%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930225308+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930225308+01'00') /Title (Syon Abbey and its Books: Reading, Writing and Religion c.1400-1700) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4602 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Syon Abbey and its Books: Reading, Writing and Religion c.1400-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1700)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interest in the late-medieval community of Bridgettine sisters at Syon Abbey, Middlesex, has developed fast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the last 25 years, arguably as a result of Roger Ellis? )] TJ ET BT 313.628 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Viderunt eam filie syon)] TJ ET BT 425.288 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 428.288 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 428.288 236.289 m 442.280 236.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 442.280 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the volume under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review, Vincent Gillespie rightly describes Ellis? writings on Syon as ?masterly discussions? \(p. 106, fn. 8\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it is Ellis? focus in )] TJ ET BT 144.692 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Viderunt)] TJ ET BT 186.692 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, revealed in the sub-title: )] TJ ET BT 312.008 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Spirituality of the English House of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Contemplative Order from its Beginnings to the Present Day)] TJ ET BT 373.652 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that was so groundbreaking, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigating the continuity of spirituality which links the medieval with the present-day Syon. Few have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed Ellis? lead in this focus \(nor is there much need to\), but many have turned to Syon for material on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in particular\) late medieval religion and its relation to gender and/or to material textual culture. Both of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these areas are skilfully handled in the volume under review, as is that part of Ellis? subtitle, ?)] TJ ET BT 485.612 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(from its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beginnings to the Present Day)] TJ ET BT 180.668 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Syon Abbey and its Books)] TJ ET BT 158.000 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( originated in a conference at the University of Exeter in October, 2005, organized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to mark the deposit of the remains of Syon?s library at the University \(see the appendix\). Exeter?s relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the nuns \(of whom the abbess and two sisters still live in Devon\) have been close for several years, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the deposit was the natural outcome of this relationship and the uncertain future of the only Bridgettine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 November, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. A. Jones)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexandra Walsham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843835479)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Powell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 428.2877 236.6035 442.2797 248.4835 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8071 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house ever founded in England and the only Bridgettine house ever to have survived without break from its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation. The volume is dedicated to the abbess and sisters, and emphasis is placed on the continuity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the house from 1405 to the present day. It is an excellent contribution to studies of Syon, both as an English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house of the Bridgettine order \(?Bridgettine? is preferred to ?Birgittine?\) and in relation to gender, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts, and print. Sadly, the use of the volume as an essential reference tool is hampered by its lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction by the two editors \(also organizers of the 2005 conference\) ?explores the origins of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, situates Syon Abbey in its wider historical environment, and sketches the scholarly frameworks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within and against which the following essays should be read?. This aim is admirably fulfilled: Jones and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walsham provide an excellent introduction for the newcomer to Syon and a very convenient survey for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(afficionado)] TJ ET BT 88.688 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(given that so much of Syon research is in journal articles, rather than monographs\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction is not, however, just a resum, well-written and comprehensive as it is: there is originality, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least in the placing of Syon in its historiographical context as ?an emblem of the remarkable vitality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism on the eve of the Reformation? \(p. 16\) and of the Bridgettine order as ?a reformed model of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female monasticism that foreshadowed ...the Council of Trent ...? \(p. 18\). The treatment of reading at Syon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the house?s ?horizontal textual relationships with other English religious houses? \(p. 27\), and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript and print culture at Syon are also well handled, drawing on the scholarship of the contributors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and beyond, to produce an intelligent synthesis. One might gib at the statement that the brothers? huge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(library was ?conspicuously lacking in vernacular religious and mystical literature? \(p. 25\), since this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly not the remit of the brothers? but \(more likely\) the sisters? library \(for which no )] TJ ET BT 455.936 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(registrum)] TJ ET BT 502.604 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( survives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as is, admittedly, noted in the next paragraph\). The editors confirm that, despite the ?pockets of excellence? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that have been discovered in other houses of other orders, Syon remains unique in terms of its intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brothers and well-born sisters, its double library \(for which the brothers? )] TJ ET BT 385.952 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(registrum)] TJ ET BT 432.620 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or catalogue, survives\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its social and professional connections, the focus on preaching and learning of the Bridgetttine order, its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unusual literacy \(one-third of all extant vernacular books from female religious houses are connected to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Syon\), and the sad demise, but not dissolution \()] TJ ET BT 262.016 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pace )] TJ ET BT 287.672 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walker, p. 156\), of the house in 1539.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike many conference proceedings, this introduction does not, valiantly and sometimes hopelessly, try to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find links amongst disparate contributions. Instead, first, the contributions are introduced and discussed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a light hand, and, second, they fulfil the expectations created by the subtitle, )] TJ ET BT 402.296 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reading)] TJ ET BT 442.292 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, Writing and Religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c.1400-1700)] TJ ET BT 94.340 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, with the added bonus that, where possible, they alert researchers to specific Syon manuscripts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and books deposited at Exeter. Moreover, most contributions draw on the researches of Canon John Rory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fletcher \(1861-1944\), the value of whose work on Syon )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 305.972 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 305.972 329.139 m 319.964 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 319.964 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was early recognised by Ann Hutchison and has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been used by several contributors to this volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume is divided into four sections \(each with two essays\): ?Brothers and sisters?, ?Syon Abbey and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book trade?, ?The Bridgettines in exile?, and \(interestingly and unusually\) ?History and memory?. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first section contains essays by Peter Cunich \(?The brothers of Syon, 1420?1695?\) and Virginia R. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bainbridge \(?Syon Abbey: women and learning c.1415?1600?\). Cunich?s paper is invaluable in providing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succinct and thoughtful review of the Syon brothers, the last of whom died in 1695. The particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship of the sisters and brothers \(Syon was not a double monastery, as Martin V accepted, thanks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vigorous lobbying by the first Confessor General, Thomas Fishbourne\) is well explained ? briefly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brothers existed to celebrate mass, direct the sisters spiritually, and hear confessions, and the Abbess was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superior of the Confessor General in all other matters \(a system which did not break down until 1607\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cunich is particularly interesting on what happened to the brothers after Syon closed, whether they lived in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the half-dozen small households set up by some sisters, or with the sisters in exile overseas. He discusses, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do later contributors, the importance of Seth Foster as Confessor General \(1584?1628\), although his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic leadership seems to have marked the decline of the Syon sisters? traditional primacy in relation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the brothers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cunich?s paper aims to correct the emphasis in ?past scholarship? \(p. 39\) on the sisters \(although he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognises their supremacy in St Bridget?s foundation\); Virginia Bainbridge, however, points out that from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mid 19th century until comparatively recently ?it was not the sisters ... but the smaller group of brothers )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 305.9717 329.4535 319.9637 341.3335 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8550 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which attracted academic attention? \(p. 82\). Her paper offers an early glimpse of the fruits of her research on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Syon Bridgettines, which will be published in )] TJ ET BT 274.352 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 295.352 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Syon Martiloge)] TJ ET BT 369.680 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, edited by Claes Gejrot \(see further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(below\). She synthesizes and augments established research, particularly the work on the sisters by David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bell, Mary Erler, and Ann Hutchison, so that, again, this is an excellent chapter to serve as a starting-point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for an overall picture of the intellectual climate in which the Syon sisters lived \(up to 1600\). Bainbridge?