%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819132520+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819132520+01'00') /Title (Borders and Conflict in South Asia. The Radcliffe Boundary Commission and the Partition of Punjab) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4162 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Borders and Conflict in South Asia. The Radcliffe Boundary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Commission and the Partition of Punjab)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucy Chester?s book is a highly readable and accessible effort, which attempts to make two key assertions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Firstly, ?that the boundary commission headed by Cyril Radcliffe offers a window into the complexity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist dealings with the colonial power structures? \(p. 1\) and secondly, that ?it was not the location of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Radcliffe boundary but the flawed process of partition that caused the terrible violence of 1947? \(p. 1\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Underpinning these assertions are four key themes: ?haste, a veneer of order, a concern for international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation and a conscious presentation of the process as one for which South Asians bore primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility? \(p. 3\). Chester therefore explores the making of the Indo-Pakistan boundary, a process that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took six weeks and was headed by a British lawyer with no relevant skills in boundary-making, and how this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(event was interwoven in the wider political arena of British imperial decline. The book is firmly positioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the high politics of the period, focusing primarily on the role of Radcliffe and the last Viceroy, Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis Mountbatten. Central to the research is the impact the boundary line had on the Punjab province.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the onset Chester is critical of the British departure from India, calling it ?hasty, ill-planned and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely bloody? \(p. 4\). Yet they also attempted to apply ?a veneer of order? to the process, by first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempting to preserve the reputation of Viceroy Mountbatten by using Radcliffe as a suitable scapegoat, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second presenting a process in which the South Asian leadership had some agency. Britain was concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(995)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 November, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucy Chester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719078996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pippa Virdee)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7638 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with preserving its reputation during this vital time of handing over power. Financially broke and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotionally battered following the Second World War, this was a crucial period from which it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important that Britain emerged with its reputation in tact and to present an orderly withdrawal from India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather giving the impression that it was forced to quit India. This was after all the ?jewel in the crown? of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Empire and it would eventually set the pace of decolonisation in other colonies seeking independence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is interesting about Chester?s work is that it is explored through the prism of cartography. Maps were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important to the imperial power, not just for mapping the terrain they ruled but also as a means of imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control. The discussion on the colonial maps however seems limited \(pp. 18?22\) and would have benefited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a more in-depth discussion on the creation of maps and its impact on religious identities, and impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ultimately led to Muslim separatist demands and the creation of Pakistan. The colonial obsession with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collecting and documenting the landscape and its people is illustrated in volumes such as, )] TJ ET BT 466.976 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 487.976 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gazetteer of India, Atlas)] TJ ET BT 152.012 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1909 and 1931\). The maps in the Gazetteers highlight the ?prevailing? races, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languages and religions of India. In reality these were never fixed, but the repercussions of British rule were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these identities became increasingly defined and rigid. These debates should have been considered by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chester when examining the historical context of partition. Chester does later discuss whether better maps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have improved the partition process. This is unlikely given the time constraints and the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events unfolding at the time which ensured that this was anything but a smooth transfer of power. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British had been in power for so long that getting hold of ?neutral? maps would have been difficult, however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had the process not been so rushed then perhaps it would have been possible to survey the area in more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail to aid the division process. Thus Chester argues that it was not the cartographic information that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flawed but rather the partition process itself that lacked order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most illuminating aspect of the book is the analysis on Radcliffe; Chester questions the perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notions that Radcliffe was ignorant about India prior to his arrival as the Chair of the boundary commission. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Radcliffe, an establishment figure, would have had some insider knowledge due to his role as Director )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General in the Ministry of Information during the Second World War. He also had some personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections via his brother who died in India in 1938. So although seen as being an impartial figure, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have had some conception of the political landscape in India, though this is not the same as actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived experience of the land and its people. What is interesting in Chester?s analysis is that Radcliffe was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very much an establishment figure, committed to his sense of duty to the British Government and so in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense he was not impartial with regard to the process of boundary-making.