%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818020015+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818020015+01'00') /Title (The Feminine Public Sphere: Middle-Class Women in Civic Life in Scotland c.1870?1914) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4130 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Feminine Public Sphere: Middle-Class Women in Civic Life in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Scotland c.1870?1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1886 the Glasgow Prayer Union \(GPU\) remembered in their customary prayers a woman across whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of its ?ladies? had come. She had been ?found lying very drunk near Cattle Market with young infant?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Concerned for the infant?s life, the unnamed philanthropist \(not a word Smitley uses\) takes the child to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nearby police station, ?where the woman was also taken? \(p. 44\). This raises a number of questions. Other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the appeal of playing the Good Samaritan, what possessed that GPU member to assume moral authority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and judge what was happening? Clearly this question extends beyond the simple biblical connotations of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Good Samaritan. What late-Victorian set of political and social institutions permitted this lady to wander the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(streets and collect infants at risk to handover to the state? Smitley?s book unpicks the context underpinning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this event, and looks critically at a feminine public sphere in late-Victorian \(1870?1914\) Scotland. Of course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scope of the book is much greater than this single incident, and encompasses a huge amount of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity. However, this event provides a useful focus for Smitley?s wider thesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of Smitley?s central arguments, and one which explains the above intervention in the street, is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through participation in a range of institutions, including not just local government but also philanthropic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizations and the reform movement, women were included in the public sphere and participated in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production of civic identity. Inextricable from this process were religious communities and networks, created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 November, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Megan Smitley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719079665)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(192pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malcolm Noble)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6982 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as belief compelled the faithful to enter Christian service: to save not only themselves, but the unfortunates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom they met around them. In addition, Smitley uncovers the role of these temperance and Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions in seeking female enfranchisement. The link between these two movements was a peculiarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish one, as temperance movements desperately sought influence over local government with the sole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aim of achieving prohibition. Despite being cast in the negative light of single-issue politics, this strategy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented an intelligent response from a group with limited direct influence. Finally, Smitley explores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of these movements in a British context and argues strongly that the impact of the temperance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement on the campaign for Scottish female suffrage was that it introduced heterogeneity into the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model, as the Scottish experience deviated from the English one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A feminine public sphere is not presented as a given, and in the introduction it is explained as it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructed.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The notion of the feminine public sphere is based on the active participation of women in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of a middle-class identity which was derived from a commitment to civic life and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public service? \(p. 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This in part takes up the feminist critique that the development of the public sphere had a tendency to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginalize women. Smitley reintroduces women to the public sphere, through the reappraisal of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities and institutions ought to be encompassed within in it. Specifically in this context, bringing women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the public sphere by including activities such as what we would term philanthropy. This notions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpinning this feminine public sphere are not radical. It was accepted and even expected that middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class women should attend to what they perceived to be the needs of poor women and children. This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central to a lot of philanthropic endeavours. Whilst the term philanthropy is not one used by Smitley very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much, clearly much of the works discussed in this book can reasonably be described as such: the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philanthropy is closely aligned with that of public service. This is presumably done to highlight the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of this associational culture. In part it moves away from the excellent work on 19th-century female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philanthropy, including Frank Poocashka on English and Maria Luddy on Irish experiences of this. With a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good deal of success Smitley moves the focus from charity and looks at the politics which underpinned it, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of a female civic culture. Charity is implicitly political: the first decision to be made is whom to help, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with what resources, and on what grounds. Smitley?s work means that the charitable institutions themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may be considered political ones too. Yet all these philanthropic-cum-political organizations allowed this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female participation through what was essentially an extension of the motherhood role: this was used as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discreet mechanism through which women were able to engage in politics in a non-confrontational fashion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the 19th century temperance became deeply political as groups of women, mobilized in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same way they had against slavery, exerting female control over consumption. The aim was to encourage the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boycotting of alcohol in the same way emancipationists had discouraged the serving of sugar, by rendering it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a major )] TJ ET BT 73.340 239.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(faux pas)] TJ ET BT 113.672 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This regulation of domestic consumption took place partly in the home, and partly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public, in the shops and streets into which female shoppers had to venture. It was mediated and supported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the temperance leagues, such as the Scottish Temperance League, the British Women?s Temperance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Association, and the British Women?s Temperance Association Scottish Christian Union. Smitley separates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temperance efforts into two groups: moral suasion, and legal suasion. Moral suasion was attempted on an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual basis. It included the breakfast schemes, the catering tents and countless other small exercises. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The legal prohibition of alcohol, however, was obviously a much more substantial goal. In 1881, Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female ratepayers were enfranchised, and so began to petition and campaign strongly in favour of this. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressing candidates on temperance issues, and promising political support or opposition at the ballot box )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accordingly, temperance became both a major political issue and a major political force. With the removal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the marriage disqualification from the franchise in 1894, one which was brought to bear.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The discussion on databases clearly has its origins in the methodology section of the thesis. One weakness is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a lack of attempt to explain, methodologically, the significance a Java system for querying MySQL has over )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7384 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other systems \(p. 34\). Or indeed, for the majority of readers, what it is. This is a shame as many historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have enjoyed lengthier exposition. Some data and notes are given in appendices two to six. History, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a discipline, too often makes poor use of available technology. At the beginning Smitley also outlines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various extant sources, the combination of annual reports, publications including newsletters, and minute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books, which formed the majority of the sources used in the book. It is never easy to balance different kinds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sources for each institution when comparing them, but undoubtedly this is something in which Smitley is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One thing with which any reader will have to struggle is a number of mind boggling acronyms. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smitley?s use is restrained, they are slightly hard work, not because many are used, indeed, fewer than 20 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are used, but they are lengthy, and at times quite similar. For example, BWTA is the British Women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Temperance Association, and BWTASCU the British Women?s Temperance Association Scottish Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union. This is not a problem which would be solved by inserting the full names, as this would render the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text lengthy and unwieldy. Contemporaries would have managed with an elided ?Association?. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important point to note in this regard, is that the associations are not necessarily as competitive or factional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the similar but different names suggest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Scottish Women?s Liberal Federation \(SWLF\) had a complex structure too. Founded in 1891, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composition of the organization largely reflected the mental geography of Scotland: there were Edinburgh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Glasgow divisions, and the local units, Women?s Liberal Associations joined the larger group on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(payment of annual subscriptions. These were not all limited to the middles classes: from 1870 to 1914 the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presidents of the SWLF tended to come from aristocratic backgrounds. Indeed, mirroring the Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Association, the presidents, rather than patronesses, were the wives of the Secretary of State for Scotland. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a solid, worked example, that the social and political elite of the country formed part of one of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizations. The work would have been made stronger with some deep analysis of the social makeup of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the actors involved. Whilst few might have been employed, what were their husbands? occupations? How )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far down the social spectrum did these organizations go? Did officers tend to belong to a certain social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grouping? This is particularly interesting in a context of increasing professionalization.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professionalism, something which became increasingly important and necessary in so many areas of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life and commercial activity in this late Victorian and Edwardian period, is also important to the female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public sphere as defined by Smitley. For the women, it was the difference between being perceived as ?quasi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional public servants rather than as bored, amateur, busy-bodies seeking to regulate the lives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poorer women? \(p. 66\). The discussion of men as professionals is highly unremarkable historically, yet a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good deal more interesting when applied to those to whom, traditionally, access to the civic sphere in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such professional activities took place had been denied or restricted. Moreover, if we turn back to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incident in Glasgow cattle market in 1886, with which this review opened, we can start to understand how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these women felt empowered to intervene. Stooping to collect the baby might have been an act of Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charity, playing the Good Samaritan, or perhaps simply common sense. Yet through dedication to public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service, it also became a professional intervention. This is given greater credence if we remind ourselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were no social services at this juncture. To the lady?s mind, however, it was not a question of anything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other than the professional duty as a member of the GPU, or another organization.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume is at its most lively when it is dealing with those things which are easiest to visualize. One such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly-visual element was the discussion of the British Women?s Temperance Association Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian Union attempt to lure people away from the pub. Temperance, after all, was about getting people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to not drink. The Stirling Branch ran a tent at the Highland and Agricultural Society show. This wooden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shed offered a restaurant-style service and a takeaway at opposite ends, with the kitchen in the middle. Blue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and white were order of the day, with banners, dresses and flowers coordinating. The ladies, working as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(waitresses, employed hands for the kitchen. Clearly, noblesse oblige only went so far. Likewise the GPU )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tent in 1905 ran along similar lines. These temperance catering operations served dual roles: firstly, in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases to make a profit, and more practically, to keep people away from the temptation to drink. This was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just nice luncheons for the well-heeled, as ?early breakfasts were served to the drovers and stall keepers?