%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141126024404+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141126024404+00'00') /Title (Gender and Housing in Soviet Russia: Private Life in a Public Space) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3371 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Gender and Housing in Soviet Russia: Private Life in a Public Space)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The revolutionary poet Vladimir Mayakovsky famously proclaimed in his suicide note, ?the love boat has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crashed against )] TJ ET BT 110.660 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(byt)] TJ ET BT 125.324 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.? That the banal problems of everyday life \()] TJ ET BT 338.936 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(byt)] TJ ET BT 353.600 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) had undermined the hopes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution has since been widely inferred in evaluations of the Soviet system. The gender implications of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the promises and disappointments of 1917 have not, however, been extensively detailed, particularly where a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key matter of daily life is concerned: housing. Herein lies the most compelling achievement of )] TJ ET BT 490.616 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Housing in Soviet Russia)] TJ ET BT 154.352 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Enlivening a overview of housing policy from 1917 through 1991 with analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing notions about the kind of dwelling that would be appropriate for a socialist society in general, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the emancipation of women in particular, Lynne Attwood weaves together a multifaceted social history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Soviet Union.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(988)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 November, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynne Attwood)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719081453)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Varga-Harris)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7781 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly many features of the development of Soviet housing that Attwood recounts have been detailed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous scholarship.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 136.004 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 136.004 768.819 m 149.996 768.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 149.996 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( When the Bolsheviks assumed power in 1917, they immediately set about housing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the proletariat in whose name the Revolution had been won. Committed to the mandate of simultaneously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ending the existing urban housing shortage, and launching a proletarian order, already by March 1919, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new regime declared complete the municipalisation of living space. This process entailed seizing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dividing up the spacious apartments of members of the aristocracy and bourgeoisie, and redistributing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rooms to provide a minimum of nine square meters of living space per person.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the end of the 1920s, state determination to foster heavy industry began to take priority over the further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amelioration of living conditions. The result was continued overcrowding and excessive government control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over private life. By the 1930s, factories, enterprises and city governments had become responsible for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allocating housing in the service of the state. At its most egregious, supreme power over this scarce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commodity enabled the Stalinist regime to use housing to punish, motivate and reward individuals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Focus on such sinister episodes obscures the ideals upon which Soviet housing was based, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupation with shortcomings effaces the gender dimensions of both the housing crisis and the solutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to it that socialism offered. As Attwood demonstrates, each successive housing scheme was conflated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionizing everyday life. And since Russian women were the traditional custodians of the hearth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for activities connected with the home like cooking and childrearing, they featured prominently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in pronouncements about the projected benefits of reorganizing daily life, and in actual efforts to improve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living conditions. However, various national crises, seemingly endless shortages of capital and resources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and poor planning repeatedly thwarted the realization of the lofty goal of mass housing. Meanwhile, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enduring pre-revolutionary attitudes toward women reinforced stereotypes regarding their role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic sphere. Highlighting these aspects of Soviet housing and society, Attwood commendably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accomplishes her main objective of presenting ?a systematic study of the ways in which the Russian home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been differentially experienced by men and women? \(p. 16\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chronological approach of )] TJ ET BT 184.640 406.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender and Housing in Soviet Russia)] TJ ET BT 364.964 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( showcases recurring problems, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solutions and mindsets, leading Attwood again and again to the very conclusion with which Mayakovsky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ended his life in 1930. The first eight chapters are devoted to the initial four decades of Soviet power when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas about socialist )] TJ ET BT 133.676 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(byt )] TJ ET BT 151.340 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were being discussed and developed, and then a chapter is allotted to each of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successive post-war regimes ? the Khrushchev, Brezhnev and Gorbachev eras ? and to an overview of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal accounts assembled from interviews with more than dozen individuals. Attwood largely draws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon official published sources, including popular magazines, publications for housing professionals, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers. However, as an established gender scholar, she astutely reads between the lines of sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meticulously constructed rhetoric. She thereby discerns the various nuances of the position and daily life of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian women in the domestic sphere vis--vis men, and in juxtaposition with official ideals and policies.