%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728220101+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728220101+01'00') /Title (The Atlantic) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4202 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Atlantic)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [('From the Sea of Perpetual Gloom to the Holiday Cruise')] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With this book Paul Butel, Professor of modern history at the Universite de Michel de Montaigne Bordeaux, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(launches both a new series, and a new perspective. The series 'Seas in History' edited by Geoffrey Scammell, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promise to reverse an age old trend, by taking an oceanic perspective on the relationships between land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masses. Further volumes are planned on the Baltic and North Sea, the Mediterranean, the Pacific and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian Ocean. For too long history has been written from a land bound, generally natio nal perspective, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seas offer an alternative standpoint, based on contact, exchange and transformation. That said Butel's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic is perceived in a recognisably French light, with all the advantages and pitfalls that necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow. His perspective provides a much needed corrective to the anglo-centric and rather triumphalist nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of so much of the existing literature. Furthermore the methodology is refreshing, and the insights invariably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worthy of consideration. Less impressive is the curious om ission of Professor Scammell's The World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Encompassed of 1981, a masterly survey of early European exploration in the Atlantic from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography, and the text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butel begins with the mythic Atlantic of the ancient Mediterranean, from Atlantis, Plato's ideal world, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the 'sea of perpetual gloom' that terrified those who feared to pass the Pillars of Hercules, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early voyages of the Carthaginians to Nor thern Europe, Morocco and West Africa. These voyages combined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious efforts to expand trading opportunities with the development of new myths. Other mythic traditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Celtic areas to the north grew and developed into the Christian era, sending St . Brendan to a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(98)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 March, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Butel)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(041516907)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(341pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Lambert)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7479 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world across the sea, with the Icelandic settlers following. Recent DNA based research has combined these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two streams of Atlantic expansion, with the dominant genetic heritage of modern Icelanders being Irish, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from prisoners and slaves acquired around Dublin, rather than Norse settlers. This raises a whole new series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of questions, concerning Icelandic culture. In addition archaeological research suggests that substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in climate had a profound effect on the settlements of Ice land and Greenland, the latter failing when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the weather worsened, and the former only clinging on to existence because the local fish stocks attracted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English traders. This would imply that the Norse Atlantic voyages were undertaken in periods of better w )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eather. Climatic shifts do not feature in this Atlantic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By contrast the commercial purpose of 'exploration' is well developed, disposing of Victorian conceit that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long and hazardous voyages were undertaken to expand knowledge when the search for profit was dominant. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The explorers who worked their way down the west coast of Africa and into the Bight of Benin sought gold, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves and sugar. The Portuguese prince Henry the 'Navigator' used the Canary Islands as a base for further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration, a source of slaves to sell in Lisbon and a potential kingdom of his own. The cultivation of sugar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Azores and Canaries provided a new trade, and expanded Atlantic maritime activity. The Portuguese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steadily worked their way south, until they left the Atlantic altogether for the real prize, the Indies. Along the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way the p revailing winds had taken them to Brazil, founding another empire, and now the largest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese speaking nation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To avoid Portuguese control of the Atlantic routes, which was maintained by force, Columbus headed due )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(west to find the Indies, but uncovered a new world. Throughout the era of Iberian expansion the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Ocean was the speed of communication, and the value of the luxury trades it permitted. Spices, sugar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and precious metals were easily moved by sea. Later the ocean facilitated large scale movements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population over vast distances, a process driven by commercial greed and the particular oppor tunities of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New World. Having depopulated the West Indies, largely by introducing new diseases, the Spanish and later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European colonial powers began the large scale importation of African slaves to work in the torrid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions. For all the horrors as sociated with the trade, the ocean enabled the new lands to be populated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and gave them their particular character. Without sea transport the development of the Americas would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been greatly delayed. Slave grown sugar came to dominate the economies of Europe and the North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American colonies, until the late 18th century the great wealth of empires lay in the small islands of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean, with Saint Domingo \(modern Haiti\) the richest colonial possession of all until the devastating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slave revolt of 1791. While the islands drove a burgeoning Atlantic economy, they proved fragile. Over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultivation deforested the islands, changing the micro-climate and ultimately ruining the land. As sugar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became ever cheaper other crops took precedence, like indigo and cof fee, until the end of the slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economies. Elsewhere the majority of the islands fell to the British, who secured effective command of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seas through their battle-fleet strategy in European waters, cutting the French off from their islands. