%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140706052306+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140706052306+01'00') /Title (The Pen and the People: English Letter Writers 1660-1800) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4479 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Pen and the People: English Letter Writers 1660-1800)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The title of Susan Whyman?s)] TJ ET BT 176.000 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Pen and the People: English Letter Writers 1660-1800)] TJ ET BT 462.980 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( suggests two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentialities at once: )] TJ ET BT 139.676 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pen and the People)] TJ ET BT 254.324 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( indicates a comprehensive study of popular letters and letter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing practices during the long 18th century \(1660?1800\); yet the subtitle,)] TJ ET BT 398.312 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( English Letter Writers)] TJ ET BT 508.652 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, implies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused and discrete analyses of specific letter )] TJ ET BT 259.616 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(writers)] TJ ET BT 293.624 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In other words, I had to recalibrate my expectations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat in reckoning the title of the book because the book is not so much about letter writing as a popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon during the long 18th century as it is about individual letter writers and the ways in which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquired and expressed both literacy and literariness. The tension between the focus on the individual case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study and the drive toward an expansive scope works sometimes to the study?s benefit, sometimes to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detriment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is composed of three parts. Part one, entitled ?Creating a culture of letters?, offers an introduction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a chapter on creating the letter, and a chapter on the postal system; part two, ?Creating a culture of literacy,? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains a chapter on rural and laborer letter writers, and one on middle class letter writers; and part three, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called ?From letters to literature,? offers a chapter on the relation between letter writing and the epistolary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novel, one on letter writing and literary culture, followed by a conclusion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study is an important one insofar as Whyman has recovered exemplars of 18th-century middle and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underclass epistolary writing. She demonstrates throughout the study ?how people from the lowest strata )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(991)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 November, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Whyman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199532445)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(32.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gary Schneider)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7618 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaged in mainstream epistolary culture?. \(p. 9\) Prior scholarship of letters and letter writing during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long 18th century has been dominated by work on aristocratic and literary figures, but Whyman has dug out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the archives collections of letters of non-elite families, focusing her book on 15 of them. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctiveness of Whyman?s study is indeed that the author ?introduces readers to an unknown group of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary writers? \(p. 15\). The book is exceedingly well researched; and, of course, as with her prior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sociability and Power in Late-Stuart England: The Cultural Worlds of the Verneys 1660-1720 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 490.352 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 490.352 723.795 m 504.344 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 504.344 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival work is first rate \(demonstrated, for instance, by the details of her archive contained in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appendices\). The book uses ?large caches of correspondence? \(p. 5\), which is vital considering her goal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterizing an extensive historical swath of a 140 years; it is also commendable since too many studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistolary writing are marred by attempting to draw too broad generalizations from too few samples.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction to the book offers a key term around which the remainder of the book will revolve: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?epistolary literacy?. Epistolary literacy includes the material dimensions, linguistic skills, and conceptual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abilities of a letter writer, including elements learned through a variety of non-formal training methods; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hence, epistolary literacy means far more than simply the ability to write one?s name. The term is quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful, defining the specific ways in which letter writers during the long 18th century learned to engage a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of letters without any formal education, as well as defining the repertoire of abilities that every letter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writer needed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one, ?Creating the letter: how to acquire epistolary literacy,? emphasizes how people acquired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistolary literary though non-formal means: ?we must look for unofficial sites and methods for acquiring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literacy? \(p. 24\), writes Whyman. Such methods include instruction from local scribes, the epistolary literacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents passed onto children, and what children learned simply by corresponding with family members. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter begins with a verbal portrait of a young man preparing to write a letter. It is indeed a colorful way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relate the physical, material, and abstract elements that go into letter composition, although it adds little new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight into the mental or physical conditions of letter writing. Curiously, even as Whyman makes it clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that formal means of instruction in epistolary literacy such as letter-writing manuals were not essential and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that her young man has no letter-writing manual at hand, she quotes from letter-writing manuals in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrait and refers to illustrations from them. The chapter concludes with a comparison of children?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence of four families: three merchant families and the elite, educated Evelyn family. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the purpose of the comparison ? to contrast the letter writing of the gentry with that of the middling sort ? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not sharp, and one is left with the impression that the letter-writing practices between families of differing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social rank differed little.