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 546.980 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 546.980 276.627 m 560.972 276.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beginning with the conceptual realm, Attwood emphasizes that early Bolshevik thinkers initially imagined a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communist state that would simultaneously provide housing for all citizens and relieve women of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burdens of household labour by transferring domestic chores to socialized kitchens, laundries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(childrearing institutions. Organized and financially supported by the government, such facilities would also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uphold another Bolshevik aim, that of creating a collectivist society. The municipalisation of housing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately after the Revolution signalled the inauguration of a new )] TJ ET BT 367.976 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(byt )] TJ ET BT 385.640 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by increasing the supply of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available living space and essentially decreeing that people of divergent class backgrounds cohabitate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the end of the Civil War, concerns over establishing economic stability and a new government led to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapprochement with capitalism. To resolve problems of reconstruction like the need to accommodate more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more people as cities regenerated, the New Economic Policy \(NEP\) allowed for the partial re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privatization of housing. This process involved returning smaller apartments to their previous owners, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were allowed to rent out living space for a profit, as well as permitting individuals to join together to form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housing construction cooperatives and build homes on spare plots of land. Effectively enabling the state to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defer the costs of building repair and maintenance, as well as of new construction, privatization continued )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 136.0037 769.1335 149.9957 781.0135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 546.9797 276.9415 560.9717 288.8215 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7428 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through 1927.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, as Attwood indicates, communal housing came to constitute the ideal. Providing a shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kitchen and collective childcare, this type of dwelling was seen to hold the potential to radically reconstruct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeois living arrangements, which, according to Bolshevik thinkers like Aleksandra Kollontai, had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enslaved women. Communal housing was also perceived to be the best solution for relieving the relentless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortage of space and enforcing collectivism. Its earliest iteration, the ?house commune? \()] TJ ET BT 466.592 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dom kommuna)] TJ ET BT 536.912 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gained a degree of popularity in the 1920s when such dwellings were set up voluntarily, motivated either by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessity or idealism. By the beginning of the First Five-Year Plan in 1928, communal living was officially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayed as the most effectual path to a new )] TJ ET BT 252.296 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(byt)] TJ ET BT 266.960 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The industrialization and collectivization drives, however, only put more pressure on existing housing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the resources needed to build more of it. Thus, although communal housing continued to be the ideal, factory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barracks and hostels remained common forms of accommodation for urban dwellers throughout the 1930s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Second World War posed new challenges, particularly in urban centres where homes were destroyed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombing raids and by individuals tearing apart wooden buildings in a desperate need for firewood. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alongside destruction, residents temporarily evacuated from cities often found their homes occupied by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others upon their return, further complicating post-war relocation. By 1948, desperate need led to a law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requiring local authorities to provide land to people willing to build their own houses. Construction was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slow, however, and communal housing remained the norm.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first major shift in housing policy since the Revolution occurred in 1957, when Khrushchev proclaimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his ambition to provide every Soviet family its own ?separate apartment? \()] TJ ET BT 392.300 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(otdel?naia kvartira)] TJ ET BT 485.300 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to single-family dwelling, which continued through the Brezhnev years, did not diminish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier ideals about collectivism and female emancipation. Rather, the site for realizing these elements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist )] TJ ET BT 76.352 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(byt )] TJ ET BT 94.