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seapower als o helped secure British control of North America. They were also more successful as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonisers, by the mid 18th century 1.7 million people had come to the British controlled lands, only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(150,000 to those of France. Consequently the future of the continent was anglophone, if not British.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1815, if nor earlier, the British dominated the Atlantic, a development that was reflected in a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas, from the independence of Latin America, supported by British capital, and protected by British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seapower, to the ending of the slave trade by the Royal Navy in the mid century. Throughout the century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vast numbers of European peoples voluntarily crossed the Atlantic, in search of a new life, most reinforced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the existing Anglophone nations of the north, but Butel reminds us that significant numbers of Spanish and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian emigrants went to Argentina and other South American states.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It could be argued that Butel underplays the strategic value of the Atlantic, an area where it proved critical )] TJ ET BT 547.232 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of the modern world. While he correctly stresses the origins of naval power lay in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence of trade, he does not develop this to show how naval power in the Atlantic could determine the fate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of empires, and alter the balance of power in Europe. It did not even have to operate in the Atlantic. The key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to British success in the long 18th century lay in the ability to blockade the French fleets in their home ports. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the twentieth century the Atlantic witnessed two major wars, and provided the key to allied victory in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both. Here Butel's French perspective has little to offer. His section dealing with the Second World War has )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7569 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more to say about Mers-el-Kebir than Operation Bolero, the vast North American build up in Britain for D-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Day. The treatment of Mers-el-Kebir, dominated by the words 'appalling brutality', cannot be sustained. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British government ordered the operation w ith great reluctance, but in a war for survival they could take the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(risk of leaving this powerful force under the control of a country occupied by their enemy. Butel also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflates Nelson's attack on Copenhagen in 1801 with the seizure of the Danish Navy in 1807, the real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model for the operation. In essence the role of the Atlantic in the world wars was to connect the alliance that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(won both wars, dominated by Britain and America, with the decisive theatre of operations, Europe. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought back to the old continent the descendants of those who had left over the past three hundred years, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both as voluntary emigrants, and as unwilling slaves, to fight for the freedom of the world. While the allies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had effective control of the Atlantic, and they never lost thi s priceless asset, despite coming close in early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1917, they were always going to defeat German attempts to secure European hegemony. In this respect the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world wars repeated the strategic pattern of the long 18th century, when Britain used her command of t he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic to defeat French ambitions. From 1941 to1945 Atlantic shipping went further afield, to northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia to support the Soviet war effort, to the Indian Ocean, the Pacific and the Mediterranean to support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British and American strategy. This glob al flexibility, only possible with sea based transport, enabled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allies to shift their resources from theatre to theatre faster and more effectively than the axis. Little wonder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the post-war security architecture of the northern hemisphere was dom inated by NATO, an organisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined by the ocean that linked it's members, and carried the memory of victory in two world wars. In time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NATO would win the last great war of the 20th century, defeating the Soviet bloc, and then redefined itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the protector of 'western values' in the European region with a leading role in ending ethnic conflict in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former Yugoslavia. Since 1941 the Atlantic has been the lifeline of western liberal values, connecting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States with its allies and partners, ra ther than the barrier that facilitated American isolationism in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s and 1930s. As we enter the new millennium it is to be hoped that this connection will be maintained.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butel underplays to role of NATO, perhaps reflecting France's on-off relationship with the organisation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite this Gallic uncertainty NATO is among the most durable and effective security organisations ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created, it won a major war without overt con flict, and waited over fifty years before engaging in hostilities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the first time. More immediately NATO was the key to the post-war reconstruction of western Europe, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing a security architecture that gave confidence to the Europeans, that encoura ged investment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regeneration. In this sense NATO, Marshall Aid and the sustained American commitment to Europe after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945 were a wise investment, particularly when set against the alternative adopted after 1918. America used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her wealth and strength to regenerate her allies, politically, militarily, and most significantly economically. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The cultural impact of American hegemony is not addressed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 1945 Atlantic trade and passenger activity resumed, growing steadily until the arrival of the jet airliner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killed off the passenger trade, and with it the romance of the great liners that so fascinate Butel. However, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he observes, all is not lost, for the last of these great liners were converted into the first cruise ships, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflecting a new era of unprecedented safety and affluence in man's relationship with the ocean. Now large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers of people chose to go on board ships and experience what was , for their ancestors, a kind of living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hell. It is an irony that the latest giant cruise hotel should be named Sovereign of the Seas, like the prestige )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flagship of the English King Charles Ist. Both vessels were temples to the ideas of their age, the fir st )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrated divine right and royal power, the more recent ship marks the final triumph of free market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism. Just as Charles's ship would outlast his regime, so the new vessel has entered seas that are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly feeling the strain of ever-increa sing human activity, from pollution to over-fishing, with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measure of drug smuggling and illegal immigration thrown in. The ocean is open, providing both an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity and a danger. For the future the world needs to regulate more effectively the use of the sea, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control the threat posed by incompetently run ships, illegal fishing, dumping and trafficking. Here is a truly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic role for NATO in the new century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Atlantic, like all seas, has connected human society from the mythic visions and ideal worlds of ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantis to the limitless opportunities of a 'New World' which included its' own measure of myths, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renewal of European society, at all lev els in time of crisis by the return of peoples and ideas that had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transplanted across the ocean. Here Butel's vision of America's role should be complemented by the higher )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4256 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per capita participation of Canada in both world wars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The greatest omission from the book is an adequate range of maps and other visual evidence. The single )] TJ ET BT 536.924 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides the directions of the prevailing winds, which is useful in the first two thirds of the book, but there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were opportunities to display so mu ch more information, major fisheries, a subject much neglected in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern era, hydrographic information, continental shelfs, ice movements, telegraph cables, and routes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along with a range of primary source material like early maps, charts, rutters, th e sailing rigs of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vessels, icons, and other related material. The sea is not only distinct form the land, it is also distant from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most people today. Few of us make our living at sea, or use it for anything other than recreation, so the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harsh, and of ten lethal quality of the broad ocean, as experienced by mariners since the first voyages, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missing. Additional benefit would be derived from a closer study of the link between the sea, ports and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hinterland they served. Once again maps would be a po werful tool in explaining why some ports develop, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and others do not.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The value of this important book can be found in its ambition, breadth of learning and distinct perspective. )] TJ ET BT 548.624 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will serve a wide community of historians who touch on the ocean as a corrective to the prevailing literature, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a check on Anglo-centric assumpt ions. France may have lost the Atlantic wars of the long 18th century, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her perspective remains important, and she remains an Atlantic nation, with the legacy of her ambitions to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen on both sides of the ocean. The launch of this series promises a similar challenge tot he land-bound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginations of the wider historical community. The sea has been at the heart of human progress since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dawn of organised societies, it has had a greater impact on the modern world than almost any other element, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and yet its history has been marginalised, This series deserves well, the ambition alone is a credit to all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned, while Butel's opening volume has provided a fine maiden voyage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In concluding Butel foreshadows the emergence of the Pacific as the ocean of 21st century, a prediction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already rendered doubtful by recent events. It seems the Atlantic has a little way to go before it will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrender the primacy it has maintained as the 'ocean' since ancient times.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 387.343 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 369.563 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 369.563 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/98b)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 368.169 m 322.316 368.169 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 343.192 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4484)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.392 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 368.4835 322.3157 380.3635 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/98b) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000515 00000 n 0000000597 00000 n 0000004851 00000 n 0000004960 00000 n 0000005070 00000 n 0000005179 00000 n 0000008740 00000 n 0000008868 00000 n 0000008952 00000 n 0000009017 00000 n 0000016549 00000 n 0000016614 00000 n 0000024236 00000 n 0000024320 00000 n 0000028629 00000 n 0000028757 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28852 %%EOF