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Run like middle-class homes, these tents required vast efforts and labour. By affording an opportunity to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5894 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate domestic skills and a willingness to work, Smitley argues, young middle-class ladies could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only socialise, but ?launch a public career?. The women could partake in public service, without deviating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from gender roles and domestic ideologies. This is what made the feminine public so useful and so powerful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the extent to which alcohol lubricated almost every conceivable aspect of Victorian middle-class life, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temperance reformers had their work cut out in stopping people drinking. Clearly occasional refreshment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tents were simply not enough. Using the same skills and exercising the same domestic power, the ladies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were encouraged to banish alcohol from their own tables and kitchens. There are obvious parallels to draw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the way sugar was banished from tea tables in the struggle for abolition. Again women were exerting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic control. However, the offering of sugar was hardly identical to the tradition of hospitality, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offering of alcoholic beverages to guests. Margaret Black, a lecturer in Domestic Economy, offered dry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recipes, and discouraged abstainers who offered drink to guests. Household arrangements, including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision of refreshments were a traditional female responsibility, so it was relatively easy for women to use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their leverage in the home and banish drink altogether: both as wives and mothers. At public events too, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alcohol was central to proceedings. It is hard to imagine the civic dinners without copious amounts of claret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flowing. On the basis of having removed alcohol from their own homes, these highly-organized ladies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applied serious pressure to make sure it was removed from town halls and public functions too.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However it was not just preventative action with which the temperance unions were concerned. The British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women?s Temperance Association Scottish Christian Union ran female inebriate homes. These operated at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the opposite end of the temperance scale, and, moreover, relate to criminality, morality and getting others to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow the good example set in the sober bourgeois dining rooms. These were no radical departure, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar operations cared for prostitutes and children. One scheme which sought very directly to prevent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeat offending was the free breakfast scheme. In a professional fashion, on the day of release, inmates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were met at the prison gates, and given a complimentary breakfast. If they consented, they were admitted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an institution. Whilst there were no legal powers for detention, those admitted were very far from free to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave. Whitevale, run by BWTASCU in Glasgow was walled and original clothing was retained by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home?s authorities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the reasons this book is so interesting and bound to be of importance is that it draws out the activities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these women from the individual societies and the realm of philanthropy into a feminised public sphere. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In so doing, they become more meaningful and important, with value beyond the sum of their individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merits. Just as women were able to gain agency by accessing this female public sphere, so Smitley has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empowered the associations and actors within it outwith, enabling them to assert themselves politically.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not, in the book, discussed at any great length, how meetings within these individual institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functioned: this would be very difficult to uncover unless noted in the minutes, perhaps as location or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps in thanks for hospitality. However we might guess that this is a very polite affair. Church-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friendships and associations seem to the arteries through which this culture ran: ?Similarly networks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faithful appear as important for women?s public careers as those of locality? \(p.47\). It was through feminine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawing rooms and tea parties that this public sphere was created and enacted. The gentle clink of fine bone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(china is as much its sound as any kind of polemic. Smitley?s achievement is to recover the political from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst these afternoon teas and ?do-goodery?. Instead of simply intruding into the domestic affairs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2051 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To this end, this book is a useful one. Based on meticulous study of a good range of sources, it provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful prism through which to view the activity of women in late Victorian and Edwardian Scotland, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed may be practicably useful in other places and at earlier times. Even without the gains of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political rights, it may well have some currency in considering earlier 19th-century female associational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity. The female public sphere offers a way in which historians can consider the spread of democracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the distribution of political rights and agency. Moreover it helps explain quite a lot about what these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations achieved ? not in terms of their individual agendas, but in terms of a much bigger story of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s liberation and participation in political cultures. Smitley has taken a long, hard look at these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations and considered what they mean through this lens: others are bound to follow.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 625.183 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 607.403 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 607.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/999)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 606.009 m 322.316 606.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 581.032 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 566.632 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5135)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 606.3235 322.3157 618.2035 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/999) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000594 00000 n 0000000676 00000 n 0000004858 00000 n 0000004967 00000 n 0000005077 00000 n 0000005186 00000 n 0000008747 00000 n 0000008875 00000 n 0000008959 00000 n 0000009024 00000 n 0000016059 00000 n 0000016124 00000 n 0000023561 00000 n 0000023626 00000 n 0000029573 00000 n 0000029657 00000 n 0000031761 00000 n 0000031889 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31984 %%EOF