of this was Ellington?s doing, and how much should be attributed to the leader?s creative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reworking of his soloists? composing and improvising abilities? In a superb section of his book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly concerned with the conventions, illegalities and potential pitfalls of the music business in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s and 1930s, and Ellington?s up-and-down relationship with his agent, Irving Mills, Cohen tackles this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem head-on \(pp. 148?53\). Many years later, the clarinettist Barney Bigard provided telling evidence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prosecution. He recalled that he, Bigard, had written the ?major portion? of the classic )] TJ ET BT 468.596 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mood Indigo)] TJ ET BT 530.924 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?then Duke added a beginning ? [Irving] Mills got hold of it and gave me twenty five dollars, and for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first twenty-eight years of the copyright, there was no Barney Bigard royalties?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.608 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.608 262.371 m 431.600 262.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Several leading members of the band ? particularly the highly-paid Johnny Hodges and the irascible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trombonist, Lawrence Brown ? went through the same experience and never forgave Ellington for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(egotism and double-dealing. Following one of his sinuously luxuriant solos, the inscrutable Hodges would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn to the audience, bow, and then, glancing at his employer, rhythmically stroke his thumb across the palm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his hand. Ellington remained smilingly impassive. Saddest of all, following the death of Billy Strayhorn, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the early 1940s onwards the maestro?s intimate friend, co-composer and arranger, the Strayhorn family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to fight tooth-and-nail to obtain an equitable royalties agreement \(pp. 520?2\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.6077 262.6855 431.5997 274.5655 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7222 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irving Mills, a canny Jewish enthusiast for black improvised music, taught Ellington everything he needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know about a cut-throat ?whites only? business and how to construct a dual musical persona: a massively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prolific writer of popular hits ? Ellington \(and even more so, Mills\) detested being excluded from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limelight ? and a uniquely talented composer of suites and ?concertos? for pedigree soloists. The leader was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happy to be exploited if Mills could create a niche that differentiated his ?instrument? ? now known as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Famous Orchestra?, rather than a common or garden ?band? ? from other competitors on the block.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mills? marketing strategy prepared the way for public acceptance of a quite different kind of music: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performances that broke the sacrosanct bounds of the three-minute 78 r.p.m, tone poems, suites and extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pieces ? notably the, for Ellington, anxiety-ridden )] TJ ET BT 275.648 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Black, Brown and Beige )] TJ ET BT 395.300 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 229?36\) ? which reflected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vitality and tragedy of the urban African-American condition. Ellington aped the Mills method. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Insouciantly allowing his agent to share writing credits and recruit second-class lyric writers to transform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beautiful melodies into something akin to Tin Pan Alley dross, he failed to secure royalty agreements for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the orchestra who had transformed the amateurish ?society? band into a unique and thrilling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American institution. Even though he is probably too kind to Ellington, this section of Cohen?s )] TJ ET BT 494.348 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(magnum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(opus )] TJ ET BT 59.684 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the best analysis we have of the ways in which the music business reflected the pressures, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictions, compromises and injustices inseparably associated with deeply imbedded ethnic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic inequality in interwar America \(pp. 41?140\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The miracle is that so few of Elllington stalwarts moved on. Several ? Cootie Williams, Bigard, Carney and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hodges ? stayed for 40 years, or took intermittent four or five-year breaks before returning to the fold. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instrumentalists of this calibre in the inter-war years big band or session work was plentiful and well paid. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why did they stay? There are several reasons. Even though he operated a complex pay-scale, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes caused bad feeling and rifts between his musicians, Ellington treated his virtuosi well and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always willing to talk, or get someone else to talk about a bonus if it meant retaining an instrumental voice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had become integral to his ever-evolving compositional palette.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other than at the very end, when, with the exception of the leader, the exhausted, globe-trotting veterans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looked ready and willing to drop into a collective grave, the sheer beauty and originality of the music itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the size and variety of the Ellington repertoire proved a strong musical incentive to stay in the band. \(In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1960s critics frequently complained that the orchestra did little more than recycle predictable hits. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so: this writer frequently went to performances which included exciting new material and long forgotten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gems.\) Next, in post-civil rights America, the Ellington gloss meant that band members were finally treated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the respect their collective genius deserved: they were exceptionally proud to be long-serving members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the greatest jazz orchestra in the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The band was also the least formally disciplined of all in the jazz world: senior members, in particular, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed to do pretty much as they pleased. Key soloists frequently wandered on 20 minutes after a concert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had begun, and then wandered off again for a ten-minute break. Others, notably the tenor saxophonist Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gonsalves, dropped asleep in mid-concert. But Ellington refused to dismiss instrumentalists who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial to the orchestral sound that he had been developing for such a long time, however unpredictable or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bizarre their behaviour. In extremis, he would hand out loans ? and bribes ? to the needy and discontented. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, there was the famous Ellingtonian charisma and cunning: he could charm birds, women and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(musicians out of the trees.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When in the post-Mills, post-war era Ellington became an increasingly honoured and venerable celebrity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical African-Americans increasingly looked to him for public comment on the issue of race. As Cohen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, throughout his career the composer remained committed to a conservative world-view that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasized the importance of education, hard work and mastery of a skill. All this would then be rewarded, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Samuel Smiles-style, by well earned upward social mobility. Only when sufficient numbers of black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans had followed this life-route, Ellington believed, would it be possible to build a bridge-head from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which to advocate ? and then politically demand ? full civil rights. At the same time, and as Cohen again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents, the band played numerous charity concerts for the National Association of the Advancement of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 6824 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coloured People, the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, the Congress of Racial Equality and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Urban League.