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original work on the special benefactors and friends commemorated in the )] TJ ET BT 393.608 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Martiloge)] TJ ET BT 441.608 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is particularly valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since she demonstrates the large number of benefactors who also supported, or even founded, other centres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of learning \(as Syon was\), at Oxford and Cambridge Universities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section includes ?Syon and the English market for continental printed books: the incunable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phase? \(Vincent Gillespie\) and ??Moche profitable unto religious persones, gathered by a brother of Syon?: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Syon Abbey and English books? \(C. Annette Gris\). Gillespie?s paper, a revision of an already published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(piece on Syon and the Latin trade, deals only with books up to 1500, and, although this is valuable, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might wish \(with Gillespie, p. 104, fn. 1\) that a similar study of the post-incunable period might appear, now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that all scholars have access to Gillespie?s edition of the brothers? )] TJ ET BT 354.956 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(registrum)] TJ ET BT 401.624 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. He locates the fact that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brothers? library developed after 1471 into ?a treasure house of learning through the acquisition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accession of large numbers of printed books? \(p. 111\) in the decision to offer library benefactors a special )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requiem mass. The principal donors were, however, the brothers themselves ? the third Confessor General, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Westhaw \(1472?88\) brought many printed editions to Syon \(often in )] TJ ET BT 407.648 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sammelbnde)] TJ ET BT 474.968 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of which Gillespie emphasises\). Families, friends, printers \(Wynkyn de Worde is notable here\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importers also contributed to the library. \(As the record of an almost entirely Latin library, the )] TJ ET BT 488.612 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(registru)] TJ ET BT 526.616 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(m is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notable, of course, for its imported books, a market dominated by foreign merchants, and one on which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gillespie has provided invaluable evidence in his edition.\) The five case-studies at the end of this paper, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two Confessors General, a Cambridge man, an Oxford man, and \(perhaps\) a lay-brother, provide excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epitomes of the process by which Syon augmented its library, the printed books they brought to Syon, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the cultural milieu of their previous lives? \(p. 126, a useful )] TJ ET BT 324.308 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(caveat)] TJ ET BT 355.628 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The chapter closes with an appendix of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incunables identified in the Syon )] TJ ET BT 195.008 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(registrum)] TJ ET BT 241.676 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gris?s essay covers a broad area, as its title suggests. She looks at Syon authors, texts, and printers, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues for shared characteristics in Syon products \(rather undermined by her later admission \(p. 142\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these are characteristics of devotional print as a whole\): a didactic and practical focus, careful use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ordinatio)] TJ ET BT 78.692 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?high quality, well-written, conservative texts? \(p. 141\). Next, she addresses the ?framing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materials? of the Syon editions, rightly acknowledging the important work of Martha Driver on Syon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woodcuts, but also looking at title pages and prefatory matter, and providing some discursive discussions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific texts in order to demonstrate the range of audience. There is perhaps some vagueness about previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship, where footnotes would have been useful: ?Whitford?s popularity and productivity have led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars and readers to attribute ...?, ?Scholars have also written about ...? \(p. 139\), ?This text has received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly notice? \(p. 140\). Likewise, more references are needed in the discussion of woodcuts: for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The Pylgrymage ... Bradshaw? \(p. 145\) would be much more useful with the three )] TJ ET BT 437.276 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(STC)] TJ ET BT 457.952 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( references \()] TJ ET BT 517.244 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(STC)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3277, 4602, and 3506, and the second date is 1516, not 1506\). To some extent the essay overlaps with my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own ?Syon Abbey as a centre for text production?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 277.628 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 277.628 229.347 m 291.620 229.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 291.620 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Both \(I would venture to say\) are full, useful, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent interpretations of the evidence for Syon?s vernacular editions as provided by the printed books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second half of the volume deals with the post-Reformation period and is less familiar to me than earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material. In the third section, Claire Walker looks at ?Continuity and isolation: The Bridgettines of Syon in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? and Caroline Bowden at ?Books and reading at Syon Abbey, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lisbon, in the seventeeth century?. Walker writes \(with acknowledged use of Canon Fletcher?s material\) on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sisters and their travails in the period of exile after they were expelled from Syon in 1539 \(the Abbey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was never actually dissolved\). Their final departure from England in 1559 \(those who had left in 1539 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returned briefly, unfortunately just before Mary?s death\) led to a period of hardship \(the result of poverty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and local prejudice\) in various venues in Flanders, the Netherlands, and France, but from 1594 they settled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfortably in Lisbon under the protection of Philip II, where their historic archives were to be lost in a fire )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 277.6277 229.6615 291.6197 241.5415 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7621 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1651. Only in 1861 did they return home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is