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifted from the shared spaces of the communal apartment to public service facilities located )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within new residential districts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next noteworthy change in housing policy occurred under Gorbachev, whose privatization program )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overturned the state paternalism on which Soviet rule was founded. Abandoning the ideal of mass housing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was partly the result of )] TJ ET BT 146.996 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(glasnost?)] TJ ET BT 193.004 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which had led to open examination of past policy failures. Circumstances, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the need to quickly house the influx of soldiers returning from Soviet army bases closing down in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the East Bloc, also played a role. As for privatization, the measures that the government instituted included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offering loans to individuals wanting to buy their own apartments as enterprises and municipalities were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relieved of their housing responsibilities, and providing legal support, financing and even technological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assistance to those interested in building their own homes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assessing the impact of these shifting policies, Attwood reveals that throughout the Soviet era, even the best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intentions could hold negative, unintended consequences ? ones that affected women the most. To be sure, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the years immediately following the Revolution, relocation from factory barracks and dormitories on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outskirts of cities into rooms in municipalized apartments in urban centres created new problems for male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and female workers alike. These included long commutes and heating comparatively spacious, grand living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spaces. Working class women, however, endured additional burdens. For example, given their greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence in the home, it was they who were most frequently subjected to the resentment of the previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owners of flats recently seized by the state. Government provisions for housing cooperatives during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s appeared to offer an alternative to this situation, as well as to overcrowded state housing. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women tended to be in the minority, both as lessees of existing cooperatives and as shareholders of new ones )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being constructed. They were also underrepresented in the management of housing cooperatives. Attwood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributes this to a lack of confidence in female organizational abilities \(internalized by, and projected by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others upon, women\), a lack of free time \(due to family obligations\), and even disinterest \(in part attributable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to cultural preferences\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The communal apartment that became the norm at the turn of the 1920s to the 1930s, meanwhile, achieved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little success in securing the ideal )] TJ ET BT 197.996 54.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(byt )] TJ ET BT 215.660 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it had promised to women. As Attwood shows, for example, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7947 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overcrowding and gender role expectations served to situate women \(rarely men\) in shared spaces like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kitchens, and, in turn, at the centre of disputes regarding their use. Communal living also subjected single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, in particular, to sexual harassment, while the broader housing shortage made it difficult for married )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women to leave alcoholic or abusive spouses. The ambitious one-family housing policy that Khrushchev )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiated also failed to provide women a new )] TJ ET BT 250.652 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(byt)] TJ ET BT 265.316 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. For instance, poor planning and persistent shortages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulted in families quickly outgrowing the model flat \(designed for a married couple and two children\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes forcing members of different generations to live together. In effect then, traits of communal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apartment life ? from kitchen squabbles to the inability to escape an unhappy marriage ? continued. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Completely excluded from the ?one-family? model for which the separate apartment was designed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plight of the single woman was infinitely worse: she could end up as a lifetime resident of a dormitory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even by the final decade of the Soviet era, an unavailability of living space continued to undermine altruistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies and laws. Among them was a 1982 housing decree containing many stipulations of potential benefit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to women. For example, it provided single mothers preferential treatment for acquiring living space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside categories of people like veterans and people with debilitating illnesses, and it stated that a woman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should not have to cohabitate with an abusive husband. Together with the housing shortage that made such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directives unenforceable, gender stereotypes too persisted. Indeed in the final throes of the Communist era, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women gained little from privatization simply because they were not treated as entrepreneurs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Attwood demonstrates, deficiencies, stereotypes and domestic obligations also undermined the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities for emancipation that the reorganization of housing was supposed to advance. For instance, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination with the shortage of communal amenities, assumptions about female inclinations meant that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet women were consistently designated responsibility for childcare, which in turn prevented them from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking advantage of new career prospects or advancing in their given profession. Meanwhile, in public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic facilities, it was women who typically occupied jobs like doing laundry. Even the very goal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creating a new socialist )] TJ ET BT 149.324 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(byt )] TJ ET BT 166.988 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was frequently relegated to women. In both the 1920s and the post-Stalin order, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was they who were most often summoned to participate in competitions for communist living focused on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensuring household cleanliness and hygiene. In detailing these quotidian predicaments, Attwood enriches the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established