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two, ?Sending the letter: the Post Office and the politics of the mail,? charts the development of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th-century post through 17th-century reforms, discusses alternative delivery methods, and emphasizes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of the post to the development of a popular culture of letters. The rather rosy picture of postal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficiency given in the introduction ? where Whyman quotes the gushing praise of Jane Fairfax from Jane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austen?s )] TJ ET BT 81.008 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Emma)] TJ ET BT 111.668 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the effect that not a letter in a million is lost ? is here counter-balanced by a sharp sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the post?s limitations as Whyman examines complaints about the system. In many ways chapter two is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pro forma chapter included to set the stage for the core of the book ? chapters three and four ?which offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of recovered underclass and middle class letter writers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three, ?Letters and literacy: farmers and workers in northern England?, ?shows how persons with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little formal education acquired and used letter-writing in their daily lives? \(p. 75\). Five case studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families and individuals constitute the primary evidence of this chapter, all letter writers working in rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas. Whyman assesses in this chapter how letter writing served to satisfy a variety of social, psychological, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and personal needs, especially the extent to which ?rural literacy was needed and valued? \(p. 86\) by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual correspondents. The author develops rich, detailed portraits of the letter writers, and convincingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assesses how and why those letter writers employed letter writing. Whyman ends the chapter with instructive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges to scholarship of literacy by reflecting on the specifically )] TJ ET BT 364.616 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(epistolary)] TJ ET BT 412.616 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( literacy of farmers and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manual laborers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four, ?Letters of the middling sort: confronting problems of business, religion, gender, and class?, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 490.3517 724.1095 504.3437 735.9895 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7861 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serves as an accompaniment to the prior chapter on the letters of farmers and manual laborers, incorporating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case studies of the letters of four families. Whyman points out that the possession of epistolary literacy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in many ways a marker of the middling sort, insofar as many more letters of middle-class correspondents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survive compared to those of manual laborers. Analysis of specifically female letter writers in chapter four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a useful complement to James Daybell?s work on 16th- and early 17th-century women letter writers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the letter-writing practices of Rebekah Bateman ? her deferential letter-writing style and use of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically ?gendered? rhetoric \(p. 138\) ? resemble those of women writing two centuries before. Analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the letters of the Follows family of Suffolk, a Quaker family, shows convincingly how a non-conformist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family relied on correspondence in the face of persecution, but Whyman also highlights the spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension of letter writing: ?A truly Christian letter might ? become a means of grace? \(p. 144\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As with chapter three, the contexts and characterizations of the correspondents highlighted in chapter four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are rich. \(There are a number of black-and-white plates that also help bring the letters and contexts alive.\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?mini-biographies? \(p. 16\) Whyman constructs in chapters three and four are in some ways an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitability, required to set context and clarify relationships among correspondents; yet one sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonders in these two chapters if the mini-biographies are there to aid analysis of letters, letter writing, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistolary literacy or if the letters are in the service of the mini-biographies: there are stretches in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters where the topic is neither letters, epistolary literacy, nor even basic literacy, but consist instead of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographical narrative. Now, this does not make the case studies any less compelling; however, chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three and four end up being less successful overall as examinations of letter writing than they are as analyses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of basic writing skills, general literacy, and 18th-century family dynamics where the primary material on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which analysis is based happens to be letters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whyman?s observation that ?The ordinary act of letter-writing underpinned ... literary pursuits? \(p. 163\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crystallizes the arguments of chapters five and six, where the author highlights how middle class letter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers explored letter writing as a means to engage and write literature. Chapter five, ?Letter-writing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rise of the novel: the epistolary literacy of Jane Johnson and Samuel Richardson?, concentrates on how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane Johnson, the uneducated wife of a Buckinghamshire vicar, exercised her epistolary literacy to interact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textually with Samuel Richardson?s epistolary novels, principally )] TJ ET BT 352.664 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Clarissa)] TJ ET BT 393.344 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1748\), and who had chiefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral concerns at core in doing so: included in Jane Johnson?s correspondence is her own ?The History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miss Clarissa of Buckinghamshire? \(p. 180\), which is largely autobiographical in nature and, of course, is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imitation of Richardson. Jane Johnson, Whyman argues, had answered the call of Richardson himself, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged his readers to engage his novel by soliciting contributions to his serially published work. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whyman also examines the poetry of Johnson in chapter five. What is unclear in this subsection, however, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cause-and-effect relationship: clearly having specifically epistolary literacy allows Johnson to engage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistolary novelist Richardson, but how specifically )] TJ ET BT 286.328 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(epistolary)] TJ ET BT 334.328 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( literacy encourages her composition of poetry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is far less apparent. Whyman?s statement that ?Letter-writing offered Johnson a training ground for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composing other types of literature? \(p. 188\) is simply too vague \(and generic\) to be compelling.