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1951 Ellington became embroiled in the disastrous ?we ain?t ready? episode. According to a syndicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interview with journalist Otis N.Thompson, given while the band leader was trying on a succession of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typically gorgeous suits before going on stage, Ellington stated ?there are so many arguments against us that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our efforts are futile?: only when the reform movement could ?get together one hundred million dollars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([would it be possible to] do something?. A carefully worded response claimed that the offending sentences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been taken out of context \(pp. 301?7\). However, thereafter, Ellington chose his words carefully and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently resorted to the trope that everything he had to say about the race issue had been best expressed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his music, and particularly in longer compositions devoted to the black condition in a predominantly white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American progressives were unhappy about Ellington?s seeming preference for Republican rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Democratic presidents. But this is a tangled tale. Like Herbert Hoover \(though for different reasons\), both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franklin Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy were less than enthusiastic about inviting honoured black guests to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the White House: from a Democratic perspective, too many votes might be lost in the South. \(And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacqueline Kennedy almost certainly considered jazz less culturally acceptable than classical music.\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ellington offered to play for the Roosevelts in 1934 and was hurt when the offer was spurned. However, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the orchestra put on a memorable commemorative radio concert when the President died in 1945 \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(250\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ellington was stricken when Kennedy was assassinated and immediately began to prepare a programme of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorial music. The idea remained still-born. In a profoundly self-revelatory comment he told the press: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Of course, I?d have cut out the theatrical stuff and there couldn?t have been any swinging ? But it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have had a beat. Religious music, you know, does have a beat. And I?d have eliminated the glib sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humour from my annotations? \(p. 440\). It was left to a slightly bemused Richard Nixon, who could hammer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out a down-home melody on the piano, but knew nothing about jazz ? and even less about the maestro?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(habit of kissing all and sundry on both cheeks ? to present Ellington with the Presidential Medal of Freedom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1969.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is too little space in a review even of this length fully to engage with Cohen?s penetrating account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ellington?s whirlwind series of State Department tours in the early 1970s, when both he and the orchestra )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeatedly circled and recircled the globe \(pp. 537?60\). Those who witnessed these concerts remember a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(band in virtual collapse, tired and ill-disciplined to the point of mutiny, casually wandering on and then just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as suddenly vacating the stage, pulling bouquets apart and tossing individual flowers back into the audience, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving the sick though still unflappable Ellington to see out the night with bass and drums. Suffice it to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, together with the performances of the musically undistinguished Sacred Concerts, which finally and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publicly revealed his deep religious convictions, these events ? particularly the trip to Moscow ? confirmed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more comprehensively than ever before Ellington?s deeply conservative patriotism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his view, political freedom was ?unconditional? and had been enshrined in the words of the founding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fathers and the Constitution. Black radicals should accept that the American system could in time be trusted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to allow every citizen, regardless of colour, to gain full political and social rights. Nothing would be gained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by listening to the siren call of collectivist, anti-capitalist promises of equality. \(Ellington had been appalled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by what he had seen of everyday life in the Soviet Union.\) Such un-American solutions ? he detested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communism ? would confiscate the potential for change from ordinary men and women, both black and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white. To the ears of African-American progressives, all this seemed anachronistic and irrelevant: and young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black activists could be forgiven for thinking that Ellington?s stage persona smacked of Uncle Tom and a by-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gone, best forgotten, era. However, when he died in 1974, Ellington was mourned like the first black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(president: 15,000 attended the funeral.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40 years earlier, Duke Ellington stood on the balcony of an exclusive Edwardian hotel in Bournemouth, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and told the British jazz critic, Max Jones: ?You know, I love this place. I don?t know if you realize )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7228 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this, but I have the utmost difficulty staying in a hotel like this in the United States? \(p. 247\). One of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many virtues of Cohen?s monumental study is that it illuminates the day-to-day existence of non-whites in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interwar America music business and confirms that even the relatively privileged and massively talented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Paul Robeson ? had no alternative but to adapt to a life lived at least partly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the shadows.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book too often gives its extraordinary subject the benefit of moral doubt. Nevertheless, it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triumphantly successful piece of twentieth century history writing, as good in its way as Lewis Erenberg?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Swinging the Dream: Big Band Jazz and the Rebirth of American Culture )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.668 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.668 683.283 m 404.660 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 404.660 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Scott DeVeaux?s )] TJ ET BT 513.968 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Birth of Bop: A Social and Musical History)] TJ ET BT 242.348 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.348 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.348 669.027 m 259.340 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 635.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 604.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Pettinger, )] TJ ET BT 141.008 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bill Evans: How My Heart Sings )] TJ ET BT 301.664 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Haven, CT, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.968 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.968 603.507 m 474.956 603.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quoted on the sleeve-notes to )] TJ ET BT 209.660 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Masterpieces by Ellington)] TJ ET BT 335.648 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Columbia/Legacy. 512918 2. Remastered )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reissued 2004.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.668 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.668 574.995 m 207.656 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lewis A. Erenberg, )] TJ ET BT 160.988 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Swinging the Dream: Big Band Jazz and the Rebirth of American Culture)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chicago, IL, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.332 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.332 546.483 m 216.320 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scott DeVeaux, )] TJ ET BT 143.000 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Birth of Bop: A Social and Musical History)] TJ ET BT 372.332 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, CA, 1997\))] TJ ET BT 479.312 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(iatH HHist)] TJ ET BT 532.316 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 517.971 m 118.004 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 493.109 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/06/books/review/Keepnews-t.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 463.203 m 365.012 463.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 368.012 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington Post)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/05/28/AR2010052801855.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 434.691 m 483.692 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 486.692 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daily Telegraph)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/7879758/Duke-Ellingtons-America-by-Harvey-G-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 406.179 m 544.268 406.179 l S BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cohen-and-Thelonious-Monk-by-Robin-DG-Kelley-reviews.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 391.923 m 350.300 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