particularly valuable in Walker?s chapter is that she compares the sisters? experience with that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other European female communities but emphasizes the ways in which they remained ?distinctive to the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their exile? \(p. 175\) from those other communities. She is also interesting on the pro-active roles in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1560s and 1570s of the Catholic controversialist Nicholas Sander and his sister, the Bridgettine Elizabeth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sander. Bowden?s chapter complements Walker?s in that it focusses on the books of the sisters in exile, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just book history but also reading practice, where, for example, she writes imaginatively and interestingly on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of reading in the new Uses drawn up in 1607. She draws comparison with the new English convents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founded outside England \(nine between 1598?1630, with 345 members\) but, like Walker, argues for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctiveness of the Syon house in Lisbon from other houses, as well as from lay readers. Indeed, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests a continuity of relationship from the Carthusians of Sheen \(who in the pre-Reformation period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(copied texts for the Syon sisters to study\) to Father Charles Dimock \(1656\) who lent the sisters an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interestingly conservative selection of 13 ?Bookes of my own handwriting? \(p. 189\). Although Syon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obviously no longer influenced the printers? output \(as it had before the Reformation\), the sisters continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the medieval tradition in that they read works written and published for specifically female communities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made their own transcriptions and even translations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section contains two chapters by well-known Bridgettine scholars, Claes Gejrot and Ann M. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hutchison \(?The Syon Martiloge? and ?Syon Abbey preserved: some historians of Syon?\). Gejrot?s chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides an excellent introduction to his edition \(in progress\) of the Syon Martiloge, the martyrology \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more\) of the abbey from the 15th century until 1647. Perhaps the details of abbesses, confessors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general, and brothers and sisters, the obituary, and the list of benefactors are of most interest to Syon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars \(and they are ably discussed by Gejrot\), but most of the \(mainly Latin\) manuscript is in fact made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up of the martyrology \(stories taken from the lives of martyrs\) which gives the book its name, followed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lections added in a later hand \(which have been studied by Vincent Gillespie, as Gejrot notes, p. 204, fn. 4\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gejrot, like Gillespie, recognises the significance of the book donation of Thomas Graunt in 1471 ? for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gejrot it is the likely impetus for the compilation of the Martiloge. All in all, this is an extremely valuable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost mouth-watering, preview of the introduction and content of Gejrot?s edition of the Syon Martiloge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which Bainbridge, as noted earlier, will contribute.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Ann Hutchison, who has worked on the Exeter material for over 20 years and written extensively on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Syon sisters, provides an overview of some of those who have recorded Syon. The selection is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional: the ?historians? of the title are two sisters \(see too Walker, pp. 171?5\), Mary Champney and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Sander, two monks, Robert Persons SJ and Adam Hamilton OSB, and a Catholic convert, Canon J. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rory Fletcher. Both the Syon sisters had been secretly sent back to England in 1578 in order to raise funds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the exiled community: some sisters were arrested, although travelling in disguise, and the survival of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these two in England was not without danger. Indeed, Sister Mary?s story was recorded as she lay dying in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1580. Sister Elizabeth, sister of the redoubtable Nicholas and the Syon prioress, Margaret, survived and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote two letters about her extraordinarily hazardous experiences \(and her extremely unhelpful priest-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companions ? my comment, not hers!\) before she was recalled to Rouen in 1587. Hutchison?s discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Father Persons? work on the English mission is equally fascinating, including disguise as an army captain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the setting up of a printing press. Dom Hamilton, on the other hand, was fortunate in not living in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabethan period: as a Benedictine of Buckfast Abbey, refounded in 1882, the Bridgettines were his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbours, and he undertook to edit the long account of their exile, )] TJ ET BT 362.636 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wanderings of Syon)] TJ ET BT 480.296 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Finally, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fitting that the volume should end with Canon Fletcher, to whom Hutchison, always impeccable in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledgements of other scholars, gives due credit as ?indefatigable researcher? \(p. 246\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume as a whole contains nine well-chosen black-and-white illustrations, mostly title-pages. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(index is short but good ? it lists the sisters and brothers by name and the books by individual title. The lack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of bibliography is regrettable ? some contributors may not know the full range of publications and future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researchers may not search all the footnotes anyway. For example, my own article on ?Preaching at Syon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abbey? is noted only as a working paper by Cunich \(p. 50, fn. 64\), whereas it was published in )] TJ ET BT 493.616 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leeds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in English)] TJ ET BT 120.692 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 2000 \(as Gillespie notes, p. 107, fn. 10\): a bibliography would have reconciled these )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 5420 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references. At the risk of sounding petulant, I note that no contributor refers to my 1998 article on ?Lady )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Beaufort and her books? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 201.632 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 201.632 780.819 m 215.624 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 215.624 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which has much to say on Syon and the print-trade \(although I admit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the title might not suggest so\). Similarly, although it is a journal of perhaps variable quality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance to Syon scholars, articles in )] TJ ET BT 218.312 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Birgittiana)] TJ ET BT 270.992 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(of which I have contributed two, in 1996 and 2005, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first noted by Gillespie, p. 107, fn. 10\) should not have been overlooked, as they appear to have been.There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are a few typos, which a medievalist editor, such as I am, is trained to notice: )] TJ ET BT 406.952 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(shalt)] TJ ET BT 430.292 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is grammatically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorrect in ?Thoo booke they shalt haue? and ?vnsterstonde? is clearly wrong \(p. 3\); ?priest-bother? is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typo which the reformers would have liked \(p. 78\); ?)] TJ ET BT 287.300 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seenys)] TJ ET BT 319.952 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 142\) should be ?)] TJ ET BT 423.932 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Senis)] TJ ET BT 449.264 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(the title is actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lyf of Saint Katherin of Senis)] TJ ET BT 175.700 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: some other titles in this chapter also differ from the printed title-page\); the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abbey of ?Denney? \(p. 148, taken from the edition?s title-page\) is today ?Denny?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A final corrective to what may seem negative elements in the previous paragraph. This is a valuable and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed, seminal work. It is essential reading for anyone interested in the Bridgettine house of Syon Abbey, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or, more generally, in European female communities in the late medieval and early modern periods. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editors and contributors must take pride in an excellent work of scholarship. It gave me immense pleasure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read it, and I learned much from it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Ellis, )] TJ ET BT 124.352 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Viderunt eam filie syon)] TJ ET BT 236.012 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Analecta Cartusiana, 68 \(Salzburg, 1984\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 443.636 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 443.636 517.971 m 497.624 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exeter University Library MS 95.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.328 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.328 503.715 m 280.316 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Powell, ?Syon Abbey as a centre for text production?, in)] TJ ET BT 367.304 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Saint Birgitta, Syon and Vadstena: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Papers from a Symposium in Stockholm 4-6 October 2007)] TJ ET BT 343.988 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Claes Gejrot, Sara Risberg and Mia )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kestam, Konferenser, 73 \(Stockholm, 2010\), pp. 50?70.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 339.308 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 339.308 460.947 m 393.296 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Powell, ?Lady Margaret Beaufort and her books?, )] TJ ET BT 338.624 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Library)] TJ ET BT 396.296 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 6th series, 20 \(1998\), 197?240.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 432.435 m 118.004 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 407.573 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 388.591 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 370.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 370.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/996)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 369.417 m 322.316 369.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 344.440 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5121)] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.640 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 201.6317 781.1335 215.6237 793.0135 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 443.6357 518.2855 497.6237 530.1655 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.3277 504.0295 280.3157 515.9095 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 339.3077 461.2615 393.2957 473.1415 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 432.7495 118.0037 444.6295 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 369.7315 322.3157 381.6115 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/996) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000577 00000 n 0000000666 00000 n 0000005320 00000 n 0000005429 00000 n 0000005539 00000 n 0000005648 00000 n 0000009209 00000 n 0000009337 00000 n 0000009421 00000 n 0000009450 00000 n 0000009578 00000 n 0000009614 00000 n 0000009698 00000 n 0000017822 00000 n 0000017852 00000 n 0000017980 00000 n 0000018016 00000 n 0000018100 00000 n 0000026703 00000 n 0000026733 00000 n 0000026861 00000 n 0000026897 00000 n 0000026962 00000 n 0000034636 00000 n 0000034755 00000 n 0000040228 00000 n 0000040258 00000 n 0000040386 00000 n 0000040422 00000 n 0000040550 00000 n 0000040605 00000 n 0000040733 00000 n 0000040788 00000 n 0000040916 00000 n 0000040971 00000 n 0000041098 00000 n 0000041153 00000 n 0000041281 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41376 %%EOF