%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416125947+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416125947+01'00') /Title (The Making of a World Power: War and the Military Revolution in Seventeenth-Century England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4253 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Making of a World Power: War and the Military Revolution in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Seventeenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For over forty years it has been all but impossible to begin an undergraduate lecture, a book or paper dealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with aspects of military conflict in the early modern period, without reference to the inaugural address given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Michael Roberts in 1956 on The Military Revolution 1560-1660. It is therefore perhaps surprising that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English historians have been rather reluctant to create a direct link between this historical watershed and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of warfare within Britain and Ireland. This has changed with the publication of James Scott )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheelers study of seventeenth-century English warfare, which makes explicit not only the link between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and military revolution, but also points to the civil war and Interregnum as the key period in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of a second rate \(perhaps under Charles I we should say third rate\) marginal European power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a premiership contender on the world stage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work itself is impressive, engagingly written, and demonstrates a depth of scholarship so often lacking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in works with a military theme. If no further claims are made for this book, then at the very least it can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said to demonstrates the flowering of the new military history \(usually recognised by the conjunction war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and society\) which began to emerge four decades ago, but which has so rarely lived up to its promise. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast to much that has been written in the field, this work manages to confront the central issues in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English, and world, history, through the military sphere. It does so through a painstaking examination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative and financial documents from the period, which will remain invaluable to future historians for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some time to come. It is also highly refreshing to see the navy and army balanced as twin foci of Englands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise to prominence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 March, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Scott Wheeler)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(287pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sutton Publishing)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stroud)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Will Coster)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7384 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, while the first chapter deals with the military revolution debate, the next two examine the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(navy, before and after 1648 respectively, before we return to the thorny problem of the creation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing army in the civil war and its survival beyond the Restoration. The second half of the book examines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in some detail the sinews of war in the seventeenth century, through the problematic area of taxation. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters are devoted to the financial problems of the Long Parliament, the Customs, Excise and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assessment, before the argument is reversed in the final chapter to examine the impact of war on the state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is perhaps most problematic about the entire book is its very carefully constructed intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework within the historiographical context of the powerful concept of Military Revolution. As Geoffrey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parker noted, the idea of Military Revolution has had a long half-life, outliving the concepts of Court and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Country and General Crisis that were spawned in the same era. But, ironically, our first serious study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English military activity in this period, which basks in the dangerous glow of this historical plutonium, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come to us just as the process of degeneration seems to be speeding up. Given the rapidity of this process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more apposite metaphors might include icebergs or elastic bands. Depending on ones preferences, military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution is a concept that has recently begun to melt, or has perhaps been overstretched.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commendably, the author is not blind to fluctuations in this debate and almost the entire first chapter is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted to the scholarship surrounding military revolution in both European and English contexts. He points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Parkers geographical and chronological expansion of the concept of revolution and to Jeremy Blacks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modification to emphasise the periods 1470-1530, 1660-1720 and 1792-1815. However, he still feels that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parkers modification of the Roberts thesis is useful and defensible \(p. 8\), eschewing the increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashionable argument put forward by C. J. Rogers for punctuated equilibrium evolution \(p. 6\). However, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem is even more complex. Although Michael Prestwich has argued that English military innovations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fourteenth century were not of the same degree of significance as later transformations \(p. 9\), not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyone has agreed and it has recently been possible to produce a volume on the theme of medieval military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution. With hindsight, it seems that Parker, in effect, salvaged Roberts original thesis by a strategic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(withdrawal to new boundaries. However, those boundaries are now being breached, not just chronologically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also geographically and thematically, as studies of military revolution across Europe and the wider world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have begun to abound. David Parrott, arguably the most trenchant critic of military revolution as a concept, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not cited by the author, but, given this haemorrhaging, he should perhaps have due credit for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observation that, the most interesting question about the military revolution [is] why such an improbable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis should ever have achieved widespread acceptance amongst historians in the first place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Scott Wheelers solution to these problems is to adapt David Landes redefinition of Industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution as a watershed that set up later developments \(p. 9\). Such a buttressing of once familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landmarks on the historical landscape is appealing. It could be argued that while post-war historians created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or enhanced a multitude of powerful concepts for the understand of the past, the contribution of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent generation has been to remove the capitalisation and/or to make them plural, diluting the clarity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking and substituting only confusion. Thus we now talk not of a Revolution, but of revolutions. Where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current readers feel the balance to lie at this moment is perhaps unimportant. What is significant is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author has, to borrow another military clich, nailed his colours to the mast. As a result, the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his work will depend on continued resilience of the Military Revolution argument. In that sense, when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ship goes down, as surely it must, it takes the central thesis of this book with it. What remains to debate is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the degree to which this work has helped to support what seems to some a lost cause and, perhaps as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly, what is learned along the way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Scott Wheelers central argument in favour of an English Military Revolution is that is must be seen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial and administrative terms and that the key developments in these areas took place in a limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, particularly between the execution of Charles I and the restoration of Charles II. In these areas, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author produces a wealth of evidence to demonstrate the ways in which institutions and methods famously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed in the English and British successes of the late seventeenth century, and beyond, were created in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this more limited, and much earlier period. He does this, not only in those chapters that deal individually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Customs, Excise and the Assessment, but also through those focusing on the formation of the navy )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7491 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and army. Such is the wealth of evidence, both in the form of statistics from the state records and as a blow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by blow account of administrative developments, that it is hard not to be won over to this case. Clearly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived need for both large navies and armies did lead to the creation of new, and significant adaptation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing, financial and administrative institutions, that would later be employed to kick start the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military experiment of the modern period. What is more difficult is to be certain as to how this interfaced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the application of military power and therefore with more than an administrative revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naturally, seen from this standpoint the essential characteristics of revolutionised armed forces are their size )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and permanence, because both of these factors have direct effects on the financial costs of warfare. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hindsight presents something of a problem, as it is generally assumed that military revolution in England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orbited only around the issue of standing armed forces. The author notes the lack of a such an army as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem for the English in the early seventeenth century, but, despite French experimentation in the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stages of the Hundred Years War, in this period only Spain had anything can be meaningfully be called a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing and professional land army \(p. 1\). Similarly, Elizabeth I is noted as having failed to modernize )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English financial thinking and to create a permanent professional navy \(p. 24\). One wonders if she realised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is what she should have been doing. Undoubtedly most of the political nation, including the Queen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have thought these outcomes great successes. This dichotomy, between what is antiquated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval and what is modern and therefore presumably superior, is used throughout the book in a way most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent historians have been keen to avoid. If the thesis of Military Revolution can only be judged in such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stark terms, as a transformation between the medieval and modern, it seems certain to fail, since it cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(match up to the reality of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England, where the thing individuals were most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keen to avoid was administrative and political innovation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, these comments have a wider context within the book. As the authors emphasis is on the 1640s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1650s as a watershed, they serve to emphasise the discontinuity in armed and administrative structures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before that point. Thus, in addition, we deal with Jacobean neglect of the navy, while the efforts of Charles I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were undermined by a series of disasters. In contrast, after the Interregnum the author points to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuities in service. Thus, despite the abandonment in 1674 by Charles II of his attempt to maintain a war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength navy in peacetime, the continued employment of specific squadrons is emphasised \(p. 59\). Surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Scott Wheeler is right to point to continuity in armed land forces across the Restoration line, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispensing with the legal fiction that dates the origins of the present Royal army to 1660 and not the regicide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces established by parliament in 1645. But Charles IIs land army was initially small, and fluctuated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerably in size depending on circumstances. Units and personnel were maintained, but not universally. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author makes a convincing case for greater continuity in English armed forces after the Interregnum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than before, but whether that point marked a clear watershed, or merely a staging-post in a process of growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and development, is open to debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The financial argument for the Navy is the most compelling, with graphs that clearly demonstrate near )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuity between the annual average expenditure on the Cromwellian and Restoration navies and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued growth from the 1680s \(p. 65\). However, the evidence is far less clear in the case of land forces, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the staggering rise in such expenditure in the middle decades of the century, from annual averages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under 100,000 in most of the first part, to over 700,000 in the 1640s and 50s, strongly suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontinuity with the past \(p. 210\). The problem is that after the Restoration, expenditure remained at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roughly half this level until the Glorious Revolution. Thus, in terms of land forces, if not in terms of navies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the continuity of expenditure between Interregnum and Restoration appears limited.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The contrast between army and navy is problematic in a number of other ways. At the outset of chapter 2, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we are boldly told that the Tudors founded the modern English Navy. However, historians have never been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreed on this point; other candidates for such a foundation have included Alfred the Great, Edward III and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry V \(p. 22\). The problem, of course, is that pre-industrial ships, being made of rotting wood, mean that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(navies needed constant re-foundation. The author circumnavigates this problem by arguing that the Navy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be defined not so much by its ships, but by its continuous administrative establishment. This is seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as lying in the 1540s with Henry VIIIs setting up of a permanent shore based administration in the Council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Maritime Causes, even if it was to undergo considerable modification over the next century and a half. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4192 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We must contrast this with the army. The author points to the important effectiveness of the systems for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raising and paying the New Model Army \(pp. 83-6\), but this was, and continued to be, carried out on an ad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hoc and regimental basis. From 1645, there was continuity of personnel and units, but arguably it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at least the late eighteenth century before Britain established a permanent administrative structure for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armed land forces. It seems then that the administration military revolution was somewhat staggered in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England between its two major arms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the problems is that Englands, and later Britains, military experience is so radically different from its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental neighbours. With the Navy acting as the first line of defence, there was no need for a large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing army to hold borders, virtually no permanent fortifications in the style of the trace italienne, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular on the continent. Therefore, it could be argued that a significant discontinuity between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interregnum and Restoration periods lies in part in the abandonment of the English Republics brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ascendancy as a major land power, and the emergence of Britain as a naval and expeditionary force, a policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still in place into the twentieth century. Britain did not need the same sort of military revolution as its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbours; with a powerful navy it could, and did, continue to rely on the amateur military tradition for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence, and a small professional army for attack. This then is part of the reason that England does not fit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the pattern, fragmented and partial as it might now seem, found in the rest of Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not necessarily to undermine the authors central premise, that it was the financial administration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems established in the civil wars and Interregnum were vital to the later development of Britain as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military and imperial power. However, it is evident that this did not necessarily amount to a transformation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of warfare in itself. This book throws illuminating light on the developments of the period, assembling a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mass of invaluable statistics and a framework for understanding the processes of accumulation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution. Despite the careful linking of these factors with military fortunes and developments, what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains debatable is whether these administrative changes constituted a military revolution, or were simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one more stage in a process of evolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 399.343 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 381.563 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 381.563 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/99)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 380.169 m 316.316 380.169 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 355.192 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/661)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.392 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 380.4835 316.3157 392.3635 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/99) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000594 00000 n 0000000676 00000 n 0000004981 00000 n 0000005090 00000 n 0000005200 00000 n 0000005309 00000 n 0000008870 00000 n 0000008998 00000 n 0000009082 00000 n 0000009147 00000 n 0000016584 00000 n 0000016649 00000 n 0000024193 00000 n 0000024277 00000 n 0000028522 00000 n 0000028650 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28744 %%EOF