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter six, ?Letter-writing, reading, and literary culture: the Johnson family and Anna Miller,? Whyman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues her appraisal of letters and literature. The first sections of the chapter concern Anna Miller and her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bath literary salon. Miller used letters ?to become a published author and to rise socially? \(p. 196\) by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printing her )] TJ ET BT 93.344 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Letters from Italy)] TJ ET BT 177.344 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1776\). Whyman then discusses in the last sections of the chapter Jane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johnson?s children, Barbara and Robert. Barbara?s epistolary literacy allowed her to engage literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism and compose private poetry, while Robert ?used epistolary literacy to evaluate literature? \(p. 209\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evident in the critical commentary contained in his letters, written in response to his reading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As with chapters three and four, chapters five and six contain considerable biographical and contextual data; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed, chapters five and six are almost overtaxed with detail. One also wishes Anna Miller?s surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence were thoroughly compared to her epistolary fiction: it would have been instructive to see if a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause-and-effect relationship could be discerned ? the cause-and-effect relationship absent from analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane Johnson?s poetry ? that one?s epistolary literacy determines or enhances one?s participation in literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture ; or, in Whyman?s words, that ?letter-writing was ... a crucial training ground for entering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream world of letters? \(p. 163\). The critical point of chapters five and six seems to be that letter )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 6597 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing is related to ?higher? literary endeavors. Again, it is a generic conclusion. The significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters five and six is rather in the recovery of letter writers such as Jane Jonson and her children, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were by no means important literary figures, who existed on the margins of literary culture, but who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless demonstrate a sincere and abiding engagement with literature through the practice of letter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing, and who do indeed represent participation in a popular culture of letters. Recognition of Jane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonson?s semi-autobiographical ?The History of Miss Clarissa of Buckinghamshire? is alone enough to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recommend chapter five as an illuminating chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book ends with a conclusion, which consists essentially of summary of the preceding chapters. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are no links forged to tie her scholarship to other scholarship of the letters and letter writing of the long 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century \(or with epistolary studies of earlier or later periods\), and Whyman seldom looks forward to how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable cache of letters she has recovered may be subject to further analysis ? at least the future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directions analysis of 18th-century underclass and middle class letter writers might take, since the letters she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has recovered are extraordinary documents clearly worthy of further investigation. Indeed, it might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been productive to look forward to the development of popular epistolary literacy in the 19th century, and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicate what the letter writers she has analyzed can tell us about the continued expansion of a popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of letters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whyman has also bookended her study with references to the period under investigation as the ?golden age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of letters? \(pp. 5, 228\). This old saw is still regularly employed in literary and historical criticism, yet the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phrase ?golden age of letters? is neither critically useful nor even accurately descriptive: the ?golden age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters? suggests a qualitative measure ? that the letters of this period were superior \(although how they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superior is never addressed in the book\) ? when the phrase at best rather signifies a quantitative measure: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that more letters were written \(and printed\) than ever before due to increases in literacy along with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social, economic and cultural phenomena. ?Golden age?, moreover, suggests a teleology, implying that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier epochs of \(presumably\) iron- or bronze-age letter writing were somehow aesthetically or otherwise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deficient. Hence, the phrase ?golden age of letters? becomes bleached of real analytical value since it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains little critical meaning; it becomes instead a rhetorical flourish and convenient shorthand to mark off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historical territory under investigation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this is not to focus on the essence of Whyman?s book and to recognize her study as a valuable one when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it comes to the recovery and analysis of the epistolary literacy of a specific group of letter writers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whyman?s aim, in fact, is to ?harness letter-writing practices to the service of studying literacy? \(p. 9\) in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigating the correspondence of several popular letter writers. This is the strength of the book. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book might have incorporated the term ?popular epistolary literacy? in the title: even though ?popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistolary literacy? as a title lacks the punch of )] TJ ET BT 262.304 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pen and the People)] TJ ET BT 376.952 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(as well as its revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications\), this is the most accurate description of what this book is finally about.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.123 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Whyman, )] TJ ET BT 145.676 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sociability and Power in Late-Stuart England: The Cultural Worlds of the Verneys )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1660?1720 )] TJ ET BT 121.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 196.664 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 196.664 208.851 m 250.652 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 183.989 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan E. Whyman Historian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.susanwhyman.com/press.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 154.083 m 236.348 154.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 239.348 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 150.751 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 132.971 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 132.971 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/991)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 131.577 m 322.316 131.577 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 106.600 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5102)] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.800 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.susanwhyman.com/press.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 196.6637 209.1655 250.6517 221.0455 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 154.3975 236.3477 166.2775 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.susanwhyman.com/press.html) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 131.8915 322.3157 143.7715 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/991) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000005172 00000 n 0000005281 00000 n 0000005391 00000 n 0000005500 00000 n 0000009061 00000 n 0000009189 00000 n 0000009273 00000 n 0000009357 00000 n 0000017028 00000 n 0000017058 00000 n 0000017186 00000 n 0000017222 00000 n 0000017287 00000 n 0000025201 00000 n 0000025299 00000 n 0000031949 00000 n 0000032077 00000 n 0000032132 00000 n 0000032259 00000 n 0000032348 00000 n 0000032476 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32571 %%EOF