characterization of Soviet women as enduring the multiple burdens of participating in the paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour force and fulfilling the majority of domestic duties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another crucial theme of this monograph, one intimated by its subtitle )] TJ ET BT 374.660 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Private Life in A Public Space)] TJ ET BT 520.316 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confluence of private and public situated at the intersection of gender and housing in Soviet society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Attwood argues that state distribution, which determined where and with whom one could live, together with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overcrowding, rendered domestic space a public commodity. What is conventionally construed as private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was undermined by other factors as well. For instance, since marital relations were seen to have bearing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the collective, apartment residents were encouraged to become involved in quelling spousal disputes. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally, daily life in the communal apartment was governed by official rules for tenants, while house )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committees assigned to watch over neighbours attended the transition to separate apartment living. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time, individuals shrewdly navigated through spaces that, essentially, should have been private. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Attwood reveals, for example, that residents locked up cupboards in communal flats or refused to cross the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threshold of the room of another tenant even to defend a wife in distress. More generally, they tried to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assume control over their housing circumstances, at times resorting to unofficial channels to exchange living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space, or protesting official attempts to fill vacated spaces with new tenants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Western assessments of Soviet private life had largely been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restricted to the findings of policy analysts, political scientists, legal experts and sociologists intrigued by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such matters as how the Soviet system works, and the impact of authoritarianism on the individual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 71.012 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 71.012 119.811 m 85.004 119.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 85.004 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( During the 1990s, there was a blossoming of research delving into this topic from an historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective and affording attention to the convergence of daily life with such varied factors as political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repression, Communist idealism, social norms, consumerism and material culture. Attwood draws upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of several of the scholars who have become strongly associated with such studies of everyday life, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the historians Sheila Fitzpatrick, Stephen Kotkin and Alf Ldtke, the sociologist Oleg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kharkhordin, the art historian Susan Reid, and the cultural theorist Svetlana Boym. Two glaring omissions, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 71.0117 120.1255 85.0037 132.0055 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 9159 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, remain in her secondary source base. The first is the monograph )] TJ ET BT 391.928 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Private Life and Communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Morality in Khrushchev?s Russia)] TJ ET BT 194.348 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in which Deborah Field examines the interplay between conceptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privacy, family life and the reforms of the Thaw.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.628 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.628 766.563 m 282.620 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 282.620 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The second is )] TJ ET BT 354.608 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Borders of Socialism)] TJ ET BT 455.276 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, edited by Lewis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Siegelbaum, who in the introduction contemplates ?the private as a universal category of historical analysis?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 738.051 m 48.008 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Spanning the entire Soviet era, the collection then proceeds to address a number of phenomena related to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the home with significant gender dimensions, including the Stalin-era domestic housewife activist \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(obshchestvennitsa)] TJ ET BT 121.340 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) movement and the prevalent problem of ?domestic hooliganism?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 442.964 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 442.964 709.539 m 456.956 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As far as her most original primary source is concerned, the cache of personal narratives upon which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final chapter is based largely corroborates what Attwood has already gleaned from official publications. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, some less known impressions about Soviet housing do arise here. For example, while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions of )] TJ ET BT 113.348 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(babushki )] TJ ET BT 159.680 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(grandmothers\) to Soviet childrearing are well established, the private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment of nannies in the absence of childcare institutions emerges as a fascinating avenue of inquiry. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That sexual harassment might have been rampant in dwellings accommodating single women is another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important issue raised in the oral accounts, as is the sense among men that it would have been inappropriate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? that is, unmanly ? for them to use their communal kitchen had they wanted to. In fact, throughout the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Attwood merely skims the surface of such issues that captivate the specialist. These include the housing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances of destitute segments of the post-Civil War population like prostitutes and female domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants, or of aristocratic women who served as landladies throughout the NEP era, only to then be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repressed under the auspices of class warfare during the Stalin period. Similarly intriguing is the impact on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the home of state surveillance of dissidents during the 1960s and 1970s, a matter that Attwood hints at in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to postwar housing as site for extra-state activities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Admittedly, an exhaustive foray into these and various other subjects would yield a monograph several times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the length most publishers would permit. As is, situated at the conjunction of several themes ? Bolshevik )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory, women, housing and private life ? and striking for the breadth of topics it covers, )] TJ ET BT 462.284 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Housing )] TJ ET BT 77.684 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a valuable primer for anyone interested in how Soviet housing ideology and policy were shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by crises like those posed by the Civil War, and by ambitions like building socialism in one country \(under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin\) or overtaking the West in consumer satisfaction \(under Khrushchev\). Scholars of everyday life would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also find this book a stimulating read. Finally, gender specialists of different times and places might see in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the experiences of Soviet women, repeatedly summoned to compensate for the shortcomings of government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy and daily life, striking parallels with their own research subjects in relation to the policies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prescriptions of their particular society. The French utopian socialist Charles Fourier asserted that the status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of women reflects progress within a given society. Attwood abundantly proves that this was certainly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case where the state of Soviet housing was concerned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.379 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among the classics are John Alfred Di Maio, Jr., )] TJ ET BT 301.976 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Urban Housing: Problems and Policies )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Westport, CT, 1974\) and Gregory D. Andrusz, )] TJ ET BT 294.968 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Housing and Urban Development in the USSR)] TJ ET BT 518.276 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, NY, 1984\). The following marks a transition to greater analytical emphasis on daily life in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet housing: Blair A. Ruble, ?From )] TJ ET BT 252.692 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Krushcheby )] TJ ET BT 313.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to )] TJ ET BT 325.352 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Korobki)] TJ ET BT 364.688 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,? in )] TJ ET BT 388.352 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russian Housing in the Modern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Age: Design and Social History)] TJ ET BT 216.668 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. William Craft Brumfield and Blair A. Ruble \(Cambridge, 1993\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 232?70.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.344 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.344 178.083 m 174.332 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Attwood has contributed articles and chapters to various scholarly journals and edited collections, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most recently served as both an editor and a contributor to )] TJ ET BT 346.304 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women in the Khrushchev Era)] TJ ET BT 493.616 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Melanie )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ilic, Susan E. Reid and Lynne Attwood \(Basingstoke, 2004\). Her publications also include the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monographs )] TJ ET BT 126.344 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Creating the New Soviet Woman: Women?s Magazines as Engineers of Female Identity, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1922?1953 )] TJ ET BT 121.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1999\) and )] TJ ET BT 255.980 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Soviet Man and Woman: Sex-Role Socialization in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the USSR )] TJ ET BT 112.676 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Bloomington, IN, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 235.676 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 235.676 92.547 m 289.664 92.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 79.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example, Vladimir Shlapentokh, )] TJ ET BT 260.324 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Public and Private Life of the Soviet People: Changing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Values in Post-Stalin Russia)] TJ ET BT 200.360 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1989\), and Raymond A. Bauer, Alex Inkeles and Clyde )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kluckhohn, )] TJ ET BT 123.344 51.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(How the Soviet System Works: Cultural, Psychological and Social Themes)] TJ ET BT 481.316 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.6277 766.8775 282.6197 778.7575 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 738.3655 48.0077 750.2455 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 442.9637 709.8535 456.9557 721.7335 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 120.3437 178.3975 174.3317 190.2775 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 235.6757 92.8615 289.6637 104.7415 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 2714 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MA, 1956\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.344 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.344 795.075 m 174.332 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deborah A. Field, )] TJ ET BT 153.668 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Private Life and Communist Morality in Khrushchev?s Russia )] TJ ET BT 455.672 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Bern, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 519.992 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 519.992 780.819 m 559.988 780.819 l S BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 766.563 m 78.008 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lewis H. Siegelbaum, ?Introduction: mapping private spheres in the Soviet context,? in )] TJ ET BT 487.640 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Borders of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Socialism: Private Spheres of Soviet Russia)] TJ ET BT 273.668 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Lewis H. 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