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Radcliffe?s relationship with Mountbatten offers the most intriguing aspect in the book, raising questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the extent to which Mountbatten influenced the boundary award. Chester suggests that Radcliffe was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not as aloof as he is often portrayed, however, it is difficult to quantify the level of ?influence? Mountbatten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had on the outcomes of the boundary commission. Arguably this is one of the most lingering legacies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partition of India and there is little in the book to dispel any further controversy. Radcliffe?s private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secretary, Christopher Beaumont, suggests that Mountbatten did not influence the line at Gurdaspur, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, Radcliffe was certainly swayed by his opinions regarding Ferozepur. While the controversies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding Mountbatten?s role will continue, Chester does offer an interesting insight into how Radcliffe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt when leaving India, ?I station myself firmly on the Delhi airport until an aeroplane from England comes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along. Nobody in India will love me for my award about the Punjab and Bengal and there will be roughly 80 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(million with a grievance who will begin looking for me. I do not want them to find me. I have worked and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travelled and sweated ? oh I have sweated the whole time? \(p. 100\). This is a rare insight because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enigmatic Radcliffe ensured that his reputation survived by his obsession of destroying papers, leaving much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to conjecture. There are traces here of the equally loyal General Reginald Dyer who also ensured that none )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his personal papers would get into the public realm and therefore leaving the historian to speculate over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his role and personal views over the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chester also offers some interesting insights into the processes and events that unfolded during this short but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intense period, and this is further strengthened by the use of personal interviews with the likes of Christopher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beaumont, who was with Radcliffe at most times. In chapter four Radcliffe?s private deliberations are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed and one interesting aspect that emerges is the debate over the division of the two leading cities, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7783 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lahore and Amritsar. Lahore was the leading commercial heartland of Punjab with an influential and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affluent non-Muslim population, while Amritsar depended much on the Muslim artisans that contributed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vibrancy of the city. During their deliberations, Chester asserts that they were ?driven by the need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve Amritsar?s economic and strategic position? \(p. 75\), hinting that perhaps no one had anticipated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic and economic consequences of partition on Amritsar city.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 376.952 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 376.952 738.051 m 390.944 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 390.944 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The reality was that Amritsar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffered more than Lahore due to its geographic positioning as a border city; the large Muslim artisan class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had left a big void in the labour market thus leading to its decline.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 349.988 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 349.988 709.539 m 363.980 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 363.980 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Through this chapter the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infrastructure in determining the boundary line becomes clear, second only to religious considerations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The aftermath of partition is discussed in chapter six and it is suggested that the boundary was a source of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confusion and a trigger for violence but this is where there is a divergence between high politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding partition and its impact through history from below. While it certainly created confusion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaking to the victims of partition violence and migration allows them to reveal the multiple reasons for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their departure. Many people resisted migration, for example in Lyallpur the sizable Sikh population were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced to leave in September after appeals made by the Sikh leader, Master Tara Singh and the West Punjab )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Governor, Sir Francis Mudie; others saw the migration as a temporary measure due to the uncertainty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had planned to come back to their ancestral lands. Even the leadership of the two countries had anticipated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the refugees would return to their homes once the situation had improved. Thus the newly created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international border in reality meant little to the people, until it began to limit and restrict people?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement. Zamindar?s work )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.992 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.992 526.467 m 191.984 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.984 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has also shown how during the early years the border was quite porous and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was much more flexibility in movement of people, indeed as is noted by Chester herself, people were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming back and forth to make arrangements for their processions and properties until the permit system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was introduced.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven is based on a counterfactual argument titled, ??An awful lot of thought should have gone into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it?: alternatives to the Radcliffe award?. Unfortunately Chester should indeed have put more thought into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this chapter or omitted it altogether. It adds little to the overall argument and as a chapter it is quite short. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chester?s ?what if? argument is based on what the border would have looked like had the other three main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties been successful in their submission to the boundary commission. Of course, the Hindus, Muslims and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sikhs \(not the only ones making submissions to the Commission\) were guided by their own interests and put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward requests that would secure them the maximum territory, knowing that not all their demands would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be met.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Occasionally Chester makes strong assertions such as, ?the violence that wracked Punjab in 1947 was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of militants of all religions ?? \(p. 191\) this clearly exonerates the ordinary and opportunistic people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were caught up in the frenzy of violence that gripped Punjab in August 1947. Localised studies reveal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how ordinary people turned to violence in a rage of vengeance or in some case merely seeing it as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to loot and plunder. Further on Chester also claims that the decision-makers ?repeatedly refused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to implement plans for an orderly exchange of population ??\(p. 193\), however, the idea of a planned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchanged of population was not completely inconceivable because Mohammad Ali Jinnah had suggested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this as early as 1945. The newly formed governments had also, once they realised the scale of the migration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set-up organisations like the Military Evacuation Organisation and the Liaison Agency to deal with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement of people across the borders. The problem of course was that although the decision-makers had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared themselves for partition no one had prepared themselves for the ensuing violence and mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration that followed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the whole Chester?s book is highly readable and should interest a wider public beyond those solely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in the partition of India. It attempts to bring in the wider political framework regarding British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial control and decline in India and touches upon the fascinating relationship between Radcliffe and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mountbatten. Indeed this is one of the strengths of the book. However, at times the book is overly ambitious, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example chapter eight aims to examine the development of the Indo-Pakistani borderlands in the years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following partition but suffers from the plethora of material covered and thus lacks the detail. Generally the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first half of the book is much stronger and more detailed, while latter half is weaker and more generalised. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 376.9517 738.3655 390.9437 750.2455 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 349.9877 709.8535 363.9797 721.7335 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.9917 526.7815 191.9837 538.6615 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 2973 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the book is analysed from a high politics perspective it does at times overlook some of the more nuanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material emerging from localised case studies utilising personal narratives in understanding partition. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless Chester?s account of the end of empire in India and the partition of the Punjab is a valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.803 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See further Ian Talbot, )] TJ ET BT 175.652 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Divided Cities: Partition and Its Aftermath in Lahore and Amritsar 1947?57 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.664 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.664 672.531 m 193.652 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. L. Luthra, )] TJ ET BT 130.004 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Impact of Partition in Border Districts of East Punjab)] TJ ET BT 390.020 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(East Punjab, 1949\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.012 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.012 658.275 m 545.000 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vazira Fazila-Yacoobali Zamindar, )] TJ ET BT 237.296 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Long Partition and the Making of Modern South Asia: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Refugees, Boundaries, Histories)] TJ ET BT 218.672 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 336.308 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 336.308 629.763 m 390.296 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 604.901 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 574.995 m 240.992 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 571.663 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 553.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 553.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/995)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 552.489 m 322.316 552.489 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 527.512 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5117)] TJ ET BT 34.016 498.712 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=31405)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.6637 672.8455 193.6517 684.7255 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.0117 658.5895 544.9997 670.4695 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 336.3077 630.0775 390.2957 641.9575 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 575.3095 240.9917 587.1895 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=31405) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 552.8035 322.3157 564.6835 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/995) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000600 00000 n 0000000682 00000 n 0000004896 00000 n 0000005005 00000 n 0000005115 00000 n 0000005224 00000 n 0000008785 00000 n 0000008913 00000 n 0000008997 00000 n 0000009062 00000 n 0000016753 00000 n 0000016851 00000 n 0000024687 00000 n 0000024717 00000 n 0000024845 00000 n 0000024881 00000 n 0000024911 00000 n 0000025039 00000 n 0000025075 00000 n 0000025105 00000 n 0000025233 00000 n 0000025269 00000 n 0000025381 00000 n 0000028407 00000 n 0000028535 00000 n 0000028590 00000 n 0000028718 00000 n 0000028773 00000 n 0000028901 00000 n 0000028956 00000 n 0000029083 00000 n 0000029184 00000 n 0000029312 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29407 %%EOF